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Electric Railway 


Volume XL VI 

July to December^ 1915 

McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

239 West 39th St., New York City 



[Vol. XLVI 

American Railways. (See Philadelphia, Pa.) 

American Society for Testing Materials: 

Explanation of failure to agree with A. E. R. 

E. A. on trolley wire specifications, 62 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 
— ■ — Graphical presentation of data, standards for, 


— — Threads for fixtures and fittings, standardi- 
zation, 838 
Winter meeting, 1176 

American Water Works & Electric Co. (See 

New York City.) 
Analysis of cost records, comment, 1 
Anderson, Ind.: 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana: 

Claims statistics standardization [Slick], 
*813; Comment, 792 

Depreciation and appreciation, practice! 
in allowing for [Forse], 1169 

Safety magazine [Slick], *274 

Spacing steel ties [Mitchell], 126b 
.Annapolis, Md. : 
Annapolis Short Line: 

Station surroundings, improving, *187 

Trolley wire and pantograph shoe wear 
[Crouse], *638 
.\nniston, Ala.: 
Alabama Power Co. : 

One-man car operation, closed cars re- 
built for [Kenyon], 1035 
Anthony N. Brady, memorial medal, 23 
Appraisal of railway property: 

Bay State Street Ry., 1121 

— — Conference on valuation, 991 
Detroit United Ry., 923 

Funds for appraisal, offer to advance, Puget 

Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., 840 

Minneapolis Street Ry., 417 

Original cost in valuation work. Comment, 


Valuation of public service commission, com- 
pany's brief, Portland Railway, Light & 
Power Co., 922 

Valuation conference. Interstate Commerce 

Commission, 676, 1031 

Valuation, Foundation principles [Arnold], 

♦713, *803; Comment, 698 

Arbitration. (See Strikes and Arbitrations.) 

Ardmore, Okla. : 

-Ardmore Electric Ry. : 

Property to be sold, 1056 

Asbestos production in 1914, United States, 403 

Atlanta, Ga.: 

Atlanta Northern Ry, : 

Fare reduction for children denied by 
commission, 468 

Near-side stop ordinance jiassed. IJ.'^d 

Atlantic City, N. T. : 

.•\tlantic City & Shore R.R.: 

Arrangements for testing electrical equip 

ment [Faber], *24 
Motor overhauling [Faber], *677 
Open-car reconstruction [Faber], *110 
Receivership, caused by jitney compe- 
tition, 1142; Comment, 1105 
.■\tlantic Shore Ry. (See Kennebunk, Me.) 
Augusta, Ga. : 

Augusta-Aiken Ry. & Electric Corp. : 

.Annual report, 647 

Fare increase granted, 423 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R. (See Wheaton. 


One-man car operation in various cities, ex- 
periences with, 1112 

New South Wales: 

Government Rys. & Tramways: 
Annual report, 926 

Sydney : 

Electrification projects, 1037 

.Austria : 

Overhead construction, Vienna-Pressburg 
electrification [Seefehlner]. c 59.' 
.Automatic substations. (See Substations and 

Automobiles : 

Accidents, conference on, 1012 

Competition with steam and electric rail- 
ways. Comment, 938 

Effect on street car travel [Beeler], c 590; 

Comment, 577 

Influence on Denver traffic, *309; Comment, 


Producer of hard times [Beeler], c 1125 

Reckless driving. Comment, 979 

Auto-train at Panama-Pacific exposition, 581 
Axles (See Wheels and axles i 


Ball bearings. Effect on speed and operating cost 

[Farr], '239 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; 

Train operation by signals alone, *434 

Baltimore, Md.: 

—United Rys. & Electric Co.; 

Equipment improvements. Recommenda- 
tion for, 1139; company's reply, 

Motor-bus line established by company, 



Bangor, Pa.: 

— —Bangor & Portland Tr. Co.: 

Merger with Northampton Tr. Co. ap- 
proved, 1277 
Bangor & Aroostook Railroad: 

New electric railway. Agreement with Maine 

Central RR. to build, 1007 
Bascule bridge. Double-leaf, Method of installing 

trolley wire [Foster], *1042 
Bay State Street Ry. (See Boston, Mass.) 
Beaver Valley Traction Co. (See New Brighton, 


Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 

Binghamton, N. Y.; 

Binghamton Ry. : 

All-steel cars for city service, *1269 
Birmingham, Ala.: 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer RR. : 

Reorganization plan adopted, 688 

Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Ry. & Utilities Co. 
Tuscaloosa, Ala.) 

Blue Hill Street Ry. (See Canton, Mass.) 

Boilers and equipment: 

Air intakes increase furnace capacity, 

Feed water. Equipment for testing [Crum- 
ley], *152 

Feed-water recorder (Hoppes Mfg. Co.), *242 

Fusible plugs. Deterioration, 1002 

Recorder for measuring boiler feed water 

(Harrison Safety Boiler Works), *284 
-Silica-graphite paint for boilers, Economy in 

using, 195 

Valves, Double-cushioned non-return (Golden- 
Anderson Valve Spec. Co.), *838 
Boise, Idaho: 

Idaho Traction Co.: 

Boise Railroad to be returned to former 

owners, 249 
Fare increase allowed, 128 

Boise Railroad: 

Segregation from Idaho Traction Co., 249 
Transfer controversy, 335, 423, 652 
Boston, Mass.: 

Bay State Street Ry.: 

-All-service, combination car. Body equip- 
ment details, *854; Comment, 853; 
Electrical and mechanical equipment. 
Annual report, 1187 
Cost of shop equipment, 1173 
Employees pass resolution condemning 

arbitration award, 119 
Equipment department organization, 

*671; Comment, 659 
Fare increase petition, 468, 891; Com- 
ment, 427; Hearings, 692, 1006, 
1052, 1121; Commission declares its 
jurisdiction, 1279 
Passenger department's new offices, *406 
Power station organization, 911 
Roadway macliinery and tools. Cost, 1227 
Vacuum-cleaning car [Haines], *323 
Valuation of property to support fare in- 
crease application, 1121 
Way organization, 229 

Boston Elevated Railway; 

.Advertising by display of scenes on con- 
verted car, 109, *149 
-\nnual report, 1008 

-Arbitration board refuses to reopen wage 
case, 120 

Card index, X'alue in claim work 

[Reynolds], ♦815 
Carhouse destroyed by fire, 966 
Company library. Methods of developing 

and indexing, 1118 
Dividend rate maintained, 249 
Handling traffic at baseball nark, ^621 
Safety features and recomme"ndations for 

elevated lines, 159 
Transfer abuses. Hearing, 1278 
Transportation of troops. Co-operation 
with government [Bancroft], c 1125 

Street railway conditions compared with 

Glasgow [Gordon], 443 

Transit commission. Annual report, 965 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry. : 

Wage increase for emplovees, 1013 


-Air-brake apparatus. Outfit for testine 1 Par- 
sons], ♦1128 

-Air-brake hose coupling (National Hose 

Coupling Co.), ^194 

Air compressor for light-weight, low-flnor 

cars (National Brake & Elec. Co.). ^681 

Brakeshoe record, Oregon Electric Rv 

[Clough], ^555 

Electro-pneumatic brake. Details, Pennsyl- 
vania RR.; Philadelphia Paoli electrifica- 
tion, ^981 

Full-flanged brakeshoes. Results with. South- 
ern Pacific Co. [Hewitt]. 1223 

Hand-brake pressures [Greenough], c ♦276- 

[Home], ♦77, c 277 

Heavy duty on a geared brake, Northampton 

Tr. Co., ♦1047 

Minimum car weights suitable for clasp 

brakes. Comment, 47 

Pipe joints. Insulating, for air-brake equip- 
ment (Mac-Allen Co.), ^411 

Semi-automatic, to stop cars. Patent to mo- 

torman, Cairo Electric & Traction Co., 

Slack take-up device for. adjusting air-brake 

piston travel (Johns-Manville Co.), *921 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 


Apportionment of costs between street rail- 
ways and cities [Spofford], 53 
Reinforced concrete viaduct in Kansas City, 


Subway approach recommended for Cleveland 

bridge, 461 

Traffic data for bridges in London [Spofford], 


Traffic in New York City, 167 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Vancouver, 

Brooklyn Institute for Safety: 

Safety work in schools and at playgrounds, 


Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Brooklyn, Queens County & Suburban RR. : 

Revenue tax case. Favorable decision, 776 

-Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 203 

Car-capacity order by health board in 

effect again, 971 
Center-entrance car operation [Gove], 

14, 19 

Crossing special work [Williams], ♦678 

Curved heads for girder rails to reduce 
corrugation [Cram], ^1246; Com- 
ment, 1245 

Elevated track relocation. Committee re- 
port, 925 

First-aid equipment, 651 

Fresh-air cars, 1059 

Girder and high T-rail renewals [Cram], 
c 873 

Group insurance plan, 610 

Increased rent for operating over Wil- 
liamsburg bridge proposed, 1140 

Indictment of superintendent for failure 
to comply with commission order, 

Mechanical department. Organization 

progress, 826 
Metal poles, Reinforcing [McKelway], 


Surface line organizations make safety 
report, 84 

Time lost by employees reduced by med- 
ical examinations, 652 

Tongue switch for special work [Wil- 
liams], ^639 

Track-laying for elevated railway. Con- 
tract approved, 201 

Track layout at yard entrance [Striez- 
heff], ^876 

Training school for employees, ^344; 
Comment, 343 

Water pipes crossing over trolley wires 
[McKelway], ^770 
Safety campaign by Brooklyn Institution for 

Safety, 1059 

BuflFalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. (See Roches- 
ter, N. Y.) 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

Buffalo & Depew Ry.: 

Strike, 1095, 1186, 1232 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Tr. Co.: 

Foreclosure suit. Referee appointed, 1276 

International Ry. : 

Accident in Niagara Gorge, 126, 252, 468 
Insufficiency of the 5-cent fare [Con- 

nette], 18; Discussion, 15 
Freight interchange with New York Cen- 
tral, 783, 972 
New York jitney-bus law [Connette] 
c 21 

Service ^ and equipment improvements. 

Two-car train operation during rush- 
hours, 971 
Wellsville & Buffalo Railroad: 

Incorporation, 1235 
Buffalo & Susquehanna Railroad: 
- — -Property bought by syndicate, 1188 
Burlington (Vt.) Traction Co.: 
— — Convertible cars (Jones), *71 
Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry. : 

Contact systems. Construction and maint#. 

nance [Cox], *59 


Combination insulator and splicing sleere 

(Drew Electric & Mfg. Co.), ♦IH 
Feeder grip. Quickly adjustable (Mathias 

Klein & Sons), ^680 
Fiber ducts for feeder cables at Worcester 

(Fibre Conduit Co.), *1182 
-Flexible support for lead-covered cables 

(Transit Development Co.), ♦600 
— — One-piece splicer for feeder cables. United 

Railroads of San Francisco [Foster], 


Preventing kinks in handling coils of wire 

[Koppel], ^66 

Testing insulation, method, 1227 

Cairo, 111. : 

Cairo Electric & Traction Co. : 

Brake, Semi-automatic, to stop cars. 
Patent to motorman, 838 


Commission jurisdiction enlarged, 285 

Motor-bus freight business declining, 846. 

Comment, 851 

July-December, 1915] 



Calgary, Canada: 

Calgary Municipal Ry. : 

Employees purchase machine gun, 600 


Hydroelectric Power Coniniission of Ontario, 

Plans, 863, 965 

(See also various cities) 

Canadian Electric Railway Association: 

Annual meeting, 108 

Canton, Mass. : 

Blue Hill Street Ry. : 

Fare increase granted by Massachusetts 
commission, *226; Comment, 215 

Capacity of single track. Analysis, Railway Sig- 
nal Association, 580 

Capital Traction Company (See Washington, 

Car design: 

Avoiding inaccuracies in street car building, 

Comment, 1067 
Detailed weights of equipment for Bay State 

car, 1071 

End-entrance cars, converting open cars 

into [Colby], *451 

High-speed cars without center sills, Chicago 

& Milwaukee Ry., *388 

Improved equipment [Stucki], 625 

light-weight, Stntus of ("Manager"], c 238 

Method of determining body size, Emnire 

United Rys., *578 

Reinforcing high-speed interurban cars, 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. [Bow- 
man], ♦1221 

Sectional interior arrangement for separat- 
ing passengers into groups, *26 

Standards as a remedy for cars at less than 

cost, Comment, 378; [Gonzenhach], 
c447; [Storer], c635. Comment, 615 

Standards difficult to establish ["Transporta- 
tion Man"], 914 

Steel car, Slight damage in collision, *405 

Step height ordered reduced in Portland, 

Ore., 468 

Ultra light weight [Lambert], c402 

Car development [Stucki,] 625 

Card records in track work. Method of indexing 

[Campbell], *407 
Carhouses and yards: 

Storage yards and operating stations at 

Cleveland, *356 


All-service, Combination, Bay State Street 

Ry., Equipment, *854; Comment, 853; 
Body framing and electrical and me- 
chanical equipment, *1068 

Center-entrance, Reconstructed from open 

car, Atlantic City [Faber], 110 

Double-deck (See Double-deck cars) 

Improvements in low-floor type, Pittsburgh, 


Metropolitan Street Ry. [Weber], *771 

One-man (See One-man cars) 

Refrigerator, Detroit United Ry. [Keller], 


Remodeled interurban. Compact seating ar- 
rangement, Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Lt. 
Co., *834 

Semi-steel, Empire United Rys., *578 

Single-truck, center-entrance, low-floor type 

at Glens Falls, N. V. (Laconia Car Co.), 

Steel : 

Ringhamton Ry., 

Center - entrance, 
Ry., *282 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Ry., *388 
Cleveland & Eastern Traction Co., *30 
Limited, local and express and freight, 

Details, Michigan Ry., *1154 
London & Port Stanley Ry., *27 
Pacific Electric Ry. [Small], *489 

Trailers, All-steel, light-weight. Long Island 

R. R., *136 

Cars at less than cost (See Car design: Stand- 

Catenary construction (See Overhead contact 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa: 
Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Service in Iowa City, Arrangements for, 

Cement-sack-cleaning machine. Savings effected, 

Cleveland Ry., 772 
Central Electric Railway Accountants' Associa- 


President's address [Cavanaugh] and 
papers [Kasemeier], 1168; [Ded- 
rick], 1169; [Forse], 1169; [Tacobs], 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Increasing passenger traffic by advertising, 

Comment, 1245 

November meeting: 

Proceedings, committee reports and 
papers, 1039, '1075 
Repair charges to foreign equipment. Com- 
mittee report, 1079 
Charleston, S. C. : 

Charleston Consolidated Ry.: 

Employees differences submitted to arbi- 
tration, 1187; Decision rendered, 

Charleston, W. Va. : . 

Jitney discrimination cases dismissed, 610 


Washington - Virginia 



Charlotte, N. C. : 

Southern Public Utilities Co.: 

Track construction. Reinforced concrete 
beam [Morton], *324, Comment, 299 
Charts as exhibits in wage dispute arbitrations, 

*664; Comment, 657 


Arbitration hearings between railways and 

employees, 75, 146; Comment, 133, 135; 
Summary of award, 118 

Board of Supervising Engineers: 

Comments on effect of gear ratio on 

operating economy, *68 
Energy cost, Increase in, for rush-hour 
service. 138; Correction, 190; Com- 
ment, 173 

Chicago Surface Lines: 

Advertising campaign, *823 
Advertising campaign to be investigated 

by city, 1053 
Club meeting, 1214 

Energy cost and load factor. Analysis, 
138; Comment, 173; Correction, 190 

Fresh-air car service, 1100, 1237 

Jurisdiction dispute between city 
Illinois utilities commission, 
931, 971, 1 146, 1236 

President's salary approved by 
council, 1140 

Regulation of electric railways by com- 
missions. Factors involved [Busby], 

Safety lectures, *267 

Service order, Illinois utilties commis- 
sion, 775 

Skip-stop test planned, 168 

Standing vehicles in loojj district. Re- 
moval urged, 1279 

Statement regarding strike, 35 

Vehicular interference, 971; Publicity to 
eliminate, 1192 

Wage dispute, 34, 246, 884, 923, 966 
Consolidation of surface and elevated lineg. 

Proposed, 1050 
Elevated Railroads: 

Accounting for rents [McRacl, c 1260 

Annual report. 1141, 1233 

Employees, Physical and mental exami- 
nation of [Fisher], *216; C^omment, 

Energy consumption reduced through 

training employees, 391 
First-aid system and equipment [Fisher], 


"Fresh-air" cars put in operation, 971 
.Safety measures for train operator, *302 
Safety record for ten years, 932 
Wage dispute, 34, 246, 884, 923. 966 
Yellow journalism disarmed with facts. 
Comment, 343 

Elgin & Belvidere Electric Ry. : 

Substations, Automatically controlled 
[Allen and Taylor], *583; Com- 
ment, 575, 576; Savings [Davis], 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. : 

Gears and pinions. Specifications for 
[Johnson], cl89 

Middle West Utilities Company: 

Annual report, 37 

Subway construction urged by Mayor, 778 

Terminal electrification and smoke abate- 
ment : 

Forecast of report, 286, 964 
Report of committee, *1113, 1138; Com- 
ment, 1106; [Smith], c 1216; Esti- 
mated costs. *1159: Comment, 1153: 
[Goss], 1272 
Report ignored by city council. New 
committee appointed, 1185 
Traction consolidation commission. Ordi- 
nance antliorizing creation, 1138, 1273 

Traffic count of vehicles, 632 

Subwav construction proposed by Mayor, 


West Side Elevated R. R. : 

Top - contact unprotected third - rail 
[Jones], ■'55 
Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry. (See Joliet, IlL) 
Chi cago. Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (Sec 

Michigan City, Ind.) 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Rv. (See High- 
land, 111.) 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. : 

Electrified division. Operation to begin Dec. 

8, 1137 

Locomotive : 

Electric, Exhibition of, *1036 
Mileage, Effect of electrification. Com- 
ment, 1066 
Tests on electrified division, 1175, *1215 

Signal system for electified section, 605 

Substations, Location and equipment, *794 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (See Joliet, 111.) 
Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. 

(See South Bend, Ind.) 
Chico, Cal.: 

Northern Electric Ry. : 

Reorganization plans. Preliminary, 80; 
Details, 886 

Chile, S. A.: 

Concepcion : 

Catalogs wanted by Compafiia Electrica 
de Concepcion [Thomas], c403 

( hina: 


Street railway proposed, 188 

operation resumed, 
(See McAlester, 

China; (Continued) 


Trackless trolley 

Choctaw Ry. & Lighting Co 

Cincinnati, BIuffl:on & Chicago R. R. : 

Reorganized under the name of Hunt- 
ington, Bluffton & Portland R. R., 


Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tr. Co. (See Ham- 
ilton, Ohio) 
Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. : 

Track relocation, Opinion by State at- 
torney-general, 776 

"Experience ordinance" passed governing 

strike employment. Provisions, 890; 
Comment, 895 

Interurban Ry. & Term. Co. 

Fare decision unfavorable to company, 

Municipal line recommended, 78 

Rapid transit route adopted, 1271 

Transit commission: 

Appointed by mayor, 1094 

Organized, 1138 
West End Rapid Transit Co.: 

Franchise for extension. Application to 
City Council, 646 

New line to be built, 461 
City Electric Co. (.See Albuquerque, N. M.) 
(I!ity service for village traffic. Comment, 427 
Claims Association: 
Convention : 

Papers [Hare], 812; [Bennett], 813 
[Slick], 813; [Reynolds], •815 
[Dixon], 818; [Boynton], 819 
[Harrison], 820; [Warnock], 820 

President's address [Tichenor], 811 

Program, 363 

Proceedings, 767 

Problems of the association. Comment, 792 

Cleaning of cars: 

Vacuum cleaning car, Bay State Street Ry. 

[Haines], *323 

Vacuum system used in San Francisco 

[Allen], *516 
Clearances for future railway construction fixed 

by Illinois utilities commission, *228 
Cleveland & Erie Ry. (See Girard, Pa.) 
Cleveland, Ohio: 

Cleveland, Akron & Canton Terminal R. R. : 

Subway franchise, 119, 247, 416, 882, 


Cleveland & Eastern Traction Co.: 

Steel car, light weight, *30 

Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric Ry.: 

Proposed route. Changes in, 286 

Cleveland Ry. : 

Crossing installation, *1133 

Cement-sack-cleaning machine, 772 

Fare franchise in Lakewood, company 

plans to operate under, 1005 
Free use of proposed subways, 416 
Municipal ownership ordinance, 462, 

686, 924, 963 
Operating, interest and maintenance 
funds, Report asked by council, 1232 
Paving dispute. Suit filed by city, 964 
Plow to tear up pavement, *73 
Rail bonds. Application by electric braz- 
ing [Crecelius], *236 
Shoo-order system for car rehabilitation 

[Jacobs], 1214 
Storage bins. Steel, for coal and sand, 

Storage yards and operating stations, 

Ties, Steel twin, on Brooklyn-Brighton 
Bridge, ^83 4 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. : 

Electrolysis ordinance suit withdrawn, 

Freight service at night planned, 422 
Steel vs. wood ties in city track con- 
struction. Comparative cost [Nes- 
ter], *1089 

Cleveland & Youngstown R. R. : 

Franchise for freight terminal, 35, 119, 
161, 247, 461, 882, 963 

Smoke abatement report, 604 

Subway approach recommended for new 

bridge, 461; Plans submitted, 1271 
Traction matters, 840 

Coal and ash-handling apparatus, Springfield Ry., 


Coal production in Pennsylvania, Bituminous, 284 

Coasting (See Energy consumption) 

Coasting, Effect on running time. Comment, 299 

Coffeyville, Kan. : 

Union Traction Co.: 

Locomotive-express car. Details, *99S 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway Asso- 
ciation : 

Annual meeting, 826 

Columbia, S. C. : 

Columbia Ry., Gas & Electric Co.: 

Strike ended, 645 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. (See Cincin- 
nati, Ohio) 

Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus Ry., Power & Light Co. : 

Accounting review [Burington], *720 
Steel tie, solid concrete track construc- 
tion [Ackerman], ^956 
Transfer abuses. Attempt to correct, 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XLVI 

Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Co. 
(See Grand Rapids, Mich.) 

Company Sections (See American Electric Rail- 
way Associations) 

Concrete mixers. Uniform rating, 838 

(Tonestoga Traction Co. (See Lancaster, Pa.) 

Connectictit Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 

('onnecticut : , . 

Annual report of public service commission, 


Constitution, Revision of. Defeated in New York 
State, 963 

Contact system (See Overhead contact system; 

Third-rail contact system) 
Contact systems: 

Technical terms, ( lassilication [McHenry], 

c 275 

(Controllers and wiring: 

Control features for 1500-volt d.c. cars. 

Southern Pacific Co. [Sears], *551 
Controller segments, Resawing to smaller 

size [Miller], *236 
Control system, 5000-volt, Michigan United 

Traction Co., *660 
Control system, Pennsylvania R. R., Phila- 

delphia-Paoli electrification, *981 

Field control. Experiences 1 Lloyd], 191 

Jones' control, Pittsburgh Cars, *4 

Converters (See Substations) 

Correspondence schools for railway training, 

Irresponsible [Mills], cll25 
Corporation and public morality. Comment, 259 
( orrugation of rails (See Rails) 
Cost data. Liberality with, 48 

Costs (See Maintenance records and costs, 0|)er- 

ating records and costs) 
Covington, Ky. : 

Overcrowding ordinance to be enforced, 1279 

South Covington & Cincinnati Street Ry.: 

Franchise decision favoralile tu com- 
pany, 1)37 

Crossing clamps for telephone .iiid telegraph 
wires, *598 

Cuba : 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 463 
Cumberland Countv Power & Light Co. (See 

Portland, Me.) 
Current collecting devices: 

Pantograph shoe wear, Annaiiulis Short 

Line [Crouse], *63,'< 
Pantographs, Iron roller and roller bearing. 

Southern Pacific Co. [Hewitt], *546 
Roller pantograph maintenance. Southern 

Pacific Ry. [Sears], *551 
Trolley harp, Split self-lubricating [Feist], 


Trolley stand. Self-lubricating, .Sioux City 

Service Co. [Feist], *365 

Trolley wheels and haros of high current- 
carrying capacity (Star Brass Works), 

Trollev wheels of 10-in. diameter [Miller], 


Trolley wheel with grease reservoir. San 

Fraiicisco-(")akland Terminal Rvs. | lack- 
sou] , *449 

Curtain fixture without pinch handles (Railway 
Supply & Curtain Co.) *773 


nallas. Tex-.: 

Dallas Consolidated Street Ry. : 

Promoting publicity, 373 

Moving picture camnaign, 468 

Southern Traction Co.: 

Repair shops in Monroe, '176 
Davenport, la.: 

-Tri-( ity Ry. & I.ight Co.; 

Motor repair metlu)ds 1 Sullierl.ind]. 

Dayton, Covington & Pifiua Traction Co. (See 

West Milton, Ohio) 
Decatur, Ind.: 

Fort Wayne & Springfield Ry. : 

Property to be sold liy receiver, 1234 
Receiver asked for in bond conversion 
suit, 887 

Sale of property, Pids received. 1097 
Denver, Col. : 
Denver Tramway: 

Annual report. 464 

Automobiles. Et^'ect on railwav traffic 

[Beeler], 590; Comment. 577 
Dividend suspension, SS7 
Near-side stop controversv, 3>9. 468 
Skip-stop and exnress service. F-xperi- 

ence with [Wells]. c44S 
Traffic investigation [Toll], *309; Com- 
ment, 301 

Depreciation and appreciation. Practice in allow- 
ing for [Fores], 1169 

Depreciation (See also Accounting) 

Des Moines, la.: 

Des Moines City Rv. : 

Franchise negotiations. Historv. 200. 461. 

603, 645, 840, 881. 966, 1093. 1137 
Receiver appointed, 80 
Rehabilitation plans, Progress, 1271 

Inter- L'rban Ry. : 

Handling troop trains, *274 
Remodeled car, Improvements in, *156 
Locomotive tests, 274; Correction, 455 

Detroit, Mich. : 

Board of street railway commissioners closes 

office, 1095 

Detroit Lnited Ry.: 

Accident decrease, 168 
All-steel, center-entrance trail cars [Kel- 
ler], *1131 
Appraisal of the properties. Valuation 

figures, 923 
Extensions planned by city officials, 1053 
Purchase by city. Proposed: 

Agreement approved by directors, 

Agreement signed, 288 
Comment, 258 

Contract approved by stockholders, 

Contract approved by street railway 

commissioners, 199 
Defeated in November elections, 963 
Negotiations, 41, 76 
Opposed by organized labor, 458 
Plan accepted by Citv Council, 328 
Referendum date fixed, 373, 881 

Refrigerator car. Details [Keller], *1044 

.Skip stop: 

Campaign to popularize, 1100 
Experiment begun, 1146 
Proposed, 1013 
Raised safety zones. Plan to experiment 

with, 1145 

Developing industrial center. Co-operation in; 

Comment, 387 
Development charges. Practices in early traction 

history: Comment, 576 
Directors, Cumulative voting for; Comment, 257 
Directors, Rewarding cHicencv llirougb stock 

ownership. Comment, 1151 
Directors of corporations. Ethics in speculation 

by; Comment, 214 
Directors' responsibility, I. C. C. reijort on Rock 

Island R. R. bankruptcy, 329 
Directors who direct. Need for. Comment. 385 
Dispatching trains: 

I'altimore & Ohio R. R., Operation by sig- 
nals only, *434 

Signals replace telephones, Cumberland 

County Power & Light C"o., *1224 

Doors, seats and windows: 

Extensible trapdoor for vestibule (O. M. Ed- 
wards Co.), *642 

Extensible trapdoor, Pennsylvania R. R., 


Seat, Adujustable, quick acting, for motor- 
men (Railway Sjiecialties), *114 

Seat for motorman. Adjustable, '242 

Double-deck cars. Danger to passengers, 954 

Drinking-fountain guard in Holyoke Street Ry. 
shop, *156 

Drinking water dispenser [Palmer], *281 

Dubuque, la.: 

I'nion Electric Co.: 

Bearing-babbitt furnace (Donovan], *153 
One-'"^'^ ofieration. Remodeling cars for, 

Earnings of electric railways compared with 

other industries [Doolittle], 106 
Earth resistance. Method of measuring, 995 
Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. (See Pottsville, Pa.) 
Easton, Pa.: 

Northampton Tr. Co.: 

Geared brake. Heavy dutv on, '\047 
Merger with Bangor & Portland Tr. Co. 
aiipri'ved, 1277 
East St. Louis, 111.: 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry. : 

Free transportation curtailed, 84 
One-man car service upheld by court, 

Edmonton. Canada: 

Mur t1 ownership. Features of [Reat], 


Electrical prosperity week: 
Publicity features, 1094 

Electric railway development. History [McGraw], 

Electric Railway Journal: 

Annual convention issue, *473 

Convention report number, 615 

Equinment and Its Maintenance Department, 

One year of, 300 

Golden (jate cover picture, 586 

Index as a synotisis. Comment, 1244 

Reporting the San Francisco convention; 

Comment, 851 

Electric railways. Future for; Comment, 429 

Electric shovel for railway work (Thew Auto- 
matic Shovel Co.), *681 


Corrosion of soan wires and insulators 

[Foster], *582; Comment, *575 

Effect on engineering structures fGanz], 624 

Providence ( R. I.) report, 778. 825 

Three-wire system. Springfield, Mass., 1228; 

Comment, 1198 

Tests, (~leveland. Southwestern & Columbus 

Rv.. 161 

Elevated Railroads of Chicago (See Chicago) 
Elgin & Belvidere Electric Ry. (See Chicago) 
Elgin. 111.: . . . 

Near-side stops ordered by City Commission, 


Teaching patrons how to board cars, 168 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Elgin, Joliet &■ Eastern Ry. : 

-Expanded metal poles replace wooden poles, 

El Paso, Tex. : 
El Paso Electric Ry. : 

nome-made wheel grinder I Morse], 

Safety-first movement. Justification of 
[Dixon], 818 

Watt-hour meter records, *12^ 
Empire United Rys. (See Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Employees : 

Address to employees by salesmen sug- 
gested; Comment, 385 

Arbitration (See Strikes and arbitrations) 

Books for, Galesburg Ry. &• Light Co. [Han- 

nafordl. c448 

Clubroom features of Cleveland operating 

stations, *356 

Compensation law interpreted in Ohio, 1185 

C^ourt decisions affecting labor; Comment, 


Disciplining recruits. Method recommended 

by A. E. R. A. committee, 766 

Empire United Rv. union dispute settled, 


Examination, physical and mental, for train 

service [Fisher], *216; Cornment, 213 

"Experience ordinance" in Cincinnati; Com- 
ment, 895 

— — Group insurance, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co., 610 

Handling claim department employees, Pitts- 
burgh Rys., *436; Comment, 428 

Instruction and welfare work, Hampton, 

Va., '230 

Instructions for safe operation. Method 

[Harris], *531 

Instruction in first-aid work, Elevated Rail- 
roads of Chicago [Fisher], *430 

Medical and ojierating requirements. Ele- 
vated Railroads of Chicago, *302 

Medical examinations reduce lost time, 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 652 

Mileage-liasis wage agreement, Illinois Trac- 
tion System, 1279 

New publication. Kentucky Traction & Ter- 
minal Co.. 1191 

Opportunities in the electric railwav field, 3 

Opportunities of technical graduates enter- 
ing electric railway work; Comment, 429 

Pension system established. Third Avenue 

Ry., New York, 168 

Receive bonus for accident prevention in 

Kansas City, 604 

Requirements for employment [Winsor], 9 

Reward to conductor for good service in 

collision. Southern Traction Co., 867 

Safety-first meetings. Northern Ohio Trac- 
tion & Light Co., 867 

Shortage due to war, Glasgow Corporation 

Tramways [Dalrymple], 860 

Shortage of, in England due to war, 224 

Sliding wage scale and profit-sharing plan 

opposed by employees, Wilkes-Barre Ry., 
288; Comment, 257 

Surprise check results on ( hicago. Lake 

Shore & South Bend Ry., 930 

Training school, Brooklyn Ranid Transit 

System, *344; Comment, 343 

Wage and service agreement, Projiosed, 

Elevated R. R.s. of Chicago, 923 

Wage increase: 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry., 1013 
Charleston Consolidated Ry. & Lighting 

Co., 1274 
Lehifh \'alley Transit Co., 1274 
Manchester, 1146 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry., 

Request for, San Francisco Municipal 

Rv.. 883 
Wheeling Traction Co.. 1059 

Wage proposal rejected by. Chicago Elevated 

Rys.. 246 

Wage reduction granted to British Columbia 

Electric Ry., 392; Comment, 385 

Wage scale, Graded according to length of 

service [Sherwood], 912 

Welfare work: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 826 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 651 
Los Aneeles Ry. [Lieber], '506 
United Railroads [Lilienthal] . *710; 
Comment, 698 

Women conductors: 

Berlin, *675 
Glasgow, '190 
Rome, '219 

Service conditions in London, 1255 

Workmen's comnensation law. Providing for 

employees. New York Rys., 912 
Workmen's compensation law in Pennsyl- 
vania [Hoffman]. 1210; [Mackev], 
1213; [Tingley], 1207; comment. 119S 
Energv consumption: 

Chicago terminal electrification. Estimated 

requirements of various services, *1159; 
(Tomment, 1153 

Coasting recorders, Exnerience with: 

British Columbia Electric Ry. [Murrin], 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rv., 
*268; [Alberger], 520 

Effect of gear ratio, B. O. S. E. report, ^68 

Increase in. for rush-hour service. Chicago: 

*136; (Torrection, 190; Comment, 173 

July-December, 1915] 



Knergy coiisiun|ilion : (( 'ontiiiued ) 

Power-consumption curves for cars of va- 
rious sizes [ Hershberger], *394 

• Reduction ciTected by anti-friction bearings. 

New York State Rys. |CanieronJ, *1364 

■ Reduction effected through training em- 
ployees, Elevated Railroads of Chicago, 

Resistance of electric cars at starting, Cor- 
rection, 320 [Ewing], 279, c637; Com- 
ment, 258 [WynneJ, c401; Com- 
ment, 615 

\A'att-nieter records: 

El Paso, Tex., "12 

New 'S'ork Westchester & I'.cislon Ry., 


Energy regeneration in mountain railway elec- 
trification, Theoretical possibilities [Cas- 
tiglioni], *858 

Engineering Association (See American Electric 
Railway Engineering Association) 

Engineering congress at San Francisco, 267 

England (See Great Britain) 

Evansville, Ind.: 

Evansville Railways; 

Boiler feed water, Method of treating 
[Crumley], *152 

Everett, Wash. : 

Puget Sound International Ry. & Power Co.: 

One-man car service, 1100 
Speed increase ordinance passed by Council, 


E.xport trade. Corporation to promote, 1096; 
I omnient, 1 066 


Fare collection : 

Cash and transfer registers, .Springfield 

Street Ry., 294 

Change-making fare collector ( Ebert), *1047 

Fare boxes. Accounting advantages [Clark], 


Fare box. Safe deposit (Ohmer Fare Regis- 
ter Co.), *599 

Front-end collection at congestion points in 

San Francisco [Jones], *512 

Front-end collections for exposition traffic in 

San Francisco [Cashin], *51S 

Metal tickets, Economy in IJncoln, Neb., 


Mote r driven fare boxes, Recommendations 

A. E. R. A. committee, 765 

Prepaymetit system with fare boxes, at Bos- 
ton baseball park, *621 

Register for imiversal service to record cash 

and tickets (Ohmer), *113 

System of collection on one-man cars in 

Australia, 1112 

Fares : 

Abolition of six-f or-a-quartcr strip tickets, 

Hearings begun in Trenton, 931 

Analysis of fare svstem in London [Stan- 
ley], 622 

Comparison between private and municipal 

lines in Boston and Glasgow [Gordon], 

('opper zone system established by Shore 

Line Electric Ry., *443 

Decision on Milwaukee fare case, 52 

Dec! eased fare increases revenue in Van- 
couver, 127 

Fare increase and reasonable return on in- 
vestment; Comment, 341 

Fa-f increase petition withdrawn, Berkshire 

Street Ry., 422 

Fare limit extension refused. The Connecti- 
cut Co., 294 

Fare system of Newport News & Hampton 

Ry., Gas & Elec. Co., *318 


Augusta-Aiken Ry. & Electric Corp., 423 
Birmingham Municipal Lines, England, 

860; Comment, 896 
Idaho Traction Co., 128 
Blue Hill Street Ry., *226; Comment, 

Missouri, 1146; Comment, 1152 

New Bedford & Onset Street Ry., *628; 

Comment, 617 
Norfolk & Bristol Street Ry., *354 
Lllster & Delaware R. R., 163 
Western railroads, 1236 

Increase delayed by commission, Trenton & 

Mercer County Tr. Corp., 335 

Increase denied, Trtnlcm & Mercer County 

Tr, Corp 1258 

Increase in. Should follow wage increases; 

Comment, 174 

Increase petition and hearings (See Bay 

State Street Ry.) 

Increase sought by Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & 

I.t. Co., 1099 

Insufficiency of the 5-cent fare [Connettel, 

18; Discussion, 15 

Massachusetts Northeastern .Street Ry., Hear- 
ing, 1?.56 

Reduced fare tickets discontinued. Fort 

Smith Lt. & Tr. Co., 930 
Reduction : 

For children, Denied in Atlanta, 468 

Gray's Harbor Ry., 1191 

Puget Sound Electric Ry., 469, 931, 

Trenton fare case (See Trenton, N. J.) 

Farm traffic. Development, Pacilic Electric Ry. 
[Shoup], 807 

l''ceders : 

Conduit construction, Worcester, Mass., *325, 


Feed-in clami>, San l-rancisco | Foster], *322 

Fenders and wheel guards: 

Snow i)low and life guard. Combined, Sioux 

City Service Co. [Feist], *832 
Fifth Avenue Coach Co. (See New York City) 

Accounting for rents; Comment, 978 

Earnings of steam railroads, 627 

Earnings of electric railways compared with 

other industries [Doolittlc], 106 

Public interest in surplus; Comment, 852 

Securities of utilities owned by Metropolitan 

Life Ins. t o., 687 

Valuation conference, 991, 1031 

(See also Operating records and costs, M.iin- 

tenance records and costs) 
Fire protection and insurance: 

Co-operation with N. F. P. A.; Comment, 1 

Fire insurance companies. Forms of organi- 
zation and policies [Forse], 262 

First-aid system. Elevated Railroads of Chicago 
[Fisher], *430 

Fitchburg, Mass.: 

Fitchliurg &■ Leominster Street Ry. : 

Illustrated lectures in safely work I Hcn- 
nett], 813 
Freight and cxjiress: 

Freight service at night planned in Cleve- 
land, 422 

Flange oiling to prevent wheel and rail wear, 

Floors, Remedy for dusting concrete, 2(1 

Fonda, Johnstown & (jloversville R. R. (Sec 

Gloversville, N. Y.) 
Fort Smith, Ark.: 

Fori Smith Light &■ Traction Co.: 

Reduced fare tickets discontinued, 930 
Service and wage agreement with env 
ployees, 1013 

I'"ort Wayne, Ind.: 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Tr. Co. : 

Safety meetings of employees, 308 
Strike, 684, 775, 841, 924, 1004, 1187 

Fort Wayne & Springfield Rv. (See Decatur, 

l'"ort Worth, Tex. : 

Northern Texas Traction Co., Detailed check 

of jitney business, *54 
Foxboro, Mass. : 

Norfolk & Bristol Street Ry. : 

Fare increase granted, *354 

France : 

Paris : 

Metropolitan Ry. : 

Effect of war on revenue and em- 
ployees, 884 


Combating wasteful obligations, comment. 


Franchise provisions. Proposed, Toledo Rvs. 

& Light Co., 684 
Freight and express: 

Freight handling by electric railr(.)ads in Cal- 
ifornia [McMillan], 482 

Interurban service for perishable garden 

products, Lehigh Valley Transit Co. 
[Spring], 1209 

Motor-bus freight business declining in 

southern California, 846; Comment, 851 

Package freight carrying system, Louisville 

& Northern Ry. &• Lighting Co. [Strat- 
ton. Foreman], 1078 

Parcel carrying on street railways in Lan- 
caster, Receipts from, 1123 

Weighing freight at point of origin; Com- 
ment, 1065 

Freight rates: 

Controversy between Louisville board of 

trade and Insull lines settled by I. C. C, 

Fresh-air cars: 

Brooklyn, 1059 

Chicago, 1100, 1237 

I-'uel-saving hoax. Perennial; Comment, 937 


dalesburg. 111: 

(laleshurg i^y. Ligiit Co.: 

Practical books for employees [Hanna- 
ford], c448 
Galveston, Tex. : 

Galveston-Houston Electric Co.: 

Dividends passed because of jitney com- 
petition, 608 

Restoration of service after Gulf storm, 417, 462, 

Trestle construction to re-establish service 

after Gulf storm, *867 
Gears and pinions: 

Differential gears to eliminate rail corruga- 
tion, *26 

Effect of gear ratio on operating economy, 


Noisy gears, Cause of, 370 

Railway motor gearing [Allen], 111 

Specifications for [Dalgleish], cl89; (John- 
son], cl89 

Stub-tooth, bull-nose gear, Chicago, Lake 

Shore & South Bend Ry., *1108 

(Abbreviations: ' Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Georgia : 

Annual re|»ort of public service commission, 

(jermany : 
Berlin : 

Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn ; women 
conductors, *675 

Wreck due to reckless operation, "391 
Hanover : 

Converted cars as ambulance trailers, 

Munster-.Schlucht Pass combined rack-rail 

and adhesion railway, 1091 
Saxony : 

Oil-electric car tests, 1091 
General Gas & Electric Co. (See New York City) 
Girard, Pa. : 

Cleveland & Erie Ry. ; 

Dispenser for drinking water [Palmer], 

Glens Falls, N. Y'. : 

Hudson Valley Ry.: 

Single-track, low-step car (Laconia Car 
Co.), *1226 
Gloversville, N. Y.: 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R.: 

Annual report, 966 

Protection of highway crossings [Hy- 
land], 20 
Glens Falls, N. Y.: 
Hudson Valley Ky. : 

Unions' jurisdiction dispute, 120 
Government ownersbij) (See also Municipal 

ownership ) 

Government ownership. Evils of [Bourne], *707; 

Comment, 698 
Government ownership of public utilities as a 

political issue [Borah], 923 
Grand Uapids, Mich.: 
.\merican Public Utilities Co.: 

Annual report, 647 
Commonwealth Power, Ry. & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 419 
Grand Trunk R. R. : 

.St. Clair tunnel electrification. Operating 

data for six years, 1084 

Graphics in maintenance work, *947 

Graphs, charts and statistics as aids to adminis- 
tration [Stothart], *665 

Graphite production in 1914, United States, 403 

Gray's Harbor Ry. & Light Co. (See Aberdeen, 

(ireat P>ritain : 

.\nnual reports: 

Leeds Corjjoration Tramways, 375 
Liverpool Corporation Tramways, 203 
London County Council Tramways, 374 
Manchester Corporation Tramways, 375 

Birmingham : 

Fare increase due to war, Birmingham 
Corporation Tramways [Baker], 860; 
Comment, 896 

Depreciation allowance on Diesel engines, 

British Diesel Engine Users' Assn., 284 

Glasgow : 

Women conductors, Corporation Tram- 
ways. *190 

Huddersfteld Corporation Tramways; 

Differential gears to eliminate rail cor- 
rugation, *26 

Hvdraulic presses for wheels and armatures 

["Vulcan"], 323 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry.: 

Contact rail with wood guards, *155 
Contact shoe details, *1124; Comment, 

Lancaster : 

Parcel carrying on street railways, Re- 
ceipts from, 1 123 

Lincoln : 

Surface contact system. Operating cost, 


London : 

Bus competition with tramwavs, 219, 287 
Letters from, 33, 243, 414, 683, 962, 1136 
Municipal Tramway .Association confer- 
ence, 860 
Recruiting appeal on busses, *186 
Traffic conditions and facilities [Stanley], 
622; Comment, 616 

London & South-Western Ry. : 

Suburban electrification, *225 


Operating costs for omnibuses, 673 

Tramways & Light Railways' Association, 

Congress, 224 


Hamilton, Canada: 

Hamilton & Beamsville Electric Ry. : 

.Appeal against order for improvements, 

Hamilton Mountain Park Co., Ltd.: 

Incline, electric-hoist, railway for pas- 
sengers, freight, trolley cars, etc., 

Hamilton, Ohio: 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Co.: 

Receivership avoided, 37 
Hampton, Va. ; 

Newport News & Hampton Ry., Gas. & Elec- 
tric Co. ; 

Employees, Instruction and welfare 

work, *230 
Notes on shop practices, *50 
Rehabilitation of properties, *317 



[Vol. XL VI 

Harrisburg, Pa. : 

Harrisburg Rys. : 

Dividend reduction, 687 
Haverhill, Mass.: 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry.: 

Fare increase suspended by commission, 

Fare schedule providing for 6-cent unit 
filed with commission, 784; Hearing, 

Wage increase agreement, 252 

Hawaii ; 

Honolulu : 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co. ; 

Injunction against capital stock in- 
crease. Hearing, 1096 


Pressed-steel, for interurban cars (Trolley 

Supply Co.), -1048 
Heater, Light-weight all-steel (Gold Car Heating 

& Lighting Co.), *773 
Heat treatment. Effect on nickel and manganese 

steel, *32 
Heating of cars: 

Forced draft heaters. Operating cost. Em- 
pire United Rys., 1225 

Heavy electric traction (See also High-tensioc 
d. c, railways; Single-phase railways; 
Low-tension d. c. railways, for details of 
particular installations) 

Heavy electric traction: 

Development and present status [McHenry], 

623; Comment, 616 

Evolution of New Haven electrification. 1197 

Future possibilities [Storer], 1212 

Notes on mountain railway electrification 

[Castiglioni], *858 

Punctuality of electric roads. Comment. 173 

Technical terms, Comment, 214 

1200-volt trolley system. Advantages over 

600-volt system [Fortenbaugh], 1172 
Highland, III.: 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Ry. : 

Steel cars, *388 
High-tension d.c. railways: 

— — Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Substa- 
tion location and equipment, *794 

Michigan United Traction Co. 5000-volt line. 

Operating features [Storer], *660; Com- 
ment, 658 

Ogden, Logan &• Idaho Ry., *1073 

(Drleans-Kenner Electric Ry. begins opera- 
tion ■•229 

Highway-crossing signs (See Signals) 
Highwood, 111. : 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R.: 

Receivers' sale ordered by court, 1234 

Historical (See Reminiscences) 

Holyoke, Mass.: 

Holyoke Street Ry. : 

Inexpensive drinking fountain guard. 

Strike, Arbitration hearings, 287, 328, 
373, 416. 459, 883, 924. 1005, 1052 
Hose coupling. E.isilv-applied (National Hose 

Coupling Co.), '194 
Hot Springs. Ark.: 

Hot Springs Street Ry. : 

Auto-bus feeder line established. 1237 
Houston, Tex.: 

Houston Electric Co.: 

Mortar cushion for brick pavement re- 
duces maintenance work [Archibald], 

Hudson Vallev Ry. (See Glens Falls. N. Y.) 
Huntington, Bluflton & Portland R.R.: 
Electrification proposed, 289 


Idaho Traction Co. (See Boise, Idaho). 
Illinois : 

Dispute between city council and State Com- 
mission, 890 

Railway clearances fixed, 228 

Illinois Electric Railway .-XESociation : 

Chicago meeting, 952 

Milwaukee outing. 13 

Illinois Traction System (See Peoria, 111.) 

Incandescent lamp invention. Anniversary. 902 

Incline railway for passengers, freight, trolley 
cars, etc.. at Hamilton, Can., *115 

Independence & Monmouth R.R. : 

Electrification contemplated, 462 

Index bureaus: 

Accident claim records [Reynolds], 815 

Indexing car equipment data [Cooper], cl040; 

[Litchfield], 677 
Indexing stores supplies [Astle], *906 

Delhi Electric Tramwav & Lighting Co., 
Report for 1914, 1091 


Electric railway tax values reduced, 164 

^Interurban problems [McClure], 1077 

Loss in electric railway mileage, 164 

Indianapolis, Ind. : 

Freight rate controversy settled by I. C. 

C., 208 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Paste filler for commutator slots, 156 

Indianapolis, Ind.: (Continued) 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co. ; 

Jitney buses, Indiana Commission with- 
out jurisdiction, 206 
Watch standards [Boardman], *874 

Industrial centers. Railway co-operation in de- 
veloping; Comment, 387 

Industrial relations committee completes work, 

Injuries to persons (See Accident claim depart- 
Inspection of cars: 

Scientific inspection promotes service [ Layng] , 


Insurance (See Fire protection and insurance) 
Insurance of Employees (See Employees) 
International Engineering Congress: 
Comment, 342 

Electric traction papers and exhibits, 622; 

Comment, 657 
International Ry. (See Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Interstate Commerce Commission: 
Annual report, 1228 

Equipment order. Time extension for com- 

plying with, 1139 

Increase in passenger rates granted to west- 
ern railroads, 1236 

Louisville-Indianapolis rate case. Appeal for 

decision, 931 

Rock Island investigation; Comment, 852 

X'aluation conference, 676, 823 

Inter-Urban Ry. of Des Moines (See Des 
Moines, la.) 

Interurban Railway & Terminal Co. (See Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio) 
Interurban railways: 

Efficiency by conserving time [Spring], 1209 

-Problems in Indiana [SicCIure], 1077 


Interurban taxable valuations, 967 

Iowa Ky. & Light Co. (See Cedar Rapids, la.) 


Gasoline-electric cars, Dublin & Blessing- 
ton Steam Tramways, 448 


Electric locomotive for high-speed service on 

curves, 455 
Rome : 

Women conductors on tramways, *219 


Jackson, Mich.: 

Michigan LInited Rys. : 

Status of the company, 778 
Michigan United Tr. Co.: 

5000-volt line, motors and control 
[Storer], *660 

Status of the company, 778 
Jackson, Miss. : 

Jackson Light & Traction Co.: 

One-man cars. Experience with [Smith] 

Jacksonville, Fla. : 

Jacksonville Traction Co.: 

Dividend on preferred stock reduced, 

Safety-first movement, Financial bene- 
fit [Harrison], 820 
Jitney buses (See also Motor buses) 
Jitney bus: 

^Accident in Spokane, *954 

Check on jitnev operation in Fort Worth, 

Tex., *54 

Combatting with one-man car; Comment, 2 

Commission ruling on application for certifi- 
cates in New Rochelle, 929 

Comparison with the small car [Cooper], c64 

Dangers of the jitney [Williams], c364 

Decline of the jitney craze; Comment, 1019 

Digest of ordinances in various cities 

[King], 314 

Discrimination complaints against jitneys 

dismissed in Charleston, 610 

Earning capacity of the jitney [Everett], 


Economics of and factors in the movement 

[Doolittle], 221 
Economics of the jitney problem [Black], 


Effect of publicity on jitney movement in 

Portland [Hild], *560 

Effect on railways; Comment, 386, 1019; 

[Smith], 1119 

Indiana Public Service Commission has no 

jurisdiction over, 206 

Injunction against jitneys denied in Terre 

Haute, 1059 

Jitnev law provisions. Wisconsin, 378 

Jitney operation waning in Memphis, *39S 

Jitnev rise and decline in Los Angeles 

[Lewis], '500 

-Jitneys as feeders to railway lines ["Engi- 
neer"], c 403 

Titnev service established by Puget Sound 

Traction, Light & Ppwer Co., 235 

Kansas City bus association financially em- 
barrassed, 167 

Legal aspects of jitney traffic [Dunn], _*503 

Loss of California in taxes due to jitney 

competition [Doolittle], 222 

Memphis (Tenn.) appeals from decision elim- 
inating bonds for jitneys, 128 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Jitney bus: (Continued) 

Number operating in South Bend, Ind.,. 


Operating costs for bus service, Virginia Ry. 

& Power Co., 1216 
Operating data, Chicago, South Bend & 

Northern Indiana Ry., 831 
Operation in Rochester contrary to law, 


Puget Sound Traction Co.'s plans for jit- 
ney service, 83 

Receivership forced in Atlantic City, 1142; 

Comment, 1105 

Record of the movement, 39, 82, 125, 166, 

167, 206, 208, 251, 292, 333, 377, 421, 
467, 609, 650, 690, 781, 845, 888, 929, 
970, 1012, 1057, 1098 

Regulation by public service commission 

sought in Indiana, 127 

Regulation in Pennsylvania, Effort of Penn- 
sylvania Street Railway Association to 
secure [Tingley], 1207 

Regulatory measures and references. List 

prepared by bureau of railway eco- 
nomics, 145 

Regulatory ordinances passed in several 

cities. 207 

— —Report of A. E. R. A. Committee, 730 
Restraining order against jitneys sought by 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 

Traction Co., 650, 782 
^Small car to combat jitney competition 

[Hershberger] , *394 

Wichita (Kan.) ordinance upheld, 1279 

Joliet, III.: 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry. : 

Power contract renewal, 288 

Wage dispute arbitration, 288, 651, 1003 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. : 

Report forms for way department, *396 


Anti-friction bearings. Economies [Farr], 

*239; [Cameron], ^1264 

Brasses, Semicircular, Aurora, Elgin & Chi- 
cago R. R. [Bowman], *1128 

Jovian Order: 

Program for annual convention, 271 


Kalamazoo, Mich.: 

Michigan Ry. : 

All-steel cars for limited, local and ex- 
press and freight service. Details, 

Status of the company, 778 

Kanawha Traction & Electric Co. (See Parkers- 
burg, W. Va.) 

Kansas City, Mo.: 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Ry. : 

Bonus to trainmen for accident preven- 
tion, 604 

Interstate Ry. right-of-way suit, 78, 119, 

287, 686, 1007 
Protest of bond in right-of-way case, 


Kansas City Ry, & Light Co.: 

Reorganization, Plans for, 249, 1009, 
1054, 1143 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Advertising car, *1120 
Air washer. Test of. *240 
Causes of delays advertised, 295 
Extension of time for complying with 

franchise conditions, 967 
Extension project. Privately-built, 286 
Flange-bearing special work, c64 
Franchise agreement signed by interur- 

bans affected, 1094 
Franchise election protest, 1052 
Prepayment car, accounting features 

[Clark], 721 
Reorganization plans, 37, 330, 927 
. Single-end, steel side-girder cars 
[Weber], *771 
Utility management. Municipal co-oper- 
ation in [Kealy], 861 

Merger of lighting companies, 1095 

Safety-zone test, *308 

Safety zones at street crossings, 1059 

Trafficway viaduct. Reinforced concrete, 633 

Kansas Gas, Water, Electric Light & Street Ry, 

Change of name to Kansas Public Service 

Association, 905 

Kcnnebunk. Me.: 

Atlantic Shore Ry. : 

Default in mortgage payment, 968 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (See Lex- 
ington, Ky.) 


Lakewood, Ohio: 

Fare franchise adopted by voters, 963 

Lamp grips for screw sockets (Bryant Electric 

Co.), '836 
Lancaster, Pa.: 
— Conestoga Traction Co.: 

Watch inspection system [Hull], *1034^ 
Lantern, Electric (Federal Sign System), *113X 
Lawrence, Kan. : 

Kansas Electric Utilities Co.: 

Merger of utility properties, 1234 

July-December, 1915] 



Alien labor law in New \ ovk sustained by 

Supreme C'mirt, 1139 
Court decisions aiicLUng labor; Comment, 


Electric railway legal decisions, 196, 456, 


Experiences in cundemning property; Com- 
ment, 47 

Industrial commission law in New York, 


Mail transportation rates. Suit filed by New 

England roads for increase, 159 

^Ordinances, D.gest of, regulating jitneys in 

various cities, 314 

Personal injury cases, Practices in lliisbop], 


Workmen's compensation law in Pennsyl- 
vania lHoffmanl, 1210; 1 Mackey], 12 13 ; 
[Tingley], 1207; Comment, 1198 

Workmen s compensation law upbeld by New 

York Court of Appeals, 121 


"Experience Ordinance" in Cincinnati ; Com- 
ment, 895 

New York jitney-luis law |( onncttel, c 21 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See AUentown, Pa.) 
I.ewiston, Me.: 

Portland S: Lewiston Inlerurban; 

C'onstruction details, *618 
Lexington, Ky. : 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Discharged employee reinstated by arbi- 
tration board, 43 
Employeei,' (lublication, 1191 
Non-union men accept company's con- 
tract, 84 

Union men agree to company's partici- 
pation plan, 128 

Libraries, Co-operation of jniblic libraries with 
railway [Walker], 1040 

Library as aid to employees taking correspond- 
ence course, Connecticut Co., 953; Com- 
ment, 937 

Library, Methods of developing and indexing 

Boston Elevated Ry., 1118 
Light car and ball bearings. Economies of I Farrl, 


Light clusters for out-door service (Painter Co.), 

Lighting building front. Novel system for [Es- 

terline Co.], 453 
Lighting of cars: 

Improved system. New Y'ork, Westchester 

& Boston Ky., *918 

Lamp grips for screw sockets ( Bryant Elec- 
tric Co.), *836 


Ground fittings for lightning arresters (Elec- 
tric Service Supplies Co.), *114 

Protection, A. E. R. E. A. committee re- 
port, 746 

Light-weight cars. Status of ["Manager"!, c 234 
Lima, N. Y.: 

Lima & Honeoye Light & R. R. Co.: 

Commission prevents separation of 
lighting and traction properties, 38 

Lincoln, III. : 

Lincoln Ry. & Heating Co.: 

Six-for-a-quarter tickets discontinued, 

Load factor (See Power generation) 
Loading limits for cars: 

Car-capacitv order in effect again in Prook- 

lyn, 971 

Car loading in .Seattle, Investigation to de- 
termine [McCloyl, *272 

New York health board regulation sus- 
pended, 128 

— ■ — Overcrowding a crime in Toronto, 1060 

Service order in Chicago, 775 

Locomotive crane, Los Angeles Kv. [Kuhrts], 

T-ocomotives : 

Chicago, Milwaukee S- .St. Paul Ry. ; Test 

on heavy grades, *1036, *1215 

Electric locomotive canacity; C^omment, 1107 

Electric locomotive. Specifications for ideal 

[McHenryl, 623; Comment, 616 

das-electric, Minneapolis, .St. Paul, Roch- 
ester & Dubuc|ue Electric Traction Co., 

High-speed. Italian railways, 455 

Mileage, Effect of increased: Comment, 1066 

(Jperat'ng data and costs, St. Clair Tunnel, 


Scale weights, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul Ry., *794 
Service renuirements. Estimated. Chicago 

terminal electrification, *1159; Comment, 


.Side-rod type. Analysis of stresses [Eaton], 


T.findon, Canada: 

Lond'-'n & Port Stnnlev Rv.: 

Electric operation begun, 121 
Steel cars, '27 

I onq. Island R. R. : 

"rossing protection for automobilists, 371 

Reckless automobile driving. Record for 

month. 972 

Safety measures at grade crossings, 83 

Trailers. All-steel, lightweight, *136 

Ventilating system on trail cars (.Automatic 

Vent. Co.), *194 
Los Angeles, Cal. : 

.\cciHents by automobile. Hospital records, 


Emergency truck charging, "25 

Los Angeles, Cal.: (Continued) 

Los .\ngeles Ky.: 

IJrazed bonds (Electric Ry. Imp. Co.), 

Card records of track work [Campbell], 

Commutator slotter combining accessi- 
bility and ease of operation 
I Stephens], *321 

Grade crossing elimination in city rec- 
ommended, 16o 

.Titney rise and decline [Le»'.',-j, *500 

litney traffic. Legal aspects [Dunn], 

Locomotive crane [Kuhrts], *877 
Motor-bearing trimmer [Stephens], *111 
Operating, statistics compared with San 

Francisco, 1237 
Press for bearing and bushing changes, 

Hydraulic [Stephens], *282 
Route changes ordered, 1191 
Standardization of twelve car tvfies into 

two [Stephens], *493 
Waiting platforms, concrete, '1124 
Welfare and recreation work [Lieber], 


Pacific Electric Ry. : 

.\ll-steel passenger cars [Small], "489 

Economics of rjiilway operation in Cali- 
fornia I Shonp 1 , 1171 

Electric railway service in .Southern 
California, Features [.Shoup], *475 

Elevated or depressed tracks recom- 
mended in congested districts, 160 

Elevated track construction. Ultimatum 
by utilities board, 604; jjlans com- 
pleted, 1231 

b'are reduction case dismissed by com- 
mission, 1060 

Farm traffic. Development [Shoup], 

b'reight handling. Businesslike methods 
used by electric railroads [McMil- 
lan], *482 
.Service to Pasadena curtailed. 1099 
Warning sign, Illuminated, *284 
Louisville, Ky. : 

Freight rate controversy settled by I. C. C, 


Louisville & Interurban Ry. : 

Beautifying towns. Co-operation in, 308 
Contactor signals for low voltage, *1181 
Farm-produce freight. Propaganda to in- 
crease, 379 
I'reight rate revision begun, 931 
Special service to countv fairs, 442 
TrafBc in bottled water, 320 

Louisville Ry. : 

Advice to trainmen witnesses in claim 

cases, 379; Instructions, 651 
Croup fares. New rule, 784 
Publicity campaign, 972, 1013 
Safety record for one year, 380 
Safety talk to employees [Miller], 972 
Traffic regulations ordered by safety 
board. Details of, 1100 

Traffic regulation bv semaphore system, 692 

Louisville & Northern Ry. & Lighting Co. (See 
New Albany, Ind.) 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Co. 
(See New .\lbany, Ind.) 

Low-tension d. c. railways: 

Electrification of London & South-Western 

Ry. suburban lines, *225 
Portland &: Lewiston Interurban, Details of 

construction, *618 
Loyal Ry. (See North Ballard, Wash.) 
Lubrication : 

— ■ — Solidified oil and petrolatum for trolley 
wheels. San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Rys. [Jackson], *449 


Machine shop equipment, methods and proc- 
esses [Norris], 626 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Light Co. (See 
Y^oungstown, Ohio.) 

Mail transportation: 

Compensation, Report of A. E. R. A. com- 
mittee, 727 

Moon railway mail jiay bill. Opposition or- 
ganizing, 1093 

New England roads sue for increase in 

rate, 159 

Railway mail pay bulletin, 418 


Annual report public service commission, 


Maintenance records and costs: 

— ■ — Annual car maintenance costs, Bav State 
Street Ry., *671 

Contact systems: 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., *60 
Metropolitan West Side Elevated, Chi- 
cago, *56 

New Y'ork, Westchester & Boston Ry., 

Southern Pacific Ry., Portland division, 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R., *59 

Eflfect of inspection [Layng], 1251 

Equipment failures and maintenance costs, 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend 

Ry.. *940 

(.Abbreviations: ' Ilhislrateil. c Corresponilence. ) 

Maintenance records and costs: (Continued) 
— — Ciraphical records of maintenance data, Va- 
rious companies, *947 

Maintenance costs for lubrication and brake 

shoes, Oregon Electric Ry. [CloughJ, 

Maintenance costs of roller pantographs. 

Southern Pacific Co. [Hewitt], *546 

Maintenance practices, Chicago, Lake .Shore 

& South Bend Ry., *1108, Comment, 

Standard units for. Comment, 1 

Steel tie crossing maintenance costs. Four- 
year record. Union Traction Co. 
[Prentice], 1044 

Time-keeping and cost records. Way de- 
partment ["Way Department Engi- 
neer"] c 635 

Trolley wire and pantograph shoe wear 

[Crouse], *639 
Maine Central R. R. ; 

New electric railway, .-\greement with Ban- 
gor & Aroostook Ry. to build, 1007 
Manchester, N. H.: 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Fare increases suspended by public 

service commission, 1059 
Wage increase for trainmen, 1146 

Mandeville, La.: 

St. Tammany & New Orleans Rv. & Ferry 


Operation on newly electrified line be- 
gun, 329 

Manila Electric Ry. & Light Corp (See Philip- 
pine Islands) 

Maps of system on waiting-room window, Cum- 
berland County Power & Light Co., 

Maps : 

Blue Hill Street Ry., *226 

Michigan United Traction Co., *661 

New Bedford is: Onset Street Rv.. *628 

Norfolk & Bristol Street Ry., *354 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Ry., *1073 

Pacific Electric Ry., *476 

Steam locomotive terminals and proposed 

transfer yards, Chicago, *1159, *1160 
Marshall (Tex.) "Traction Co.: 

All-steel one-man car (Cincinnati Car Co.), 



Public service commission jurisdiction over 

Bay .State fare case, 12/9 
Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry. (.See 

Haverhill, Mass.) 
McAlester, Okla. : 
— — Choctaw Ry. & Lighting Co.; 

Foreclosure suit planned, 1276 
Medford, Ore. : 

Southern Oregon Traction Co.; 

■ Proposed electrification for Rogue 
River line, 79 
Medical methods in first-aid work. Elevated 

Railroads of Chicago [Fisher], *430 
Memphis, Tenn. : 

Jitney competition waning, *395 

■ Memphis Street Ry. : 

Fare case, 42 

Right of white passengers to seats iii 
colored section denied, 84 

Tennessee Ry., Power of Light Co.: 

.\nnual report, 122 

Merger of West Virginia traction lines ru- 
mored, 375 

Merrill, Wis.: 

Merrill Ry. & Lighting Co.: 

Trackless trolley line abandoned, 1139' 
Mesaba Ry. (See Virginia, Minn.) 
Meters : 

Electrodynamometers, portable, a.c.-d.c. 

(Weston Electric Instrument Co.), *837 
Metropolitan Street Railway (See Kansas City 


Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. (.See Chi- 
Miami, Fla. ; 

Miami Traction Co.: 

.Storage-batterv cars (T. G, Brill Co.), 


Storage-battery line nearing comple- 
tion, 1074; operation begun, 1232 
Michigan City, Ind.: 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry.: 

Maintenances practices, 'llOS; Com- 
ment, 1106 
Operating efficiency. 930 
Operating record, seven-year, '940 
Safety measures at way stations, 913 

Michigan Railway (See Kalamazoo, Mich.) 

Michigan I'nited Traction Co. (See Jackson, 

Middle West Utilities Co. (See Chicago) 
Milford, Mass.: 

Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket .Street 


Request to operate one-man cars re- 
fused, 84 
Milwaukee, Wis. : 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co.: 

Cars. Remodeled interurban, *834 
Fare increase. Appeal, 52; Mortimer's 

statement, 84; 889, 1099 
Penalties claimed for violations of 

commission's service order, 1190 
Publicity campaign, 972; Comment, 


Skip stop. Plan to test, 252, 468, 651, 
1 144 



[Vol. XLVI 

Minneapolis, Minn. : 

Minneapolis, Anoka & Cayuna Range R. R. : 

Electrification planned, 290 
Reorganization completed, 1143 

— — Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Du- 
buque Electric Traction Co.: 
Gas-electric locomotives, *668 

Minneapolis Street Ry. : 

Air intakes increase furnace capacity, 

Appraisal, Bond sale to provide funds, 

Franchise negotiations, 161 

Sand cushion in street pavement, Ex- 
perience with [Wilson] c 1126 

Valuation of property ordered, 417 
— — Motor bus for interurban service [Mc- 

Keen], *29 
— — Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Box-frame motor armatures. Repair shop 
practice in handling, *833 

Complaints and methods of handling 
[Warnock], *264 

Girder and high T-rail renewals 
[Wilson], c 592 

Lectures on public relations for em- 
ployees, 106 

Ski]) stops during rush hours, 1058 

Trolley wire splicer, Improved, *919 
Missouri : 

Annual report public service commission, 285 

Railroad iiassenger rates advanced, 1146 

Mobile, Ala. : 

Mobile Light & RR. Co.: 

Wage scale graded to length of ser- 

[Sherwood], 912 
Work-order system for small roads 
[Glover], 441 
Montreal, Canada: 

Montreal Tramways: 

Annual report, 289 

Brush tests on non-interpole motors 
with slotted commutators [Mac- 
Leod] '1179 
Franchise renewal negotiations. In- 
junction forbidding, 202 
Girder and high T-rail renewals 
[Graves], c 872 
Motion picture films for safety work, 1146 
Motor cars on railroad systems, \'alue of 

[McKeen], 866 
Motor buses (.See also Jitney buses) 
Motor buses: 

Auto-bus line as feeder to municipal rail- 
way authorized by Council in Seattle, 
686; Details, 889; Agreement unsatisfac- 
tory; Discontinued, — 

Comparison with street car as convenient 

means of travel ; Comment, 793 

Competition with electric railways, 2, 

[llewcs], 18; Discussion, 15 

Compelilion with tramwavs, London, Eng- 
land, 219, 287 

Failure as long-haul express carrier; Com- 
ment. 851 

Feeder line established: 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power 

Co. [Leonard], *570, 1099 
Hot Springs Street Ry., 1237 

Fenders for rear wheels of New York 

buses, 157 

— — Franchise for proposed lines in New York. 
Hearings, 882, 922, 1004, 1139 

Freight business in southern California de- 
clining, 846 

Gasoline motor car on rails in Pacific 

northwest, *1080 

Interurban type [McKeen], *29 

Metropolitan Coach Co., Washington. 

D. C, Fare increase denied, 127; Sus- 
per.ds opcrstions, 327 
Motor-bus lines as feeders to trunk rail- 
ways [Pratt], 235 

Motor-bus line in New Rochelle, Franchise 

provisions; Comment. 896 

Operating costs in Sheffield, England, 673 

Storage-battery buses in England, 224 

United Rys. & Electric Co. establishes mo- 
tor-bus service in Baltimore, 207 
Motormen's seats (See doors, seats and win- 

Motors : 

Advantage of box frame [Prather], 915 

Armature coils. Grounding of, method to 

prevent, St. Joseph Rv., Light, Heat 
& Power Co. [Ernst], 1089 
Box-frame motors. Advantages over split- 
frame, 410 

Box-frame motor armatures, Handling, Twin 

City Rapid Transit Co., '833 

Box frame motor practice [Wright], c 828 

Brush biu-ning at the top. Method for pre- 
venting [Parsons], *917 

Brush-holder repairing method [Potter], 


Brush tests on non-interpole motors [Mac- 
Leod]. *1179 

Commutator slotter combining accessibility 

and ease of operation, Los Angeles Rv. 
[Stephens], *321 

Comparison low-floor and standard types. '4 

Design of d.c. motors from commutation 

standpoint [Hellmund], 105: Com- 
ment. 135 

Effect of wheel diameter on heatine, *70 

[Foote], c*914; [Broomhall], "*452; 
Comment, 427 

Motors: (Continued) 

1500-voIt, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

electrification, *794 

I-ow-fioor type, Pittsburgh, *4 

Motor for light-weight car ( Westinghouse 

Electric & Mfg. Co.), *412 
Motor speed characteristics. New method 

for determining [Buck], *595 

Overhauling old motors [Faber], *677 

Rating of railway motors. Nominal [Hill], 

c 275 

Rejuvenating overloaded motors, San 

Francisco-Oakland Term. Rys. [Jack- 
son], '192 

Remodeled Westinghouse No. 49 [Mc- 

Pheeters], 918 
Repair methods, Tri-Cilv Rv. & Light Co., 


Repulsion-starting seiic-- motor, Pennsyl- 
vania R. R., Philadelphia-Paoli electrifi- 
cation, 981; Comment, 1019 

Scrapping worn-out motors, classifying 

parts, Fort Wayne & Northern Indi- 
ana Traction Co. [Redderson], 957 

Self-lubricating brushes [Calebaugh], 32 

Single-phase repulsion motor, Advantages 

of [Alexanderson], c 1174 

Twin-armature 5000-volt bi-polar type, 

Michigan United Traction Co., *660 

Ventilation, Experiences with [Kealy], 109 

Ventilation holes in frames [Miller], 25 

Muncie, Ind. : 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana: 

Steel tie crossing maintenance record 
for four years [Prentice], 1044 

Municipal co-operation in ulililv management 
[Kealy], 861 

Municipal ownership (See also Government 

Municipal ownership: 

Business principles in management, Lack of 

[Kendall], 841 
Comparison between private and municipal 

lines in Boston and Glasgow [Gor- 

doti], 443 

Discussion by Manila company section, 22 

Disadvantages of [.Arnold], 9il 

Influences leading to in Detroit; Comment, 


Opposed in Detroit by organized labor, 458 

Status of municipal lines in Edmonton 

[Reat], 840 

.Municipal Railways of San Francisco (See San 
Francisco, Cal.) 

Municipal Tramways Association : 

Annual conference in London, S60; Com- 
ment, 896 

Muscatine, la.: 

Muscatine & Iowa City Ry.: 

Service over Rock Island line, .Ar- 
rangements for, 926 


Nashville, Tenn. : 

Nashville Interurban Ry. : 

Crossing signal. Illuminated and audible 
[Nachod], '1046 

.\;itional Association of Railway Commission- 

Annual convention, 866 

National Bureau of Standards: 

Fusible boiler plugs. Deterioration, 1002 

Mercurial resistance standards, Primary, 


Railwav material. Specifications for, 951 

Satetv'Code, 697, 776, 839; Comment, 791, 

953; Comment, 977, 996 
National Safety Council: 

Service to members, committee recommenda- 
tions, *1257; Comment, 1243 

National Naval Advisory Board, Organization 
of, 235 

National Properties Co. (See New Y'ork City) 
National Safety Council: 

Annual Congress, 905 

Near-side stop (See stopping of cars) 

-Annual report of public service commission, 


New Albany, Ind.: 

Louisville & Northern Ry. & Light Co. : 

Freight service approved by investigat- 
ing committee, 209 
Operating one-man cars, 423 
Package freight. Problem of handling 

[Stratton, Foreman], 1078 
Picnic park as traffic accelerator, 593 
Safety-first meetings. Lectures to em- 
ployees, 891 

Louisville S: Southern Indiana Traction 


Safety-first meetings, Lectures to em- 
ployees, 891 
Newark, N. J. : 
— —Public Service Ry. : 

Safety posters in cars, 1058 
School ticket decision by commission, 

Terminal construction. Progress, *151, 

Welfare committee report, 295 
(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Newark, N. J.: (Continued) 

Public Service Corp. of N. J.: 

Workmen's compensation in Pennsyl- 
vania; Practical questions [Hoff- 
man], 1210; Comment, 1198 

Skip-stop plan disapproved, 379 

New Bedford, Mass.: 

New Bedford & Onset Street Ry. : 

Fare increase granted, *628; Comment, 

Signal system, *1267 
New Brighton, P.i. : 

Beaver Valley Traction Co.: 

Publicity work at county fair 
[Boyce], '945 
New Haven, Conn.: 

Connecticut Co. : 

Contact wires. Horizontal vs. "fes- 
tooned" [Harte], c 637 
Fare limit extension refused, 293 
Library of books on accounting. Aid 
to correspondence course, 953; 
Comment, 937 

New Jersey: 

Annual report of public service commission, 


Public utility corporation statistics, 1055 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co. (See Tren- 
ton, N. J.) 
New Orleans, La.: 

Jitneys not to be deprived of use of streets. 

Court order, 1191 

New Orleans Ry., & Light Co.: 

Service suspension due to hurricane, 
686; Resumed, 777 

Orleans-Kenner Electric Ry.: 

Operation begun of 1200-volt d.c. line, 

Newport News & Hampton Ry (See Hampton, 

New Rochelle, N. Y. : 

Motor-bus line. Franchise provisions; Com- 
ment, 896 
New York Central R. R.: 

Freight interchange with International Ry., 

Ordered, 783; Rehearing denied, 972 
New York City: 

-Accident decrease due to near-side stop, 


Accident record for November, 1915, com- 
pared with 1914, 1280 

Alabama Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 374 

American Light & Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 779 

American Water Works & Electric Co. : 

Annual report, 687 

Belt Line Ry. Corp.: 

Transfer exchange with Forty-second 
Street, Manhattanville & St. Nicho- 
las Avenue Ry. ordered, 932 

Board of estimate and apportionment: 

Bureau of franchises. Report for 1914, 

Bridge traffic, 167 

Cave-in in new subway, *631, 685 

Fifth Avenue Coach Co. : 

Fenders for rear wheels of buses. 157 
Proposal for extensions, 1094 

Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. 

Nicholas Avenue Street Ry. : 
Transfer exchange with Belt Line Ry. 
Corp. ordered, 932 

General Gas & Electric Co. : 

Annual report, 419 

History of local railway companies, 1053 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: 

All-steel cars. Substitution for wood, in 

subway, 902 
Annual report, 606 
Dual system contracts awarded, 244 
Noon-day shop meetings, - 931 
Panel heater for subway cars, *773 
Signals, No suitable system available, 
for elevated lines, 686; Extension of 
time for installation, 1232 
Subway safety recommendations by 

city fire department, 601 
Track and roadbed [Pegram], 624 
Welfare work. Results, 851 

Loading limit order suspended bv board of 

health, 128 

Material for dual svstem. Bids received, 


Motor-bus franchise. Favorable report by 

board of estimate, 882; Hearings, 922, 

1004, 1051, 1134 
National Properties Co. : 

Merger with American Rys.. Arrange- 
ments for, 968 
New York Municipal Ry. Corp.: 

Dual system contracts awarded, 244 
New York Rys.: 

Annual report, 885 

Bond issue, 38 

Depreciation reserve fund. Modifica- 
tion order denied, 250 

Increased rent for operating over 
Williamsburg bridge proposed, 

Power house closed, 912; Comment, 

July-December, 1915] 

New York City: 

New York Rys. : ( Coiuiiuied ) 

Transfers witli , ferry lines, record for 
year, 972 

Workmen's compensation law. Pro- 
visions to care for employees, 912 
New York, Westchester & Boston Ry. : 

Armature removal. Method of [Pot- 
ter], *367 

Bush-holder repairing method [Pot- 
ter], *408 

Energy consumption, Saving shown by 
watt-meter records, 822 

Lighting system on cars, Improved, 

Operation and maintenance of over- 
head [Zogbaum], 56 
Punctuality of trains, 190 
— ■ — Overhead charges. Fair allowance by pub- 
lic service commission, 831; Comment, 

Parcel regulations, 378 

Public Service Commission investigated: 

Hearings, 35, 602, 1006, 1092, 1186, 

1228; Comment, 1197 
Removal of chairman, 1051, 1183; Com- 
ment, 1151 
Strauss appointed chairman, 1183, 1273 

Richmond Light & R. R. Co.: 

Order for double tracking upheld by 
court, 1187 

Rowdyism on cars. Suppressing, 932 

Subway construction contract ordered 

signed, 373 

Subway construction report, Recommenda- 
tions to prevent accidents, 777 

Third Avenue Ry. : 

Annual report, 605 

Bond issue authorized by commission, 

Dividend declared, First since 1907, 

Dividend payment disapproved by spe- 
cial committee, 123 
Pension system for employees, 168 
Track material contracts awarded for vari- 
ous dual system lines, 415 

Traffic on subway and elevated lines, 652 

Traffic regulations proposed, 379 

Tunnel construction, Liability clause in 

government permit, 873 

Union Ry. : 

Bumpers, Standardization of, 153 
New York Electric Ry. Association: 

Convention at Manhattan Beach, 14 

New York & Harlem R. R.: 

— — Grade crossing elimination order New York 

commissions, 277 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. : 
Annual report, 1275 

Conspiracy trial, 841, 882, 924, 1094, 1273 

Evolution of electrification; Comment, 1197 

Grade crossings eliminated by order of New 

York commissions, 277 
Improvements costing $25,000,000 planned, 


^Operating results on electrified division 

[Murray], 101 
Overhead construction and maintenance 

[Amberg], *56 

Service suspension. Causes, 1259 

Signal observance. Surprise test, 989 

West Farms substation. Construction and 

equipment details, *1200; Comment, 1197 
New York Railroad Club: 

Motor cars on railroad svstems. Value of 

[McKeen], 866 
New York State: 

Constitutional revision proposed, 202, 373, 

461, 881 

Fare maximum set by legislature binding on 

public service commission, 126 

Overhead charges, fair, 831 

Public service law criticized [Wilco.x], 247, 

[Emmet], 16 
New York State Rys. (See Syracuse, N. Y.) ; 

(See also Rochester, N. Y. ) 
Niagara River & Eastern Railway: 
Lockport-Niagara Falls line opposed by New 

New York Central, 1007 
Norfolk & Bristol Street Ry. (See Foxboro, 


Norfolk & Western Ry. : 

Operating cost reduction due to electrifica- 
tion; Comment, 615 

Northampton Traction Co. (See Easton, Pa.) 

Northern Electric Ry. (See Chico, Cal.) 

Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort Worth, 

Northwestern Pacific RR. (See San Francisco, 

Norwich, Conn.: 
Shore Line Electric Ry. : 

Copper zone system established, *443 

Wage agreement, 42 
New Zealand: 
.State Railways: 

Gas electric car for suburban service, 

North Ballard, Wash. : 

Loyal Ry. : 

One-man car authorized by commission, 
Norton, Mass.: 

Norton & Taunton Street Ry. : 

Foreclosure sale ordered by court, 1234 



Oakland, Cal.: 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry, : 

Controller segments, Resawing to smaller 

size [Miller], '236 
Financing plans, 37, 1142 
Signal operating records [Miller], *536 
Trolley wheels of 10-in diameter 

[Miller], *278 
Ventilation holes in motor frames 

[Miller], 25 

San Francisco-Oakland Term. Ry. : 

Arbitration of existing agreement with 

employees refused, 884, 924 
Car maintenance practices [St. Pierre], 


Coasting recorders effect reduction in 
power cost, *268; [Alberger], 520 

Earnings improve, 465 

Employees, Relations with [Harris], 

Energy cost. Saving under proposed 
contract, 287 

Motors, Rejuvenating overloaded [Jack- 
son], *192 

Safety connnittees organization chart, 

Time-table practice [Sliter], 521 

Traffic to pleasure resorts. Co-operation 
with privately-owned parks in de- 
veloping [Brown], *533 

Trolley wheel design and lubrication. 
Changes in [Jackson], *449 

Way standards [Binkley], *523 
Ogden, Utah: 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Ry. : 

1500-volt interstate system. Operation 
begun, 329, 924, •1073 


Railway taxation increased, 351 

Ohio Electric Ry. (See Springfield, Ohio) 
One-man cars: 

Closed cars rebuilt for one-man operation, 

Alabama Power Co. [Kenyon], 1035 

Combatting jitney bus. Comment, 2 

Experience with, Jackson Light & Traction 

Co. [Smith], 1119 

Favorable decision in Illinois court, 784 

Operating experiences in Australia, 1112 

Operating statistics from various cities, Re- 
port of A. E. R. A. committee, 764 

Remodeled cars for one-man, two-man oper- 
ation, Washington Water Co., *1223_ 

Remodeling cars for one-man operation. 

Union Electric Co., *1090 

Service established in Everett, Wash., 1100; 

New Albany, Ind., 423 

Ontario, Can. : 

JIunicipal ownership recommended by Hy- 
droelectric Power Commission. 604 

Power supply. Plans for increasing, Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission. 863 

Operating records and costs: 

Automatic substations. Estimated savings, 


Ball bearings. Economies of [Farr], *239 

Center-entrance car, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co. [Gove], 14, 19 
Coal consumption. Relative, on steam and 

electric locomotives. Comment, 133 
Coasting record and energy consumption, 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Ry., 


Cost of construction and operation of elec- 
trified division. New Haven R. R. [Mur- 
ray], 101 

Cost of peaks in service [Doolittle], ^306 

Costs, Forced-draft heaters. Empire United 

Rys., 1225 

Costs of jitney bus line, Virginia Ry. & 

Power Co., 1216 
Cost with plain and ball bearings. New 

York State Rys. [Cameron], *1264 
Earnings and costs of jitney and trolley car 

[Everett], c 151 
Massachusetts, Northeastern Street Ry., 

Analysis for fare increase, 1256 
New Bedford & Onset Street Ry., Analysis 

in fare case, *628 
New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 

Punctuality of trains, 190 
Omnibus operating costs in Sheffield, Eng- 
land, 673 

Operating costs and shifts in service [Doo- 
little], 400 

Operating costs for industrial trucks and 

electric tractor, Pennsylvania R. R., 

St. Clair tunnel electrification. Grand Trunk 

R. R., 1084 

Saving due to electrification, Norfolk & 

Western Ry., Comment, 615 

Signal operating records, Oakland, Antioch 

& Eastern Ry. [Miller], *536 

Skip stop. Effect of on operating cost. Com- 
ment, 341 

Small vs. large car. Comparative costs 

[Hershberger], ^394 
Transportation record, Chicago, Lake Shore 

& South Bend Ry., ^940 

Oregon : 

Public service commission name changed, 163 

Organization chart: 

Chart of safety committees. San Francisco- 
Oakland Terminal Rys., ^448 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 


Organization chart: (Continued) 

Elevated Railroads of Chicago, *302 

Equipment department. Bay State Strtct 

Ry., ♦671; Comment, 659 
Maintenance department, San Francisco- 
Oakland Terminal Rys., *527 
Orleans-Kenner Electric Ry. (See New Orleans, 

Oregon City, Ore.: 

Willamette Valley Southern Ry. : 

Operation begun, 1007 
Oregon Electric Ry. (See Portland, Ore.) 
Ottawa, Canada: 
Ottawa Electric Ry. : 

New publication, 468 
Overhead contact system: 

Construction and maintenance [Amberg], 

♦56; Comment, 91 

Cost of construction and maintenance, vari- 
ous railways, *5S 

Double-ear overhead switch (Drew Elec. & 

Mfg. Co.), ^1091 

Feed-in clamp [Foster], ^322 

Horizontal vs. "festooned" wires [Harte], 

c 637 

Maintenance of 1200-volt catenary [Nichols], 


Maintenance practices, Chicago, Lake Shore 

& South Bend Ry., ^1108; Comment, 

Moving poles, San Francisco, ^874 

New type catenary hanger. Test on Illinois 

Traction System [( reviston], ^154 
Operation and maintenance of overhead. New 

York, Westchester & Boston [Zogbaum], 


Operation of 1200-volt distribution system. 

Southern Pacific Ry. [Johansen], ^549 
Overhead construction, Vienna-Pressburg 

electrification [Seefehlner], c 593 
Overliead, Proposed for Chicago terminal 

electrification, ♦1159; Comment, 1153 
Portland division. Southern Pacific Ry., 

Construction and maintenance [Leben- 

baum], ^57 

Straight-line hanger that fastens securely 

(Drew Elec. & Mfg. Co.), ^890 
Suspension of service on New Haven not 

caused by electric equipment, 1259 
Third-rail and overhead trolley. Provisions 

on cars, Michigan Ry., ^1154 
Three-wire system, Springfield Street Ry., 

1228; Comment, 1198 
Trolley wire splicer. Improved, Twin City 

Rapid Transit Co., ^919 
Tubular cross-catenary system, Philadelphia- 

Paoli electrification, Pennsylvania R. R., 


Twin contact wire, Chicago, Milwaukee & 

St. Paul, ^794 
Wave crests in trolley wire [Hixson], ♦60 


Pacific Coast Claim Agents' Association: 

Convention in San Francisco, 8 

Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Paints and painting: 

Paint renovator for car exteriors [Hewitt], 


Steel car design. Influence on rust protec- 
tion, 866 
Panama-California exposition; 

Traffic handling [Warner], *508 

Panama-Pacific exposition: 
Aeroscope, ^31 

Auto-train transportation, 63, 581 

Close, Attendance figures, 1185 

Congresses at San Francisco, 7 

Pantographs (See Current-collecting devices) 

Parcel limits on cars fixed by New York com- 
mission, 378 

Parkersburg, W. Va. : 

Kanawha Traction & Electric Co.: 

Security issues, 38 

Parks and pleasure resorts: 

Picnic park as traffic accelerator, 593 

Pleasure travel, Co-operation with privately- 
owned parks in building up [Brown], 

Passenger handling records: 

Open and closed-platform cars. Report of 

A. E. R. A. committee, ^758 

Passenger traffic. Advertising as a means to in- 
crease. Comment, 1243 


Concrete pavement in track allowance. 

Economy of [Campbell], ^998 
Concrete pavement in track allowance in 

Sioux City, Experience with, ♦1132 
Mortar cushion for brick pavement, Houston 

Electric Co. [Archibald], *1045 
Plow for tenring up pavement, Cleveland 

Rys., ^73 
Sand cushion: 

Becoming obsolete. Comment, 897 

Experiences with [Nichols, Wilson], 


Skilled workmanship on pavement. Comment, 


Track construction. Monolithic foundation 

and pavement in. Southern Public Utili- 
ties Co. [Horton], ♦324; Comment, 299 

Tracks, Paving between [Haas], ♦179; Com- 
ment, 175 



[Vol. XLVI 

Pekin, 111.: . . , ,. 

Scheme for administration of municipal line, 


Peninsula Ky. (See San Jose, Cal.) 
Pennsylvania: , . 

Annual report of public service commission, 


No appeal from commission rulings, 79 

Pennsylvania K. R. : 

Philadelphia-Paoli electrification, service be- 
gun, 604, '9iil; Comment, 978 

Trucks Industrial, electrically-operated, for 

freight and tractor service, *864 
Pennsylvania Street Railway Association: 

Line crossing specifications. Overhead, 186 

Winter meeting: 

Proceedings, 1205; Papers [Hoffman], 
1210; [Layng], *1251; [Mackey], 
1213; Comment, 1198; [Megargee], 
♦1252; [Spring], 1209; [StorerJ, 
1212; [Tingley], 1207 

Peoria, 111.: 

Illinois Traction System: 

Annual report, 331 
I'reight service, Scope of, 1144 
Moving picture scenario contest, 611, 931 
New type ot catenary hanger [Crevis- 

tonj, *154 
Wage agreement. Mileage basis, 1280 

Peru, S. A.: 

Lima Light, Power & Tramways Co.: 

.\nnual report, 248 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 

\pproprialion for consulting engineers asked, 


.\merican Rys. : 

Annual report, 163 

Jitney regulation and workmen's com- 
pensation law in Pennsylvania 
[Tingley], 1207 
Merger with National Properties Co., 

Arrangements for, 968 
Safety appliances in car shops [Me- 
gargee], '1252 

Annual report of city transit director, 415 

Certificates for elevated and subway con- 
struction granted, 327 
Elevated steel superstructure contract award- 
ed, 884 

Grooved girder rail for M. C. B. flanges, 


Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 248 

Hearing on application for certificate of 
public convenience for new subway, 
199, 246 

Increased recoir., .„e for carrying post- 
men, 294 

Rapid transit system. Ordinance passed, 36; 

Preliminary progress, 77; Construction 
begun. 602; Second report, 663; Elec- 
tion, 881 

Transit loan to lie submitted to referendum, 

1231; .\ction postponed, 1274 

Trenton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street Ry.: 

Securities to be distributed, 1233 
Philippine Islands: 


Manila Electric R. R. & Light Corp. 
Annual report, 647 
Bonus for coal saving bv employees, 

Service investigation, 200, 672 

Traffic count, 395 
Physical examinations (See Employees) 
Pipe joints. Insulating (Mac.Mlen Co.), *411 
Pittsfield, Mass. : 

Berkshire Street Ry.: 

I'^are increase petition w'itlidrawu, 168, 


End-entrance cars converted from open 
type [Colby], *451 
Pittsburgh, Pa.: 
Pittsburgh Railways : 

.\nnual report, 79 

Business principles in claim work, ^\J9 
Cars, Improvements in low-floor type, *4 
Claim department. Methods of effecting 
settlements. ^436: Comment, 428 

Transfer decision favorable to company, 1237 

Pittsburgh Suhwav Co.: 

Subway hearing, 1053: Tentative con- 
struction plan, 1231 

West Penn Rys.; 

Dynaniotor sets for electric welding 

[Duriel, 324 
One-ball center bearing [Witt], *770 
Strike. 371. 417 


— Climbers for steel poles I Bates E.xpanded 

Steel Truss Co.), ♦1049 
— — Concrete. .'\. K. R. E. .\. Committee report, 

Destruction of cement sidewalk by trolley 

pole expansion. Method to prevent 

[Fuller], ^832 

Effect of wood preservative, ^879 

E.xpanded metal poles replace wooden poles, 

Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Ry., ^1090 

Flexible steel pole (Carbon Steel Post), ^32 

Guy anchor tests (Faultless Anchor Co.), 


Tack, Single-acting, for pole removal 

(Templeton, Kenly & Co., Ltd.). * 837 

Moving poles, Apnliances for. United Rail- 
roads of San Francisco [Foster], ♦874 

Reinforcing metal noles. Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit System [McKelway], 365 

Poles: (Continued) 

Steel pole. Light-weight (Pates Expanded 

Steel Truss Co.), '370 
Tubular iron poles, Alethod of repairing in 

San Francisco [Foster], ^450 
Portable a.c.-d.c. electro-dynamometers (Weston), 


Portland & Lewiston Interurban (See Lewiston, 

Portland, Me.: 

(.umberland County Power & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 842 
Map display on show window, *946 
Signals replace telephones for train dis- 
patching, *1224 
Portland, Ore.: 

Oregon Electric Co.: 

Maintenance of 1200-volt d.c. cars 
[Clough], ^555 
Passenger station at Eugene, ^989 
Signal maintenance [Cunningham], ^557 

Portland & Oregon City Ry. : 

Operation begun, 1232 

Portland Ky., Light & Power Co.: 

Organization of safety committees 

[Boynton], 8 
Public tv, Ettect on jitney movement 

[Hild], *560 
Reduction in step height ordered by 

commission, 468 
Safety campaign features [Boynton], 819 
.Special work and joints. Electric welded, 

Trafiic analysis and schedule planning 

I Cooper], ^562 
\'aluation by public service commission. 

Company's brief, 922 
Work planning system, Departmental 
[Maize], *565 

Portland & Seattle Ry.: 

Babbitting motor axle bearings. Mandrel 
for [Lister], ♦1267 
Post-office department. Railway mail pay (See 

mail transportation) 
Pottsville, Pa.: 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys.: 

Annual report, 1233 
Power consumption on cars (See Energy con- 

Power cost (See Purchased power) 
Power distribution: 

Oil knife switches ( Westinghonse Elec. & 

Mfg. Co.), *157 
Relay for protecting single a.c. tie lines 

'(General Electric), ^599 
Sectionalizing railwav feeders at San Diego 

[MacNutt], *497 
Tank lifters for small oil switches (General 

Electric), *71 
Three-wire system, Springfield, Mass., 1228; 

Comment, 1198 
Power generation: 

Detachable busbar tap (Fargo Mfg. Co.), ^74 

-Higher temperature limits for electrical ap- 
paratus, 1041 

Load factor and energy cost, Chicago, 138; 

Correction, 190; Comment, 173 

Plant statistics. Memorizing, Comment, 299 

Power stations and equipment: 

.\ir washer for turbo-generators, at Kansas 

City, ^240 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry.. List 

of equipment, *1108 

Circulating water screens, ilethod for clean- 
ing, 1049 

Diesel engine. Depreciation allowance, 284 

Electrostatic potential and svnchronism in- 
dicators (General Electric), *326 

Enlarging power plant, Mahoning & Shenan- 

go Ry. & Light Co., 1041 

Feed-water recorder (Hoppes Mfg. Co.), ^242 

Indicator board for disconnecting switches, 


Organization of Bay State Street Ry. power 

station, 911 

Recorder for measurivg boiler feed water 

(Harrison Safety Boiler Works), *284 
Shut-down of power plant. New York Rys., 

Comment, 939 
Springfield Railway, Details of power plant 

and equipment, *898: Comment, 897 
Switchboard fittings (General Devices & 

Fittings Co.), *835 
\'entilating-air cleaning for generators and 

transformers [Baum], 194 
Prepavment cars. Changes in Prrpayment Car 

Sales Company organization, 158 
Presidential message to Congress; 

Recommendations on railroads, 1184 

Providence, R. 1. : 

Electrolvsis investigation, Report, 825 

Rhode Island Co.: . 

Box-frame motor practice [Wrigln]. c 828 
Elect'-olysis investigation. Report of pub- 
lic service engineer, 823 
Indicator board to show r>os-_tion of dis- 
connecting switches. ♦117 
Strike over wages. .Arbitration hearings, 
78 121, 161, 200, 246. 328. 371. 416, 
462. 603, 645. 685, 778, 903, 1095 
Track bonding and rail repair recom- 
mendations, 778 
Wage dispute arbitration. Charts as ex- 
hibits, ^664; Comment. 657 
I'ublicity: . . 

^idvertisements seekinc oublic s co-operation, 

Twin Citv Lines [Warnock], *266 

(Abbrevistions: ' Illi'strated. c Correspondence.) 

Publicity: (Continued) 

Advertising campaign, Chicago Surface 

Lines, ^823 

Advertising to increase passenger traffic, 

Comment, 1245 

Announcement of improvements to disarm 

criticism. Comment, 658 

Effect on jitney movement in Portland 

[HildJ, ♦560 

Fare increase appeal to public, Milwaukee 

Electric Ry. & Light Co., 889 

Fare increase publicity campaign begun. Bay 

State Street Ry., 891 
. .Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co., Pub- 
licity pamphlet, Comment, 1151 

Motion pictures in safety work, value of 

[Bennett], 813 

Posters at county fair exhibit, Beaver \' alley 

Traction Co. [Boyce], *945 

Route cards, San Diego Electric Ry. 

[Warner], ^508 

Schedules and time-tables. Distributing, in 

Hampton, Va., ^318 

Skip-stop posters in St. Louis, United Rys., 


Public, relations with: 

Complaints and methods of handling. Twin 

City Lines [Warnock], ^264 

Lectures to help farmers produce bigger and 

better crops, Southern Pacific Co. [Hin- 

shawj, ^559 

Welfare work. Relation to public and to em- 
ployees, L'uited Railroads [Lilienthal], 
■710; Comment, 698 
Public service and other regidative commissions: 

.\nnual reports: 

Boston, 965; Connecticut, 1275; Georgia, 
603; Maine, 123; Missouri, 285; Ne- 
braska, 123; New Jersey, 601; Penn- 
sylvania, 601 

Change in name of Oregon commission, 163 

Cincinnati transit commission appointed, 

1094: Organized, 1138 
Commission without power to modify fran- 
chise rates in New York, 610 

Effect on public of increased rates. Comment' 


Fare maximum set by legislature binding on 

New York commission, 126 
Greater protection for commissioners. Com- 
ment, 1 

Inquiry by legislative committee into New 

York Public Service Commission, First 
District (See New York City) 
Jurisdiction of commission enlarged in Cali- 
fornia, 285 

Jurisdiction over Chicago Surface Lines, 

Dispute between City Council and Illi- 
nois commission, 890 

New York public service commission law. 

Criticisms on [Wilcox], 247 

No appeal from commission's rulings in 

Pennsylvania, 79 

Overhead charges. Fair allowance. New York 

commission, 831 ; Comment, 791 

Powers of city superior in Charleston, W. 

'Va., jitney case, 610 
Railway clearances fixed by Illinois com- 
mission, ^228 
Regulation of electric railways. Factors in- 
volved [Busby], 1081 

Retrogression in rate making. Comment, 90 

Shortcomings of regulation in New York 

State I Emmet], 16 

Street maintenance, Inquiry on electric 

railway's share, 964 

Tax assessing by public service commissions, 

445; Comment, 428 
Transit commission law in effect in Cincin- 
nati, 373 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey (See 

Newark. N. J.) 
Public service corporations: 

Co-operation among public utilities [Kings- 
bury], 17 

Cumulative voting, Comment, 257; [Lozano], 

c 870 

Directors, Rewarding efficiency through stock- 
ownership, Comment, 1151 

Directors, Responsibility of. Comment, 385 

Economics of railway operation in California 

[Shoup], 1171 

Fair treatment by commissions [Leach], 670; 

Comment, 1065 

Morality, Corporation and public. Comment, 


Municipal participation in earnings and man- 
agement [Kealy], 861 
Need for publicity, 417 

Overhead charges. Fair allowance by New 

York commission, 831; Comment, 791 

Public interest in surplus; Comment, 852 

Speculation by directors; Comment, 214 

Taxation of utilities. Burden on the con- 
sumer [Doty], c 828 
Traction problems. Past and present; Com- 
ment. 576 

Utility development in California, Report 

on, 884 

Valuation conference. Call for, 286 

Public Service Rv. (See Newark, N. J.) 
Public Utilities A'ssociation of West 'Virginia: 
Convention, 1085 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 

July-December, 1915] 



Pugct Sound International liy. & Power Co. 

(See Kverett, Wash.) 
Pugct Sound Traction, Light & Power Co. (See 

Seattle, Wash.) 
Purcha.sed power: 

Energy cost. Increase in, for rush-hour 

service in Chicago, *138; Comment, 173; 
Correction, 190 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 

Load factor. Power factor, *1200; Com- 
ment, 1197 

Peak-load power, Cost of, 213 

Rates and load factor, Chicago railways, *13iS, 

Correction 190, Comment, 173 

Terms of jiroposed contract, San Francisco- 
Oakland Terminal Ry., 287 


Rail joints and bonds: 

Applying rail bonds by electric brazing 

[trecelius], *236 ' 

Bonding rails by gas weld. Method for 

[Brown], *10S7; Comment, 1065 

Bond resistance. Determining and interpret- 
ing [Febrey], "1177 

Electrically welded rail joint, Columbus Ry., 

Power & Light Co. f.Vckerman], "956 

— — Rail bond testing. Method for [Febrey], 

Soldered bonds for running and contact 

rails. Successfully used on Northwestern 
Pacific R. R. [Vanatta], *539 

Brazed bonds on California lines (Electric 

Ry. Imp. Co.), 455 


Curved heads for girder rails to reduce cor- 
rugation, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 
[Cram], *1246; Connnent, 1245 

Differential gears on car wheels to prevent 

rail corrugation, *26 

Gages for measuring rail wear [Bailey], 


Girder and high T-rail renewals [Burch], 

c 276; Comment, 895; [Cram], cS73; 
[Falconer], c *829 ; [Graves], c 872: 
[Legare], c 320: [Roundey], c 592; 
[Wilson], c 592 

Grinding of, with carborundum track brake- 
shoes, *241 

Grooved girder rail for M. C. B. fianges in 

Philadelphia, *369 
Punch for track spike slots ( Watson-Still- 

man Co.), *195 

Rail head. Defining the. Comment, 977 

Rail head. Method for determining [Gen- 

nett], c 1127 

Renewals (See Track inaintenance) 

Small section rail. Flexible [Pegram], 624 

Special steels. Report on [Cushing], 878 

— ■ — Steel for rails. Test of (Titanium Alloy 

Mfg. Co.), '454 
Wear limits of [Haas], *179; comment, 


Wear value replaces girder strength. Com- 
ment, 792 

Railway issues. Action at November elections. 

Comment, 939 
Railway mail pay (See Mail transportation) 
Railway Signal Association : 

Annual convention, 580 

Record forms: 

Business principles in claim work, Pitts- 
burgh Rys., *139 

Employees, Physical examinations of, Chi- 
cago Elevated RRs., *216; Comment, 213 

Instruction and record forms. Elevated 

Railroads of Chicago, 305 

Inventory, 741 

Report forms for way department, Cliicago, 

Ottawa & Peoria Ry., *396 

Sicnal record forms, Oakland, Antioch & 

Eastern Ry. [Miller], ^536 

Stock records [Astle], *908 

Traffic blank for schedule data, San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., 522 

Traffic and schedule, Portland Ry., f.ight 

& Power Co. [Cooper], *562 

Way department, time and cost records, 


Work planning, Departmental [Maizel], *564 

Work-train report. Northern Ohio Traction 

& Light Co. [Blinn], *636 
Records of accident claims: 

Card index as safeguard against repeaters 

or fakirs [Reynolds], *815 

Regeneration on mountain railways. Comment, 

Regulation of public utilities [Busby], 1081 
Regulation of railways. Investigating, Comment, 

Reminiscences of early days in street railway 

business [Wright], c 870 
Repair shop equipment: 

Accident prevention appliances [Megargee], 


.'Mr-brake apparatus. Testing outfit [Par- 
sons], ^1128 

Arc-welding outfit, compact (Lincoln Elec- 
tric Co.), *195 

Armature bearing jig, Selma Street & 

Suburban Ry. [Nees], *324 

Armature machine. Heavy duty universal 

(Electric Service Supplies Co.), *412 

Reijair shop c(|uipmtnt: (Conlinued) 

Babbitting motor a.xle bearings. Mandrel for, 

Portland & Seattle Ry. | Lister], *1267 

Bearing-broaching niacliine, llydrajulic 

[Feist], *191 

Cleveland Ry. shops, '1022 

Comnuitator slotter, Los .\ngeles Rv. 

[Stephens], '321 

Convenient electric siddering iron [Gra- 
ham], *66 

Cost of, Bay State Street Ry., 1173 

IJrinking-fountain guard, Holvoke Street 

Ry., ♦156 

Dynamotor sets for electric wilding, West 

Penn Rys. [Uurie], 324 
Electric heater for shrink fits (Maschinen- 

fabrik Oerlikon), ♦^O 
Emergency truck changing, Los Angeles Ry., 


Furnace for babbitting bearings [Dono- 
van], *153 

Furnace for heating solclering irons [Par- 
sons], *24 

Hammers, Electric, Adaptability for general 

use (Western Electric Co), *836 

Heater, (^as, for commutators [Parsons], 


Home-made wheel grinder [Morse], *2S 

Hydraulic presses for wheels and arma- 
tures ["Vulcan"], 323 

Motor-bearing trimmer [Stephens], '11! 

Novelties, Newport News & Hampton Ry., 


Pinion puller. Home-made [Feist], *641 

Pinion pulling machine. Adjustable (Elec- 
tric Service Sup. Co.), ^600 

Portable grinder (Stow Mfg. Co.), ^1270 

Press for bearing and bushing changes. Hy- 
draulic [Stephens], ^282 

Shaft straightener for axles and armatures 

[Graham], ^238 

Steel car straightener, ^1029 

Turntable for painting car sash [Hewitt], 


Wheel and track gage. Combined | Feist], 


Wheel-changing jack. Portable, *680 

Repair shop practice: 

Armature removal from box-frame motors. 

Method of [Prather], c 915 
Armature removal, Method of. New York, 

Westchester & Boston Ry. [Potter], 

♦367, 411 

Armature winding methods, Tri-City Ry. & 

Light Co. [Sutherland], *997 

Box-frame motor armatures. Method of 

handling, Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 

Box-frame motor removal from single- 
truck cars, 410 

Brush-holder repairing method [Potter], 


Combined trouble board and rolling stock 

record, ♦878 

Commutator slots, paste filler for, Indi- 
anapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 156 

Controller segments, Resawing to smaller 

size [Miller], ♦236 

Maintenance of electric cars ILayngl, ■'1251 

Methods of San Francisco-Oakland Termi- 
nal Rys. [St. Pierre], *527 

Motor overhauling [Faber], ^677 

Motors, Rejuvenating overloaded [Tackson], 


Motor troubles, Method for reducing, Sioux 

City Service Co. [Feist], 998 

Overhaiding mechanical parts. Carelessness 

in ["Vulcan"], 449 

Reinforcing high-speed interurban cars, Au- 
rora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. [Bowman], 

Remodeling motor armatures. Method for, 

LTnited Rys., [McPheeters] , ♦918 

Removing trucks from car bodies electricallv 

through crane controller [Hewitt], 

Riveting with steel pressings. Comment, 47 

Scrap, Classifying, Fort Wayne & Northern 

Indiana Traction Co. [Redderson] 957 
Shop notes, Newport News & Hampton 

Ry., *50 

Shop-order system, Cleveland Ry. [Jacobs], 


Store department efficiency [Astle], *906 

Testing electrical equipment in Atlantic 

City [Faber], ^24 
\'entilation holes in motor frames [Miller], 


Welding processes. Application of, 411 

Work-order system for recording costs 

[Glover], 441 
Work order system for car overhauling, 

Puget Sound Electric Rv. [Schluss], 


Work planning system, Portland Ry., Light 

& Power Co. [Maize], *565 
Repair shops: 

Cleveland Ry., Details of buddings and 

equipment, ^1022 

Mesaba Ry., Details of new buildings 

[Sargl], •312 

Southern Traction Co., Details of, ♦176 

Report writing course, Mass. Inst, of Tech., 1204 
Resistance of electric cars at starting [Ewing], 

279, Comment, 258 
Revenue from passenger traffic. Methods for in- 
creasing [Jeffries], 1039 

(Abbreviations: " Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Richmond, \'a. : 

\'irginia Ry. & Power Co.: 

.Annual report, 1054 

Franchise in .Norfolk, \'a.. Progress on, 

Motor-bus line. Operating cost, 1216 
Skip stop recommended by patrons, 1237 

Rhode Island Company (See Providence, R. I.) 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

liuffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. : 

Wheel flanges. Thin, cause, [Barnes], 
c 189 

Jitney operation contrary to law, ^1175 

New York State Rys.: 

Anti-friction bearings. Effect on opera- 
tion (Cameron), ^1264 
Girder and high T rail renewals [Doty], 
c *829 

Rochester Connecting R. R. : 

Application for certificate of public 
convenience, 75 
Rockford, 111.: 

Rockford & Interurban Ry. : 

Convenient electric soldering iron 

[Graham], ^66 
Shaft straightener for axles and arma- 
tures [Graham], ^238 
Track-trench excavating machine, *74 
Rock Island R. R.: 

Responsibility of directors. Interstate Com- 
merce Commission report, 329 

Rolling stock purchases. Renewed activity in; 
Comment, 977 

Roslyn, N. Y.: 

New York & North Shore Traction Co.: 

Franchise modification denied by com- 
mission, 610 
Route signs (See Signs on cars) 
Rules : 

^Changes in code adopted by A. E. R. A. 

Convention, 757 

Group fares in Louisville, 784 

Hearing on operating rules, Wisconsin, 889 

Rusting of steel, iVIethod to prevent, 912 
Rust protection. Influence of car design, 866 


St. Joseph, Mo.: 

^St. Joseph Ry.. Light, Heat & Power Co.: 

Grounding of armature coils. Method to 
prevent [Ernst], 1089 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

I'nited Rys. : 

Girder and high T-rail renewals [Haw- 
kins], c 401 
Liability for claims against predecessor 

company, 123 
Loop construction proposed, 891, 1003 
Remodeling motor armatures [McPheet- 
ers], ^918 
Skip stop, 42, 84, 185, 294, 469, 1100, 

1145, ^1254. Comment, 1244 
Thermometers for cars provided. 1146 
St. Paul, Minn.: 

St. Paul Southern Ry. : 

Lease of track to Rochester proposed, 

St. Tammany & New Orleans Ry. & Ferry Co. 

(See Mandeville, La.) 
Safety Federation of .\merica: 

First annual convention, 867 

Safety-first movement: 

Accident prevention in car shops, .Appliances 

for [Megargee], ^1252 
.\ctivities of Safety-First Federation for 

1915, 103 

.\utomobile traffic regulation. Proposed or- 
dinance for all cities, Safety Federa- 
tion of America, 867 

Bonus to trainmen for accident prevention in 

Kansas City, 604 

Campaigns : 

Brooklyn, 1059 

Portland Ry., Light & Power Co. [Bovn- 
ton], 819 

Commission in Portland, Ore., 277 

Conference in Oklahoma City, 1145 

Co-operation in safety work', Comment, 89 

Crossing protection for automobilists. Long 

Island R. R., 371 
Financial benefits of the movement [Harri- 
son]. 820 

First-aid system. Elevated Railroads of Chi- 
cago [Fisher], ^430 

Justification of the movement [Dixon], 818 

Lectures, Public interest, ^267 

Lectures to employees at New Albany, Ind., 


Magazine, Union Traction Co. of Indiana 

[Slick], *247 
Measures of Elevated Railroads of Chicago, 


Meetings of employees: 

Fort Waviie & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Co., 308 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 

Motion pictures: 

Films available, 1146 

Value in safety work [Bennett], 813; 
[Warnock], 820; Comment, 793 
National Safety Council. Service to member? 

♦1257; Comment, 1243 
One-year safety record, Louisville Ry., 380 



[Vol. XLVI 

Safety-first movement: (Continued) 

Organization chart of safety committees, San 

Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., *448 

Posters on cars. Public Service Ry., 1058 

Reckless employees set bad example 

LGarriott], 293 
Recommendations, New York Safety First 

Society, 1013 
-Reduction in accidents on Insull lines in 

Indiana, 168 

Safety-zone test in Kansas City, *308 

Teaching patrons how to board cars in Elgin, 

111., 168 

Traffic regulation as a means of greater 

safety. Comment, 1020 
-Traffic regulations recommended by New 

York Safety First Society, 379 
Warning to trespassers, Michigan Central 

R. R., 190 

-Work in Brooklyn schools and playgrounds, 


Work of Pittsburgh Railways, Participation 

by claim department, 440; Comment, 428 
--Safety tread. Self-draining, durable (American 
Mason Safety Tread Co.), *1049 

San Antonio, Texas: 

San Antonio Traction Co.: 

Telephone dispatching system, *92 

Sand dryer: 

Automatic discharge (Vissering & Co.), *455 

^Large capacity, Sioux City Service Co., *193 

San Diego, Cal.r 

San Diego Electric Ry. : 

Handling traffic to the Panama-California 
exposition [Warner], *508 

Sectionalizing railway feeders [Mac- 
Nutt], *497 

Traffic decrease due to jitney, 83 
San Francisco as a convention city, Comment, 


San Francisco, Cal.: 

— —(See also Panama-Pacific Exposition) 

Elevated railway proposed, 776 

Municipal Rys. : 

Exposition traffic, Transit line improve- 
ments for [Cashin], *518 
Extension of municipal lines. Ordinance 
introduced before Board of Super- 
visors, 883 
Injunction restraining Munic-pnl Rail- 
ways on Market Street, 127 
Record day's receipts, 1013 
Wage increase asked by employees, 883 

Northwestern Pacific R. R. : 

Crossing signal, Wigwag [Vanatta], *192 
Signal, bondina and contact rail notes 
Operating statistics, compared with Los An- 
geles, 1237 

Pacific Elec. Ry. : 

Brazed bonds (Electric Ry. Imp. Co.), 

Southern Pacific Co.: 

Brakeshoes, Full-flanged, Results with 
[Hewitt], 1223 

Contact system, Portland division. Con- 
struction and maintenance [Leben- 
baum], *57 

Electrical equipment for 1500-voIt d.c. 
cars [Sears], *551 

Lectures to help farmers produce bigger 
and better crops [Hinshaw], *559 

Maintaining 1200-volt catenary [Nich- 
ols], *543 

Maintenance of 1200-volt d.c. cars 
[Hewitt], *546 

Operation of 1200-volt d.c. distribution 
system [Johansen], *549 

Paint renovator for car exteriors 
[Hewitt], 367 

Rail and ferry service in Bay cities, Re- 
markable [McPherson], *544 

Removing trucks from car bodies with 
electricallv-operated crane [Hewitt], 

Turntable for painting car sash 

[Hewitt], *596 

United Railroads: 

Bond and note issue authorized, 1276 
Car cleaning, Vacuum system for 

[Allen], 'Sie 
Car, Light-weight, low floor [Yount], 


Contempt finding in Market Street in- 
junction case. 643 

Depreciation reserve fund accumulation 
ordered, 418 

Depreciation ruling. Application for re- 
hearing, 123 

Electrolysis, Overhead, and porcelain 
strain insulators [Foster], *S82; 
Comment, 575 

Feed-in clamp for connecting feeder 
cables with trolley wire [Foster], 

Front-end fare collection aids service 
[Jones], *512 

Girder and high T-rail renewals [Le- 
gare], c 320 

Investigation of conditions by holding 
company officials, 1053 

Iniunction restraining Municipal Rail- 
way on Market Street, 76, 202, 1232 

Jitney problem, Economics of [Black], 

Moving pictures of car operation on 25 
per cent grade, 168 

San Francisco, Cal.: 

United Railroads: (Continued) 

One-man cars, Rebuilt, 112 
(Dne-piece splicer for feeder cables [Fos- 
ter], *955 
Pole moving appliance [Foster], *874 
Purchase by city discussed, 602 
Rail grinding with carborundum track 

brakeshoes, *241 
Relationship between medical and claim 

departments [Handlon], 63 
Statistics, Value to executives [Will- 

cutt], *705; Comment, 698 
Transfer as check on cash receipts, 184 
Trolley wire on bascule bridge. Method 

of installing [Foster], *1042 
Tubular iron poles, Method of repairing 

[Foster], '450 
Welfare work [Lilienthal], 710 

United Rys. Investment Co.: 

Annual report, 1141 
Earning power estimated, 607 
San Jose, Cal.: 

Peninsula Railway: 

Statement on fare case, 43 

Selma Street & Suburban Ry. : 

Armature bearing jig [Nees], *324 
Schedules and time-tables: 

City service for village traffic, Comment, 427 

—Coasting, Effect on running time. Comment, 


Conservation of time on iiiterurban railways 

[Spring], 1209 

Effect of gear ratio, B. O. S. E. report, *68 

— —Headway reduction through one-man car 

operation, Puget Sound Traction, Light 

& Power Co. [Richardson], *572 
Influence of peaks in service [Doolittle], 


— — Losing time in terminals. Comment^ 47 

Preparing time-tables. Method of, San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Term. Rys. [Sliter], "*521 

Schedule construction from traffic data 

[Doolittle], ♦587; Comment, 575 

Schedules, Data for compiling, Portland Rail- 
way, Light & Power Co. [Cooper], *562 

• Service data, Manila Electric R. R. & Light 

Corp., 672 

Service demand curves, San Francisco-Oak- 
land Term. Rys., ^522 

Service order in Chicago fixes headway, track 

capacity, rush-hour periods, etc., 775 

Skip stops. Effect of, on running time. Com- 
ment, 174, 341, 852 

Speed limit raised in Everett, Wash., 468 

Stops, Influence on schedule speed, 758 

Schenectady, N. Y, : 

Schenectady Ry. : 

Hearing on service complaints, 1192 
Transfers to United Traction Co. cars 
ordered by commision, 293 

Schomburg & Aurora Ry. : 

Electrification planned, 163 


Edinburgh : 

Edinburgh Tramways: 

Fare increase. Conference with 
Council committee, 1112 

Glasgow : 

Employees. Shortage of, Glasgow Mu- 
nicipal Tramways [Dalrymple], 860 

Waiting room and shelter, ^589 
— —Glasgow Corporation Tramways: 

Annual report, 464 
Scranton, Pa.: 
Scranton Ry. ; 

Car-spacing signals. Special application 
[Way], *368 
Seats (see Doors, seats and windows): 
Seattle, Wash.: 

Car service inspection, Department of Public 

Utilities, ♦272 

Investigating automobile accidents [Benton], 


Seattle Municipal Street Ry. : 

Annual report, 374 

Application for common user privileges 
over Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. 
tracks, 1186 

Auto-bus feeder line. Authorized by 
Council, 686, 889; Mayor's veto, 
603; agreement unsatisfactory, 1237 
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Appraisal of property. Company offers 
to advance funds for, 840 

Auto-bus auxiliary service for interurban 
railway, 41, 83, 235; [Leonard], ^570 

Extension order appealed, 163 

Franchise enforcement injunction. Ap- 
plication to dismiss case denied, 1272 

Gates on cars, Installation completed, 

Harassment by city charged in complaint 

filed with commission, 199, 287 
Jitney causes reduction^ in dividends, 80 
Medical department in claims work 

[ (Larson], 11 
Motor bus line established. 1099 
Municipal Ry. transfer plan rejected, 

New company publication, 371, 423 
One-man cars to reduce headway [Rich- 
ardson], ♦572 
Paving dispute with city, 776, 924, 1005 
Unique temporary car service, 784 
Valuation of property, City needs ex- 
pert on. 1140 

(Abbreviations: ♦Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Seattle, Wash.: 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co. : 


Valuation progress. City seeks to expe- 
dite, 288 

Work of claims investigator [Young], 8 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. : 

Common user trackage rights sought by 

municipal railway, 1139 
Condemnation proceedings discontinued 

by city, 118 
Street grading suit against city. Favor- 
able decision, 1232 
Shovel, Electric, for railway work (Thew Auto- 
matic Shovel Co.), ^681 
Shore Line Electric Ry. (See Norwich, Conn.) 
Sidewalk destruction, Cement, by trolley pole 
expansion, Method to prevent [Fuller], 

Signals : 

Alternating current. Treatise on (Union 

Switch & Signal Co.), 880 
Automatic control system, Desirability of 

[Hansel], 625 

rAutomatic, Value of. Comment, 895 

Block system: 

Maintenance methods, Oregon Electric 
Ry. [Cunningham], ♦557 

New Bedford & Onset Street Ry., ^1267 
Car-spacing signals, Scranton Ry. [Way], 


Contactor signals, Low-voltage for Louis- 
ville & Interurban Ry., ♦I 181 


Home-made wigwag [Vanatta], ^192 
Illuminated and audible Nashville Inter- 
urban Ry. [Nachod], ♦1046 
Illuminated sign, Los Angeles Ry., ^284 

Massachusetts commission orders reports on 

changes in signals and interlocking, 604 

■ Operating record, Oakland, Antioch & East- 
ern Ry. [Miller], ^536 

Order for C, M. & St. P, electrified section, 


Out-door light clusters for crossings and 

roadside stations (Painter Co.), ^112 

Signal maintenance, Economics, 580 

Telephone dispatching eliminated, Cumber- 
land County Power & Light Co., ^1224 

Thermostatic time element (Protective Sig- 
nal Mfg. Co.), *1225 

Train operation by signals alone, Baltimore 

& Ohio R. R., ^434 

Signs on cars: 

Illuminated route and destination, Bay State 

Street Ry., ^854; Comment, 853 

Route signs for surface cars in various cities, 


Single-phase railways: 

Maintenance costs. Reducing, Chicago, Lake 

Shore & South Bend Ry., ♦IIOS; Com- 
ment, 1106 

Operating data and costs, St. Clair Tunnel, 


Operating results, Chicago, Lake Shore & 

South Bend Ry., ^940 

Operating results, New Haven R. R. [Mur- 
ray], 101 

Philadelphia- Paoli electrification. Service be- 
gun, 604; Comment, 616; Details of in- 
stallation, 981; Comment, 978 

Single-track capacity, Analysis, Railway Signal 
Association, 580 

Sioux City, Iowa: 

• Concrete pavement in track allowance. Ex- 
perience with. ^1132 

Sioux City Service Co. : 

Bearing-broaching machine. Hydraulic 

[Feist], *191 
Motor troubles. Method for reducing 

[Feist], ^998 
Pinion puller, Home-made [Feist], ^641 
Sand dryer, Large, ^193 
Snow plow and life guard. Combined 

[Feist], *832 
Trolley harp. Split self-lubricating 

[Feist], ^409 
Trolley^^stand, Self-lubricating [Feist], 

Wheel and track gage, Combined [Feist], 

Wheel-changing jack. Portable, ^680 
Sioux Falls, S. D. : 
Sioux Falls Traction Co.: 

Correspondence schools for railway train- 
ing. Irresponsible [Mills], c 1125 
Skip stop (See Stopping of cars) 
Smoke abatement and terminal electrification in 

Chicago, Report of committee, ♦1113, 

1138; Comment, 1106 
Smoke abatement report in Cleveland, 604 
Snow plow and life guard combined, Sioux City 

Service Co. [Fiest], *S32 
Snow removal: 

Track scraper for mounting on service cars 

(Root Spring Scraper Co.), ^411 

Society of Technical Associations' Secretaries, 
Pamphlet of proceedings, 150 

South American trade directory, Supplement, 

South Bend, Ind. : 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 


itney bus, Number in operation, ^399 
itney operating data, 831 
South Covington & Cincinnati Street Ry. (See 
Covington, Ky.) 


July-December, 1915] 



Southern Pacific Co. (See San l-'rancisco, Cal.) 
Southern Public Utilities Co. (See Cliarlotte, 
N. C.) 

Southern Traction Co. (See Dallas, Texas) 
Southwestern Gas & Electric Co. (See Texarkana, 

Specifications and progress, Comment, 299 
Special work (See also Track construction) 
Special work: 

Crossing with interchangeable iron castings 

[Williams], *(,7& 

Insert special work, Uneven wear in. Com- 
ment, 135 

Tongue switch [Williams], *639 

Welding special work and joints, Portland 

Ry., Light & Power Co., '1268 

Speculation by directors. Ethics in. Comment, 

Speed, No demand for extremes, Comtiient, 1199 
Splice bars (See Track construction) 
Spokane, Wash.: 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. : 

Annual report, 1096 
Washitigton Water Power Co.: 

Investigation of collision cases [Aston], 

One-man Or two-man operation. Remod- 
eled cars for, *1223 

Near-side stops and one-man cars in Spokane, 


Springfield, Mass.: 
Sponse impurities, 1268 

Springfield Street Ry. : 

y\greement with employees signed, 34 

Electrolysis report, 1138 

Three-wire overhead contact system, 

1228; Comment, 1198 
Poles, Agreement for removal of, 202, 

Registers for cash and transfers in- 
stalled, 294 
Service investigation by the Board of 
,^ „ Aldermen, 1006 

Service order by public service commis- 
sion, 1059 
Springfield, Ohio: 

■ ^Ohio Electric Ry.: 

, Journal entry system [Kasemeier], 1168 
Motor heating. Wheel diameter effect on 
[Foote], c*914 
: , Power plant. Construction and equip- 

ment details, *898; Comment, 897 
'Standing passengers. Plan for separation into 

groups by sectional railings, *26 

Car design standardization, Difficulties in 

establishing ["Car Builder"], 676; Com- 
ment, 657; ["Transportation Man"], 
c 914 

Car types reduced from twelve to two, Los 

Angeles Ry. [Stephens], *493 

Claims accounting and statistics. Difliiculties 

of standardizing [Slick], *813; Com- 
ment, 792 

: Substation standardization, Economies of 

[Kennedy], c 1126 
Threads for fixtures and fittings. Standards 

for, 838 

— Watch standards, Terre Haute, Indianapolis 

& Eastern Traction Co. [Boardman], 

Station surroundings. Improvements in Annapo- 
lis, *187 
Statistics : 

Loss in electric railway mileage in Indiana, 


Operating statistics for San Francisco and 

Los Angeles, 1237 

New Bedford & Onset Ry., Operation, power 

and maintenance analyzed, ■*628 

Value to railways [Willcutt], *705; Com- 
ment, 698 

Steam railroad development and operation since 

1830 [Parsons], 623 
Steel for rails, Novel test of (Titanium Alloy 

Mfg. Co.), '454 
Steel car building (See Car design; Cars) 
Steels, Special, Report on [Cushing], 878 
Stopping of cars: 
Near-side stop: 

Controversy in Denver, 379, 468 

Effects reduction in accidents in New 
York City, 1190 

Growth of practice; Comment, 791 

In Albany, 784 

In New Bedford, 167 

In Texarkana, 252 

In Elgin, 692 

Ordinance passed in Atlanta, 1280 
Report by A. E. R. A. committee, *7S8 

Skiji stop : 

Approved by patrons in St. Louis, adop- 
tion delayed by commission, *1254, 
Comment, 1244 
Detroit, 1013, 1100, 1146 
Disapproved in Newark 379 
During rush hours in Minneapolis, 1058 
Effect on operating cost; Comment, 341 
Effect on schedule speed: Comment, 575 
Experience in Denver [Wells], c 448 
Meeting opposition to; Comment, 341 
Milwaukee. 252, 468, 651, 1144 
Recommended by patrons in Richmond, 

St. Louis, 185. 244, 469, 1100, 1145 
Time saving; Comment, 174, 852 
Washington D. C, to adopt, 1013 

Storage-battery line in Miami, h'la., 1074 
Storage bins. Steel, for coal and sand. Cleve- 
land Rys., *1001 
Stores department efficiency [Astle], *906 
Street car and motor bus. Comparison; Com- 
ment, 793 
Strikes and arbitrations: 

Arbitration hearings in Chicago, 146; Com- 
ment, 135 

Charleston Consolidated Ry. & Lighting Co., 

Wage and contract dispute arbitration 
decision, 1274 

Charts as exhibits in wage dispute arbi- 
trations, *664; Comment, 657 

Mediation board. Desirability of permanent 

federal; Comment, 174 

British Columbia Electric Ry., 253, 2R5, 392, 

458; Comment, 257, 285 

Strike, Buffalo & Depew Ry., 1095, 1232 

Cliicat'o, Joliet & IClectric Ry., 288, 651, 1003 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction 

Co., 684, 775, 924, 1004 

Holyoke Street Rv., 287, 328, 373, 416, 459, 

883. 924, 1005, 1052 

Rhode Island Co., 161, 200, 246, 329, 371, 

416, 462, 603, 645, 685, 774, 903 

Strike ended, Columbia Ry., Gas & Elec. 

Co.. 645 

United Traction Co., Albany, 460, 777, 1007, 

1092, 1230 

West Penn Traction Co., 371, 417 

Wilkes-Barre Rv., 159; Comment. 257, 288, 

839, 882, 924, 965, 1005, 1093, 1138, 1231 
. 1272 

Substations and equipment: 

Automatically controlled sulistations : 

Details [Allen and Taylor], *583; Com- 
ment, 576 

Features governing control [Dow], c 828 
Estimated savings [Davis], 772 
Limitations [Davis], c 871 
Need for operating data; Comment, 1106 
Operating features [Taylor], 1075 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul electrifica- 
tion, *794 

Electrostatic potential and synchronism indi- 
cators (General Electric). *326 

Equipment for 1200-volt d. c. distribution 

system. Southern Pacific Co. [Johan- 
sen], *549 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. 

West Farms substation. Construction 
and equipment details, *1200; (I!om- 
ment, 1197 

Oil knife switches ( Westinghouse Elec. Si 

Mfg. Co.), *157 

Out-door substation design: Comment, 133 

Philadelnhia-Paoli electrification, Pennsyl- 
vania R. R,, '981 

Rating of machinery [Del Mar], c *21 

60-cycle eouipment, Portland & Lewiston In- 

terurban, *618 

Standardization of substations. Economics 

of [Kennedy], c 1126 

Supplies for 1916, Comment, 1244 

Sweden : 

Porjus : 

Hydroelectric power station nearing 
completion, 1041 

Switzerland : 

Leuk-Leukerbad Ry. begins operation, 150 

Massaboden : 

Hvdro-electric station to be built. 413 
Syracuse, N. Y. : 

Empire United Rys.: 

Armature removal from box-frame mo- 
tors, Method of [Prather], 915 
Cars at less than cost [Gonzenbach], 
c 447' 

Co-receivers appointed, 1009. 1142 
Deposit of bonds requested by bond- 
holders' committee, 1056 
Forced-draft heaters. Operating cost, 

Readjustment plan, 1188: Opposition to. 

Semi-steel cars. Details, *578 
Union jurisdiction settled, 966 

New York State Rys.: 

Automobile float wins pageant prize, 

Girder and high T-rail renewals 
[Roundey], c 592 
-Syracuse & South Bay Elec. R. R. : 

Foreclosure sale ordered by court, 1189 
Syracuse & Suburban Ry. : 

Fare case, agreement reached. 1237 


Tacoma, Wash.: 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. : 

Car overhauling. System for recording 

cost [Schluss], *56S 
Fare reduction on suburban line, 469, 

Requirements for employment [Win- 
sor], 9 

Voluntary reduct-on in fares to meet 
jitney competition, 1191 
Taunton, Mass.: 

Taunton & Pawtucket Street Ry. : 

Foreclosure of Bristol County Street 
Ry. trust mortgage ordered, 1143 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Taxable valuations of interurban electric rail- 
ways in Iowa, 967 

Taxation of utilities. Burden on the consumer 
[Doty], c 828 

Taxation : 

Public service commissions as taxing bodies. 

445; Comment, 428 
Taxation, Report of A. E. R. A. committee, 733; 

Correction, 798 
Tax values increased: 

Ohio railways, 351 

Virginia utility companies, 648 

West Virginia railway and |)0vver companies, 


Tax values reduced on Indiana electric rail- 
roads, 164 
Telephones : 

Advantages of in city dispatching; Com 

ment, 90 

Dispatching system in San Antonio, Tex., 


Temperature rise limitations for machines; Com- 
ment, 1065 

Terminal electrification in Chicago (See Chicago; 
Terminal stations and terminals: 

Fare collection system at Boston baseball 

park. *621 

Newark terminal. Cornerstone laid, *151 

Oregon Electric Ry. at Eugene, *989 

Public Service Ry., Progress, 915 

Trucks, Elecrically operated. Economies on 

Pennsylvania Railroad, *864 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 

Co. (See also Indianapolis, Ind.) 
Terre Haute, Ind.: 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co.: 

Abandonment case settled with city, 

Fast limited service between Indiana- 
polis and Terre Haute inaugurated, 

Jitney restraining order. Application 
for, 650, 782, 1059 

Passenger revenue. Methods for in- 
creasing [Jeffries], 1039 

Petitions public service commission to 
regulate jitneys, 127 
Tests of equipment: 

Brush tests on non-interpole motors with 

slotted commutators, Montreal Tram- 
ways [MacLeod], *1179 

Car testing set, Portable [Ewing], *152 

Wheel test, chilled iron and steel, 918 

Texarkana, Ark. : 

Southwestern (^as & Electric Co. : 

Near-side stop established, 252 
Texas hurricane damage, *361 
Third-rail contact system: 

Construction, operation and maintenance of 

top-contact unprotected third-rail [ Jones] . 

Live contact rails. Transferring [Vanattal 


Operating cost of surface contact systems in 

Lincoln, England, 288 
Overhead trolley and third-rail, Provisionj 

on cars, Michigan Ry., *1154 
Protected third-rail, Lancashire & Yorkshire 

Ry., *155, *1124; Comment, 1105 

Ties : 

Effect of. On rail wear [Haas], *179; Com- 
ment 175 

Hardwood untreated cross-ties. Advantages 

[Pegram], 624 

Installation without disturbing concrete 
base (Int. Steel Tie Co.), *1181 

Modified twin type (Int. Steel Tie Co.), 

On Brooklyn-Brighton bridge in Cleve- 
land, *834 

Solid-concrete construction in Columbus, 

Spacing too wide [Mitchell], 1266 

Steel vs. wood ties in city track construction. 

Comparative cost, Cleveland, Southwest- 
ern & Columbus Rv. [Nester], *1089 

Tamping machine. Pneumatic (Ingersoll- 

Rand Co.), *682 

Treated, Behavior of, in alkali soils, 1002 

Twin steel. Cost of installing, Scioto Valley 

Tr. Co. [Wolfe], *n6 
Timber preservation: 

Decay curve for chestnut poles, treated and 

untreated, 879 
Effect of zinc chloride on timber strengtli 

[Clarke], 73 

Factors involved for electric railway service 

[Winslow and Teesdale], 754 

Pine ties. Treated, in alkali soils, 1002 

Preservatives, Effect on wood poles [Rhodes. 

Hosford], •879 

Processes employed [Weiss and Teesdale], 


Toledo, Ohio: 

Toledo Rys. & Light Co.: 

Franchise negotiations, 36, 75, 120, 162 

201, 245, 416, 462, 643, 684, 881 

963, 1004, 1051, 1231 
Track removal order restrained by court 


Valuation of properties proposed in City 
Council, 1139 

Toledo .V Western R. R.: 

Girder and high Trail renewali 
[Swartz], c 400 



[Vol. XLVI 

Toronto, Canada: 

^^Brazilian Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 419 
Hydro-electric plans for extensions, 777 

Hydro-radial by-law to be submitted to 

voters, 1229 

Proposed network of electric railways, 1184 

Radial entrances, terminals and yards, Pro- 
posed, Report by engineering commis- 
sion, 1183 

Rapid transit report nearing completion, 1052 

Report on railway to Guelph, Ont., 965 

Subway construction. Engineers oppose, 1140 

Toronto Ry. : 

Car construction order entered, 784 
Car to supplant running board type. Con- 
ference ordered with Ontario Ry. 
and Municipal board, 1146 
Dispute with city, Commission ruling, 

Extension case, 605, 646, 883 
New car for summer service, 168 
Running board case, 469, 1013, 1060, 

Running boards to be removed from 
cars, 1059 

Toronto & York Radial Ry.! 

Extension application approved, 371 

Franchise controversy, 36 

Purchase of Metropolitan line by city 

recommended, 1273 
Sidewalk crossing decision adverse to 
company, 1237 

Transit plans outlined, 1272 

Track construction: 

Beam-type track construction. Success of 

[Nichols], c 402 
Comjiarison between A. S. T. M. and A. E. 

R. E. A. specifications for splice bars, 


Concrete pavement in track allowance [Camp- 
bell], *998 

Concrete-slab sub-ballasted construction for 

track foundation. Comment, 791 

Crossing installation, Cleveland Ry., '1133 

Designs recommended by A. E. R. E. .\. com- 
mittee, 752 

Double track reconstruction with under- 

t.'round feed wires, Worcester Consoli- 
dated Street Ry., *325 

Drainage, Discussion at A. E. R. E. A. con- 
vention, 752 

- — — Franchise obligations. Combatting wasteful, 
Comment, 1152 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Flange-bearing 

special work on [Harvey], c 64 

Mileage of various types in use, 752 

Permanent construction, Skilled workman- 
ship essential to. Comment, 213 

Plow to tear up pavement, Cleveland Rvs., 


— — Punch for track-spike slots (Watson-Still- 

man Co.), *195 
Rail-wear value replaces girder strength. 

Comment, 792 
Reinforced concrete beam track construction, 

.'Southern Pacific Utilities Co. [H'orton], 

*324; Comment, 299 
Roadway machinery and tools. Cost, Bav 

State Street Ry., 1227 
San Francisco-Oakland Term. Rvs., Stand- 

.',rds [Binkley], *523 

Spacing steel ties [Mitchell], 1266 

Steel tie, Solid concrete construction, Colum- 

Ijus Rv., Power & Light Co. [Acker- 
man], *956 

.Straight track with twin steel ties. Detail 

cost, Scioto \"alley Traction Co. [Wolfe], 

Tamping machine. Pneumatic (Ingersoll- 

Rand Co.), '682 
— - — Ties, spikes and rails. Suggestions [Pegram], 


Trench excavating machine (General Eng. 

Co.), *74 
Track insulation: 

Fiber, Low moisture absorption (Diamond 

State Fiber Co.), 919 
Track maintenance (See also Rail corrugation) 
Track maintenance: 

Card records of track work, Los Angeles Rv. 

[Campbell], ■•407 
Girder and high T-rail renewals (Hawkins], 

c401; [Legare], 320; [Roundey], c 592; 

[Swartz], 400; [Wilson], c 592 
Grinding rails with carborunduiii track 

brakeshoes, *241 
Rail-wear limits. Effect on track maintenance 

[Haas], •179; Comment, 175 
Report forms, 398 

Sinsle-track maintenance curve. New York- 
State Rys., 830 

Time-keeping and cost records [Gaussman], 

*596; ["Way Department Engineer"], 
c 635 

Way organization. Bay State Street Ry., 229 

Wheel and track gage combined [Feist], ^238 

Track layout for yard entrance [ StriezhefT] , '876 
Trackless trolleys: 

Line abandoned, Merrill Ry. & Lighting 

Co., 1139 

Operation resumed in Shanghai. China, 642 

Track scraper, Adjustable (Electric Service Sup- 
plies Co.), *961 

Track scraper for snow removal (Root Spring 
.Scraper Co.), ^411 

Tractor, Electric, Operating records and cost on 
Pennsylvania R. R., *864 

Trade directory of South America, Supplement, 

Traffic conditions and facilities in London [Stan- 
ley], 622; Comment, 616 
Traffic data for bridges in London [SpofFord], 53 
Traffic handling at the San Diego exposition 

[Warner], *508 
Traffic investigations: 

Automobiles, Effect on street car [Feeler], 

590; Comment, 577 
Car loading. Traffic check to determine [Mc- 

Cloy], *272 

Checking service. Methods of. Comment, 658 

Collection of traffic data preliminary to traf- 
fic study [ D'oolittle], *94; Comment, 90 

Denver [Toll], *309; Comment, 301 

Influence of peaks in service on operating 

cost [Doolitlle], *306 
Manila, .P. I., 395 

Methods of taking traffic data recommended 

by A. E. R. A. committee, 757 

Traffic data used for constructing schedules 

[Doolittle], •587; Comment, 575 

X'ehicle count on Chicago streets, 632 

Traffic regulation: 

Semaphore system in Louisville, 692 

Trail cars (See Cars, Trail) 
Trailer operation: 

Ratio of trailers to motor cars, Chicago, Lake 

Shore & South Bend Ry., '940 
Tramways & Light Railways Association: 

■ .^nnual convention. 224 


-\buses in Boston, 1278 

Combined cash-receipt and transfer. Shore 

Line Electric Ry., *443 

Coupons to check cash receipts, San Fran- 
cisco, 184 

Machine for issuing transfers ((Jhmer Fare 

Register Co.), '453 

Special transfers for regular and extra con- 
ductors, United R. Rs. [Tones], *512 

Transmission lines: 

Choke coils and disconnecting switches (Elec- 
tric Service Sup. Co.), *29 

Crossing specifications. Overhead, 186 

Details of transmission system, Philadelphia- 

Paoli electrification, Pennsylvania R. R., 

Ground-wire disconnector to protect linemen 

(Electric Service Sup. Co.), *158 
— - — Insulation problem. Comment, 49 
Interruptions, Safeguarding against. Com- 
ment, 300 

— ■ — Length of span, pole structure and size of 

wire [Archbold], c 447 
Potential indicator, *326 

Protective crossing clamps for overhead 

wires, *598 

Single-circuit metal-arm construction (Elec- 
tric Service .Sup. Co.), '774 

Steel tower construction. Comment, 48 

Transportation S: Traffic -Association (See Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Transportation & 
Traffic .\ssociation) 

Transportation of troops, (To-operation with gov- 
ernment [Bancroft], c 1125; [Bell], 
c 1086; Comment, 1021 

Trenton, N. J.: 

Trenton & Mercer County Traction Corp.: 

Fare increase. Appeal and hearings, 335, 
784. 890, 931. lOli. 1058; Decision 
unfavorable, 1236, 1258 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase denied, 1279 
Tri-City Railway & Light Co. (See Davenport, 

Trolley catcher. Simplified (O P Signal Co.), 

Trolley poles, wheels and harps (See Current-col- 
lecting devices) 
Trolley wire (See Overhead contact system) 

Car wheel diameter. Effect on motor heating 

[Broomall], '452, c'593; Comment. 
427; [Foote], c ♦914 

Helical spring for journal box ["Vulcan"], 


One-ball center bearing [Witt], *770 

One-piece truck frames, San Francisco-Oak- 
land Terminal Rys. [St. Pierre], ♦527 

Steel vs. iron wheels, Tests, 918 

Two-wheel, radial for Laconia car, *1226 

Wheel and track gage, Combined [Feist], 


Wheel flanges. Cause of thick and thin 

[Barnes], c 189 

Trucks, Industrial. Costs of operation, Pennsyl- 
vania R. R., ^864 

Turbo-generators and equipment: 

Ah cleaning for ventilating [Baum], Com- 
ment, 194 

Temperature limits for electrical apparatus, 


Turbine units: 

Large, Development of. Comment. 851 
Tandem compound ( Westinghouse Elec. 
& Mfg. Co.), 837 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. : 

Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Ry. & Utilities Co. : 

(Thange of name to Tuscaloosa Ry. & 
Utilities Co., 1188 

Tuscaloosa Ry. & Utilities Co.: 

Change of name from Birmingham-Tus- 
caloosa Ry. & Utilities Co., 1188 
Tvin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minneapolis, 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 


Ulster & Delaware R. R. : 

Rate increase denied, 163 

Union Electric Co. (See Dubuque, Iowa) 
Union Pacific R. R. : 

Motor cars on railroad systems. Value of 

[McKeen], 866 
Union Railway (See New York City) 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana (See Anderson, 


United Railroads of San Francisco (See San 

Francisco, Cal.) 
United Railways & Electric Co. (See Baltimore, 


United Railways Investment Co. (See San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.) 

United Railways of St. Louis (See St. Louis, 

United Traction Company (See Albany, N. Y.) 
Upper Darby, Pa.: 

Philadelphia & Western Ry.: 

Annual report, 843 
Utilities Bureau: 

Valuation conference in Philadelphia: 

Addresses and discussions, 990, 1031 


Vacuum cleaning for cars [Allen], *516 
Valuation conference in Philadelphia: 

Addresses and discussions, 991, 1031 

\'aluation conference. Interstate Commerce Com- 
misison, 823 

Valuation (See also Appraisal of railway prop- 

Vancouver, Canada: 

British Columbia Electric Ry.: 

Coasting recorders, Experience with 

[Murrin], '573 
Fare reduction increases revenue, 127 
Field control, Experiences with [Lloyd], 

First-aid work among employees, 890 
Technical school. Winter session 
opened, 883 
Wage reduction asked. Hearings, 252, 
285; Comment, 257, 392; Comment, 
385, 458 
Vancouver, Wash.: 

Washington-Oregon Corp.: 

Foreclosure sale, 1011 
Reorganization plan, Details, 1143 
V entilation of cars: 

Long Island trailers (Automatic Vent. Co.), 


\irginia : 

Public utility tax values increased, 648 

Virginia, Minn.: 

Mesaba Ry. : 

Repair shops. Details of new buildings 
[Sargl], ♦312 
Virginia Public Service Association: 
Annual meeting, 434 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Richmond, 


Wage arbitrations (See Strikes and Arbitrations) 
Wages (See Employees) 

Waiting platforms. Concrete, Los Angeles Ry., 

Waiting stations: 

Passenger shelter in Worcester, Mass., *910 

Passenger station, Dayton, Covington & 

Piqua Tr. Co., *915 
— ■ — Waiting room and shelter in Glasgow, *589 
Warsaw, Ind. : 
Winona Interurban Ry.: 

Reorganization planned, 779, 1235 
\\"ashington, D. C. : 
Capital Traction Co.: 

Awards for efficiency to motormen and 
conductors, 128 

(jears and pinions. Specifications for 
[Dalgleish], c 189 

Order on trailer operation, 42 
Industrial relations committee completes 

work, 328 

Merger of local traction lines denied, 37 

Metropolitan Coach Co. suspends operations, 


Washington Ry. & Electric Co. : 

Annual report, 248 

Bond issue. Commission ruling to limit, 

Christmas celebration for employees' 

children. Plans for, 890 
Employees' relief association. Report, 


Power purchase inquiry hearing, 417, 

602, 923 

Ruling on substitution of open for closed 

cars, 295 
Skip stops to be established, 1013 

Washington-Virginia Ry. : 

Center-entrance car for suburban serr- 

ice, ^282 

Valuation of utilities. Progress, 373 

Washington-Oregon Corp. - (See Vancouver, 

July-December, 1915] 



Washington Water Power Co. (See Spokane, 

Watch inspection system, Conestoga Traction Co. 

[Hull], *10.!4 
Water pipes crossing over trolley wires' [McKel- 

way], *77(J 

Watt meters on cars. (See Energy consumption) 
Weights, Detailed, for Bay State car, 1071 
Welding, special methods: 

— ■ — Arc-welding outfit, Compact (Lincoln Electric 
Co.), "195 

Application of difTeront processes, 411 

Bonding rails hy gas welding [ lirown], *1087 

Electric welding with dynamotor, West Penn 

Rys. [Diirie], 324 
Gas-weld rail bonding [I'rown], *1087; Com- 
ment, 1065 

• Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting apparatus 

(Modern Engineering Co.), *961 

Welfare work (See Einuloyees) 

Welfare work. Its relation to public and to em- 
ployees [I.ilientlial], *710: Comment, 698 

Wellsville & Buffalo R. U. (See HufTalo, N. Y.) 

West End Rapid Transit Co. (See Cincinnati, 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R. : 
Contact system. Construction and mainte- 
nance FDuer], *58 
West Milton, Ohio: 

Dayton, Covington & Piqua Traction Co. ; 

New passenger station at Covington, *915 
West Penn Rys. (See Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
West Side Elevated R. R. (See Chicago) 
West Virginia Association of Public Utilities 

organized, 106 
West Virginia: 

City powers, superior to commission, 610 


.Ackerman, E. O. New joint and track foundation 
for Columbus, '956 

Alberger, W. R. Reduction in power cost effected 
by use of coasting recorders, 520 

Alexanderson, E. F, W. Single-phase repulsion 
motiir, c 1174 

Allen, C. Loomis. The industry and the associa- 
tion, "701 

Allen, E. W. Automatically controlled substa- 
tions, *583; Comment, 575, 576 

Allen, F. W. Use of vacuum system for cleaning 
cars in San Francisco, *5I6 

Allen, W. L. Railway motor gearing. 111 

Amberg, E. J. Overhead contact systems, con- 
struction and costs, *56 

.Archbold, W. K. Transmission line progress, 
c 447 

.Archibald, W. M. Mortar cushion in Houston 
eliminates pavement maintenance, *1045 

■Arnold, Bion T. Foundation principles of valua- 
tion, ♦713, *803 

Views on municipal ownership, 911 

Astle, Wilfred G. Efficiency in the stores depart- 
ment, ^906 

Aston, T. G. Investigation and handling of colli- 
sions with pedestrians and vehicles other 
than automobiles, 10 


Bailey, A. R. Gages for measuring rail wear, 

Bancroft, William A. Electric lines along shore 
useful in moving troops and supplies, 
c 1125 

Barnes, Tames F. Cause of thin wheel flanges, 
c 189 

Beeler, John A. Automobile and bard times, 
c 1125 

Autos and the electric car, 590 

Bell, Louis. Preparedness in transportation, c 

Bennett, H. K. Uses and benefits of illustrated 
lectures, 813 

Benton, H. H. The investigating and handling 
of automobile accidents. 1 1 

Binkley, George II. San Francisco-Oakland Ter- 
minal Railways' way standards, *523 

Bishop, Stei)hen .S. Injuries to persons, c 234 

Black, C. N. Econornies of the jitney problem 
from a traction company's viewpoint, 

Blinn, Thomas W. Daily work-train report, c *636 
Roardman. A. J. Watch st^indards, *874 
Bourne, Jonathan, Jr. livils of government own- 
ership, *7d7 

Bowman, W. J. Semicircular brass experience, 

Reinforcing high-speed interurlian c'lrs, *1221 

Boyce, W. II. Utilizing the county fair in pub- 
licity work, *945 
Boynton, B. F. (Drganization of public safety 
committees, 8 

Relation of safety to conservation, 819 

Broomall, A. L. Effect of car-wheel diameter on 
motor heating, "452 

Permissible difference in wheel diameter, c 593 

lirown, J. H. Building up local pleasure travel 

to points in the East Bay cities. *533 
Brown, J. Rowland. Gas-weld rail bonding, *1087 

West Virginia: (Continued) 

Traction merger rumored, 375 

Utility tax values increased, 164 

Wheaton, 111.: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago K. R. : 

Annual report, 926 

Car record and trouble board combined, 

Journal brass. Semicircular, Experience 
with [liownian], '1128 

Reinforcing high-speed inlerurban cars 
[]5owman], '1221 
Wheels and Axles: 

Steel vs. iron wheels, Tests, 918 

Wheel diameter, Itffect on motor heating 

[Broomhall], *452, c*593; Crjmmenl. 

427; [Foote], c *9I4 

Wheel flanges, Cause of thin [liarnesi, c 189 

Wheel and track gage comliined j Feist], *238 

Wheeling, W. Va.: 

Wheeling Traction Co.: 

Wage increase for employees, 1059 

Wheels : 

Brakeshoes, Full-flanged, Results with. South- 
ern Pacific Co. [Hewitt], 1223 
Wichita, Kan. : 

litn-ev ordinance ujiheld, 1279 

Wichita RR. &• Lt. Co. : 

City wins right to inspect books, 1052 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: 
Wilkes-Barre Ry.: 

Strike, 159, 288, 839, 882, 924, 965, 1005, 
1052, 1093, 1138, 1185, 1231, 1272; 
Comment, 257 
Willame''" \a"pv Southern Rv. (See Oregon 

City, Ore.) 


Buck, .\. M. New method to determine railway 
motor speeds with varying voltage, *595 

Burch, Edward P. Girder and high T-rail re- 
newals, c 276 

Uurington, P. V. Electric railway accounting re- 
view, *720 

Ifusby, Leonard .\. Regulation of public utilities, 


Cameron, (Jaylor M. .\nti-friction bearings on 
ma'n car journals, *1264 

Campbell, G. E, Card records of Los .Nngelei 
track work, *407 

Campbell, II. Colin. Concrete pavement in the 
track allowance, *998 

"Car Builder.'' Standards in car design, c 676 

Carson, George. The medical department, 11 

Cashin, T. A. Improvements in transit lines to 
handle exposition traffic, *518 

Castiglioni, F. Notes on mountain railway elec- 
trification, *858 

Clark, R. T. Prepayment cars and the account- 
ant. 721 

Clough, D. I. Maintenance of 1200-volt d.c. can 

by the Oregon Electric Ry., *555 
Colby, .\. C. Converting open cars into end- 
entrance Ivpe, *451 
Connette, E. G. New York jitney law, 21 
— ■ — What can we give for a nickel? 18 
Cooper, Fred. Traffic analysis and schedule plan- 
ning at Portland, Ore., *562 
Cooper, H. S. Indexing car equiiniient data, 
c 1040 

-Jitnev and the small car, c 64 

Cox, J. B. Contact system of the Butte, Ana- 
conda & Pacific Railway, *59 
Cram, R. C. Girder and high T rail renewals, 
c 873 

Curved heads for girder raiK in Brooklyn, 


Crecelius, L. P. Improved method of applying 

rail bonds., *236. 
Creviaton, W. H. New type of catenary hanger, 


Crouse, D. E. Trolley wire and pantograph shoe 
wear on Annapolis .Short Line, *638 

Crumley, T. R. An inexpensive method of treat- 
ing boiler feed water, *152 

Cunningham, E. R. Signal maintenance on the 
1200-volt Oregon Electric Ry., '557 

Gushing, W. C, Rei>ort on special steels, 878 


Dalgleish, R. H. Snecificatlons for gears and 

pinions, c 189 
Davis, Cass'us M, .Automatic railway substations, 

c 871 

Dedrick, A. E. Accrued accounts, 1169 
Del Mar, William L. Ratine of railway substa- 
tion machinery, c *21 
Dixon, Alves. Tustification of safety-first move- 
ment. 818 

Donovan, T. C. Bearing-babbitt furnace, *153. 
Dool.'ttle, F. W. Collection of traffic data, *94 

Fconomics of the jitney bus movement, 220 

Electric railway earnings, 106 

- — From traffic study to time-table, *587 

<-)perating costs and shifts in service, *306, 

c 400 

Windows (See Doors, seats and vsindows) 
Wire, Preventing kinks in handling coils I Kop- 

pel], *66 
Wisconsin : 

Rules and standards of public service com- 
mission, 931 
Worcester, Mass.: 

Scale of wages for employees ratified, 78 

Shelter for passengers, Open-air, *910 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry. : 

.Agreement with employees signed, 34 

I'iber ilucts for feeder cables (Fibre Con- 
duit Co.), *1182 

Track and conduit reconstruction, *325 
Work-order system for small roads [Glover], 441 
Work train rejiorts. Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co., 

c 636 


'I'ard entrance, Track layout possibilities [Striez- 
heff], ♦876 

A'ellow journalism. Disarming with facts. Com- 
ment, 343; Remedy for. Comment, 91 
"S'ounestown, Ohio: 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Light Co.: 

Accrued accounts [Dedrick], 1169 
Enlarging power plant, 1041 
Motion pictures in safety work, ^'alue of 
[Warnock], 820; Comment, 793 


/one system. ( See Fares) 

Doty, F. VV. Taxation of utilities, c 828 

Dow, Alexander, .\utomatic and distant control 

substations, c 828 
Duer, J. \'. B. Third-rail and trolley system of 

the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, 


Dunn, W. E. Application of established legal 
principles to the jitney, '503 

Durie, Daniel. Electric welding with dynamotor 
sets, 324 


Eaton, G. M. Mechanical problem of the electric 

locomotive, 626 
"Engineer." Outjitneying the jitney, c 403 
Ernst, W. A. Protecting armature coils from 

cutting on band wire, 1089 
Everett, F. Dewey. Jitney vs. trolle>', c 151 
Ewing, D. D. Portable car testing set, *152 
Starting resistance of electric cars, 279, 637 


Faber, George F. Exiierimental open-car recon- 
struction in Atlantic City, *110 

Good results from old motors in .\tlantic 

City, *677 

Testing corner in Atlantic City shops, *24 

Falconer, D. P. Girder and high T-rail renewals, 
c *829. 

Farr, Arthur V. Economies of the light car and 

ball bearing:s, *239 
Febrey, H. H. Rail bond testine. 1 — Methods 

used in testing, *1130. II— Determining 

and interpreting bond resistance. "1177 
Feist, C. M. Combined wheel and track gage, 


— — Home-made pinion puller, *641 

How Sioux City reduces motor troubles, 998 

Hydraulic bearing-broaching macliine, *i91 

Self-lubricating trolley stand, *'365 

— ' — Snow plow and life guard combined. ^832 

Split self-Iubricating trolley harp, *409 

Fisher, Dr. H, E. Chicago Elevated first aid 

system, *430 
Examining the physique of Chicago elevated 

employees, *216 
Fletcher, F. N. Should utilities be assessed by 

public service commissions? 445 
Foote, F. T. Wheel diameter and motor heating, 

c "914 

Forbes, John F. Importance of accrued accounts, 

Foreman, W. L. Package freight on interurban 
cars, 1078 

Forse, Tr., W. H. Depreciation and appreciation, 

Fire insurance, 262 

Foster, S. L. One-piece sidicer vs. wrapped 
joint in feeder cable splicing practice, 

Overhead electrolysis and porcelain strain 

insulators, ^582 

Repairing broken tubular Iron |)oles, ^450 

Speedy and inexnenslve jiole moving in San 

Francisco, ^874 
Trolley wire on double-leaf bascule bridge, 


I'nusual feed-In damn, *322 

Fuller, Car! H. Destruction of cement side- 
walks by trolley poles, *832 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XLVI 


Ganz, Albert F. Effects of electrolysis on engi- 
neering structures, 624 
Gausmann, S. Timekeeping and cost records for 

way department, *596 
Gannett, C. W. What is the rail head' c 1127 
Glover, M. W. Simple work-order system, 441 
Gonzenbach, Ernest. Cars at less than cost, c 447 
Gove, VV. G. The center-entrance car for city 

and suburban service, 19 
Graham, J. N. Convenient electric soldering 
iron, *66 

Axle and armature shaft straightener, *238 

Graves, W. F. Girder and high T-rail renewals, 
c 872 

Greenough, William C. Hand-brake pressures, 

c "276 


Haas, Exum M. Girder and iiigh T-rail renew- 
als, ♦179 

Haines, E. J. Vacuum-cleaning car, *323 
Handlon, J. H. Medical and claim departments, 

Hannaford, Foster. Information for railway em- 

idoyees, c 448 
Hansel, Charles. Signals and interlocking, 625 
Hare, Samuel B. Prevention of motor-vehicle 

accidents, 812 
Harris, George H. Maintaining proper relations 

between a railway and its car men, *531 
Harrison, J. S. Financial benefits of safety-first 

movement, 820 
Harte, Charles Rufus. Horizontal vs. "festooned" 

contact wires, c 637 
Harvey, A. E. Flange-bearing special work, c 64 
Hatfield, Henry Rand. Some neglected phases of 

accounting, 799 
Hawkins, C. L. Girder and hinh T rail renewals 

c 401 

Hellmund, R. E. Railway motor commutation 

and flashing, 105 
Hershberger, D. C. Small car vs. large car, *394 
Hewes, James E. Jitney-bus competition, IS 
Hewitt, R. E. Change from half to full-flanged 

brakeshoes, 1223 
Maintenance of 1200-volt d.c. cars by the 

.Southern Pacific Co., *546 

Paint renovator for exterior of cars, 367 

Turntable for painting car sash, *596 

Use of current from overhead crane to re- 

move trucks from under car bodies, *638 
Hild, F. W. Effect of publicity on the jitney 

movement, "*560 
Hill, G. H. Nominal rating of railway motors, 

c 275 

Hinshaw, H. A. How a railway helps the farmer 

to produce bigger and better crojis. *559 
Hixson, C. J. Contact conductors and collectors 

for electric railwavs, *60 
Hoffman, Lefferts S. Some practical workmen's 

compen.-atioii questions, 1210 
Horne, L. W. Hand-brake pressures, *67, c 277 
Hosford, R. F. Effect of preservatives on wood 

poles, *879 

Hull, R. B. Lancaster's experience with time in- 
spection system, *1034 


Jackson, W. P. Change of trolley wheel design 

and trolley lubrication. *449 

Rejuvenating overloaded motors, *192 

Jacobs, r,. IT_ Shop order.";. 1214 

Jeflnes, G. K. Methods of increasing revenue 


Johanscn, J. Operation of a 1200-volt d.c. dis- 
tribution system. *549 

Johnson, TI. .\. Specifications for gears and 
pinions, c 189 

Jones, Charles H. Top-contact unprotected rails 
for 600-volt traction system, *55 

Jones, Henry T. Front-end fare collection im- 
proves service at San Francisco, *512 


Kasemeier, E. L. Journal entry tickler, 1168 
Kealy, Philip J. Motor ventilation, c 109 
Municipal co-operation in utility manage- 
ment, 861 " 
Keller. '^-^^L^ Detroit center-entrance trailers, 

— — Detroit United builds refrigerator car, *1044 

Kennedy. H. J. Standardizatio"n of railway sub- 
stations, c 1126 

Kenyon, A. L. One-man cars, 1035 

King, Clyde Lyndon. Digest of jitney ordi- 
nances, 314 

Koppel, J. G. Preventing kinks in handling wire 

from coils, *66 
Kuhrts. G. J. Uses of the locomotive crane in 

electric railway work, *877 


Lambert. '\L B. Ultra-lightweight car, c 402 
Layng, J. F. Electric car maintenance, *1251 
Leach, A.__B. Fair treatment of public utilities, 

Lebenbaum, Paul. Contact system of the South- 
ern Pacific Co., Portland division. *57 

Legare, B. P. Girder and high T-rail renewals, 
c 320 

Leonard, A. W. Auto-bus as an auxiliary to 

interurban railways, *570 
Lewis, E. L. Rise and decline of the jitney, 


Lieber, L. O. Recreation and welfare work for 
Los Angeles Ry. employees, "506 

Lilienthal, Jesse W. Larger aspects of welfare 
work, *710 

Lister, F. G. Mold for babbitting motor axle 

bearings, *1267 
Litchfield, Norman. Indexing car equipment 

data, 677 

Lloyd, H. M. Experiences with field control, 191 
Lozailo, E. R. Cumulative voting, c 870 


Mack'ey, Harry A. Workmen's compensation in 
Peiinsvlvania, 1213 

Maize, F. P. Departmental work planning system 
at Portland, ♦565 

"Manager." Is the ultra-lightweight car a pass- 
ing craze? c 234 

Megargee, H. P. Safety appliances in car shops, 

Aietcalfe, F. M. Mandatory rules, 63 

Miller, F. A. Ventilation in motor frames, 25 

Resawing old controller segments to smaller 

size, ^236 

• Signal operation on the Oakland, Antioch & 

Eastern Ry., ♦536 
— ^Trolley wheels of 10-in. diameter, ♦278 
Mills, R. C. Irresponsible railway training 

schools, c 1125 
Mitchell. L. A. Steel tie spacing can be too wide, 


Morse, George G. A home-made wheel grinder, 

Murrin, W. G. Use of coasting recorders results 

in economies at Vancouver, *573 
MacLeod, Keith. Brush tests on non-interpole 

motors with slotted commutators, ^1179 
MacNutt, Homer. .Sectinnalizing railway feeders 

at San Diego, ^497 
McCloy, T. W. Car service inspection in Seattle, 


McClure, J. F. The interurban, 1077 
McGraw, James H. Development of the electric 
railwav, 723 

McHenry, E. H. Contact system nomenclature, 
c 275 

Electric motive power in the operation of 

railroads. 623 
McKelway. G. H. Crossing water pipes over 

trolley wires. *770 

Reinforcing metal poles, 365 

McMillan. J. Businesslike methods in handling 

freight, ^482 

McPheeters. E. W. Remodeling motor arma- 
tures, *91S 

McPherson, J. C. Notes on Southern Pacific 

electric service in the Bay cities, *544 
McRac, T. B. Accounting for rents, c 1260 


Nees, W. E. Armature bearing jig, ^324 
Nestcr, J. A. Steel vs. wood ties in city track 

construction, ^1089 
Nichols, H. B. Pavement sand cushion becom- 
ing obsolete, c 1 126 

Track on concrete stringers, c 402 

Nichols, Jesse B. Maintenance of a 1200-volt 
catenary on Southern Pacific lines, ^543 
Norris, E. R. Machine shop equipment, methods 
and processes, 626 


Palmer, R. W. Dispenser for drinking water, 

Parsons, R. H. Furnace for heating soldering 

irons, ^24 

Gas heater for comm-itators, *2S0 

Outfit for testing air-brake apparatus, ♦I 128 

• Preventins' burning of the top of brushes, 


Parsons, W. Barclay. Railways, 623 
Pegram, George H. Track and roadbed, 624 
Potter, R. R. .Armature removal, ^367 

—Brush-holder practice for single-phase motors, 


Prather, H. C. Box-frame motors and the re- 
moval of armatures, 915 

Prentice. C. A. Four years of maintenance of a 
track crossing on steel substructure, 1044 


Redderson, A. W. ^^'here classifying scrap paid, 

Reynolds. T. J. Card inde.x and what it means, 

Richardson, G. A. One-man cars as effective 
means of reducing headway, ^572 

Rhodes, F. L. Effect of preservatives on wood 
poles, *879 

Roundev, E. P. Girder and high T-rail renewals, 
■ c 592 


Sargl, Gothard, Mesaba Railway's new repair 
shops and office building, ^312 

.Mjbreviations: ♦ Tllustrait'l, c ( orrespondence. ) 

Schluss, K. C. Car maintenance on a definite 

cost basis, *568 
Sears, E. Maintenance of 1500-volt d.c. cars by 

the Southern Pacific Co., ^551 
Seefehlner, Dr. Ing. E. E. Vienna-Pressburg 

electrification, c 593 
Sherv.'ond, W. J. Graded wage scale, 912 
Shoup, Paul. An electric railway paradise, *475 

Railway conditions in California, 1171 

Relation cf railways to agriculture, 807 

Slick, E. E. Union Traction safety magazine, 


Standardization of claims statistics, ♦SIS 

Sliter, U. S. Time-table practice of the San 

Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., *521 
Small, Fred F. New all-steel passenger cars for 

Pacific Electric Ry., *489 
Smith, Raymond H. Lesson of the jitney, 1119 
Smith, W. Al. Chicago smoke abatement report, 


Spofford, Charles M. Cost of highway bridges, 
53 „ 

.Spring, E. C. Efficiency through conservation of 

time in interurban traffic, 1209 
St. Pierre, George. Car maintenance on the San 

Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., 527 
Stanley, Sir Albert. London trafl^c in 1913, 622 
Stephens, E. L. Commutator slotter, ^321 
. Hydraulic press for bearing and bushing 

changes, ^282 

Motor-bearing trimmer, ♦111 

Standardization of twelve car types into two 

at Los Angeles, ^493 
Storer, N. W. Cars at less than cost, c 635 

Operating with 5000-volt direct current, *660 

Steam railroail electrilicatioii, 1212 

Stathart, E. C. Graphs, charts and statistics as 

aids to administration, 665 
Stratton, J. F. Package freight on interurban 

cars, 1078 

Striezheff, S. Yard entrance track layout possi- 
bilities, ^876 

Stucki, Arnold. Rolling stock other than motive 
power, 625 

Sutherland. John. Where a single winder main- 
tains 951 motors, ^997 

Swartz, .\. Girder and high T-rail renewals, 
c 400 


Taylor, Edward. Automatically controlled sub- 
stations, ^583 

Teesdale, Clyde H. Preservative treatment of 
timber, 625 

Thomas, Harry S. Application for catalogs, c 403 
Tingley, C. L. S. Jitney regulation and work- 
men's compensation law in Pennsylvania, 

Toll, Roger W. Traffic investigation in Denver, 

"Transportation Man." Cars at less than cost, 


\'anatta, F. T. Home-made wigwag crossing 
signal, ^192 

Signal, bonding and contact rail notes on 

the Northwestern Pacific, ^539 
"Vulcan." Bolts and screws, 449 
Helical springs, ^409 

Hydraulic w-heel and armature presses, 323 


Walker, Kenneth C. Wider use of public li- 
braries, c 1040 

Warner, B. M. Handling traffic to the Panama- 
California Exposition at San Dieuo, *508 

Warnock, A. W. Ironing out the wrinkles, ^264 

Warnock, F. J. Moving picture exchange for 
A. E. R. A.? 820 

Way, A. P. Special application of car-spacing 
signals, ^368 

"Way Department Engineer." Who should keep 
w^x department time? c 635 

Weber, R. L. Kansas City's new cars, *771 

Weiss, Howard F. Preservative treatment of 
timber, 625 

Wells, C. B. Express and skip-stop service in 

Denver, c 448 
Willcutt, George B. Value of railway statistics, 


Williams, R. P. Practical views of special work. 

] — The tongue switch, *639. II — The 
crossing, *67S 

Williams, S. M. Dangers of the jitney, c 364 

Wilson, George L. Girder and high T-rail re- 
newals, c 592 

Pavement sand cushion becoming obsolete, 

c 1126 

Winsor, H. G. The employment bureau, 9 

Witt. S. J. One-ball center bearing, ^770 

Wolfe, A. J. Detail cost of track work with twin 

steel ties, ^916 
Wright, Augustine W. Reminiscences of early 

days in the street railway business, c 870 
Wright, W. D. Box-frame motor practice, c 828 
Wynne, F. E. Starting resistance of electric 

cars, c 401 


Young, C. F. The investigator and his work, 8 
Yount, Jesse M. Development of hght, low-floor 
car for San Francisco, ^515 


July-December, 1915] 




Adams, James L., 423 
Adams, John H., 43 
Ainey, William D., 380 
Allen, C. l.oomis, 1147 
Allen, William Frederick, 1061 
Andrews, Horace E., 786 
Andrews, William C, 1281 
Arnold, Bion J., 1280 


Bach, Trueman J., 1060 

Bache, William H., 1193 

Bailey, Frank A., 1060 

Barnuni, W. M., 253 

Barton, Charles A., 253 

Bath, Albert, 169 

Baurheim, Louis P., 1060 

Beck, Adam, 336 

Beckert, Louis F., 169 

Beeler, John A., *693 

Belden, David A., 652 

Berry, Ira, 932 

Binkley, George H., 106 i 

Blackburn, T. C, 295 

Blanchard, R. P., 43 

Blossom, Francis, 253 

Bosworth, Charles W., 1060 

Botkin, M. R., 253 

Brewster, Robert Coddington, 1281 

Brohman, A. W., 1280 

Brown, Arthur F., 169 

Brown, Nelson H., *1015 

Bruce, C, F., 1147 

Bruce, George W., 1193 

Brush, G. Sabin, *1193 

Bump, M. R., 469 

Bunn, David M., 1101 

Burke, George W., 1101 

Burt, Byron T., 253, 786 

Burton, Charles Pierce, 652 

Bushnell, H. C, 1060 

Byrnes, Timothy E., 43 

Call, Charles A., 1015 

Callahan, Tames T., 253, 459 

Canfield, Rufus R., 693 

Carrigan, James, 1193 

Carson, George, *785 

Cay wood, George, 1192 

Chamberlain, F. II.. 1060 

Chambers, Roy, 253 

Chapman, J. Frank, 209 

Chesebrough, W. H.. 1101 

Cheyne, Thomas, 973 

Clark, John Holley, 336 

Colby, SafiFord K., 1238 

Coldwell, Orin A.. 847 

Cole. W. W .. 12S1 

Collins, T. J., 209 

Conner, William Andrew, 1239 

Connette, Thomas W., 1014, *1061 

Conway, G. R. G., 129, 169 

Coons, U. E., 423 

Cooper, H. S., 209 

Cooper, lohn J., 847 

Cornell, J. D., 169 

Coryell, Norman. 253 

Couzens, Tames. 847 

Crafts. P. P., 652 

Crane. C. F., 253 

Crawford, Norman McD., 973 

Crosby, J. W., 253 

Crosby, Oscar T., 1061 

Crumley, Thomas. R., 932 


Dana, Edward. *1015 
Dasent, Bury I., 1014 
Davidson, A. J., 932 
Davis. Edmund S., 693 
De Frees. R. C, 786 
Del Mar, William A., 169 
Dempsey, Tohn J., *43 
Derge, F. J., 470 
Dewey, Edward H., 693 
Disney, Francis X., 169 
Divine, S. W., 1101 
Dods, William, 1060 
Dougherty, Warren, 1101 
Duncan, B. A., 253 
Dunhill, J., 209 
Dunning, William C, 653 

Emerson, Ralph W., 295, 469, 61 1 
Espy, J. C , 380 

Faber, George F., 891 
Fabian, V. F., 253 
Farquharson, A. L., 336 
Farrant, Percy, 652 
Feiker, F. M., 254 
Fenton, E. Burt, 129 " 
h'ield, Cornelius J., 653 
Finigan, Thomas, *786 
Fish, Williston, 469 
Flahive, Frank B., 932 
Flattey, M. F., 423 
Fleming, John, 423 
Flint, A. C, 423 
Forbes, Irving' E., 1101 
Forgie, James, 1101 
Franklin, W. S., 847 
Eraser, James Dewar, *129 
Freedman, Andrew, 1193 
Fritch, L. C, 1101 
Frost, Irving RL, 129 

Gailor, Chester F., 973 
Gatrell, Frank T., 1192 
Giaque, E. R., 169 
Gillette. E. S., 209 
Given, W. H., 295 
Goodrich, Calvin G., 1281 
Gorman, James P., 1060 
Goss, W. F. M., ♦1147 
Gould, E. F., 209 
Graham, Edward M., *1238 
Graham, Tohn R., 380 
Graham, William B., 1060, 1101 
Greenland, Sam W., 1238 
Grove, George, 1101 
Guy, George Lome, 1192 
Guy, William M., 129 


Haines, Albert, 253 
Haines, Edward J., 611 
Hale, J. W., 253 
Hale, Ledyard P., 169 
Hanson, Harry H., 1192 
Harries, George H., 469 
Harries, Herbert L., 1014 
Harris, Frank, 973 
Harrsen. Harro. 336 
Heath, E. B., 1014 
Hegartv, D. A., 933 
Hendrickfon, Joseph G., 1061 
II, iv.-n- I Tl • 1-1 
Henry, A. S., 1014 
Henry, i harels L., *785 
Henry, G. S., 129 
Henson, O. O., 253 
Higgins, loseph T., 423 
Hild, F. W., *693 
Hitchcock, William H., 295 
Hobbs, K. R., 423 
Hogue, Bradley B., 336 
Houston, Reagan, 973 
Hovt, Edward H., 336 
Huber, P. E., 1147 
Hudson, William C, 933 
Hughes. Oliver H., 1280 


Insull, Samuel, 253 

Jackson, Walter, 169 
Jasper, O. W., Sr., 129 


Kappeyne, T., 1238 
Kalte, E. B., 1238 
Kellogg, Clinton D,, 295 
Kellogg, Oscar, 253 

Kendall, Harry C, 1147, 1238 
Kilfoyle, T. 1'., *847 
Klatle, A. J., 1192 
Kolb, R. E. L., 1101 
Kramer, A. Ludlow, 1147 
Kuhlinan, Gustav C 786 

Larmouth, T. IT.. 253 

Latta, C. Fi., 1060 

Leversuch, p-rederick Thomas, 469 

Linch, George VV., 1239 

Lindall, John, *786 

Loeb, Howard A., 423 

Loftus, F. T., *1238 

Long, C. C, 932 

Lynch, Thomas, 169 


McAllister, A. S., 253 
McAneny, George, 891 
McCormick, 0. E., 1101 
McKelvey, Charles D., 1281 
McMahon, J. T., 1060 
MacBean, Tohn C, 423 
MacLean, H. A., 253 
Malloch, I-Ienrv, 1101 
Maltbie, Milo R., 295 
.Mandelbauni. Tacob, 1281 
Markle, Herbert, 611 
Marler, H. O., 652, 847 
Mason, F. 11., 1060 
Mason, H. C, 933 
Metcalfe. Jacob G., 423 
Miller, D. S., 932 
Miller, F. A., 253 
Miller, Frank H.. 336 
Miller, T. Lee, 693 
Minary, C. K., 1192 
Mitchell, A. J., 253 
Mitchell, John B., 653 
Mohr, Albert Siegel, 336 
Moir, J. H., 469 
Moore, E. L., 847 
Moore, W. E., 254 
Morton, W. M., 1061 
Mott, Frank H., 169 
Mower, S. Walter, *973 
Munger, E. T., 1061 


Nagle, George O., *1014 
Nemits, W. E., 1192 
Nicholl, H. A., *785 
Nichols, F. A.. 973 
Niver, R., 253 
Nix, William Henry, 891 
Norris, W., 1101 


O'Brien, Harrv, 847 
Ogborn, W. H., 932 

Padgett, John M., 380 
Parker. George Whitfield, 1061 
Parsons, Delos Emmons, *1239 
Peacock, E. R., 209 
Peartree, E. J., 1101 
Penman, D., 1060 
Pepperrnan, W. Leon, 1192 
Pevear, J. S., 1147 
Pierson, Joseph H., 85 
Pilcher, N. C, 253 
Polakov, Walter N., 470, 1014 
Powell, G. B., 1280 
Prior, J. H., 693 
Purdy, A. H., 932 
Purinton, A. J., 891 

Radel, Andrew, 891 
Randall, I. N., 253 
Reglin, August J., 1015 
Rice, C ecil G., 295 
Richardson, A. W., 253 
Rinker, Charles Haglm, 1061 
Ripley, Willis J., 336 
Robson, II. A., 1101 
Rockwell, J. J., 847 
Rose, Frank C, 85 
Rosen, Moritz, 253 
Rossiter, Clinton, L., 1280 
Rowley, Ralph S., 973 
Rumney, Nathan, 1060, *1147 
Russell, Charles A., 469 
Russell, J. B., 652 
Ryder, E. C, 1238 

Saunders, W. B., 1192 
Schlant, Edward, 1014 
Shaw, G. H. T., 1147 
Shepler, Daniel M., 380 
Shoup, Paul, 1014 
Simonds, O. H., 1281 
Simpson, Clark O., 254 
Skeen, George S., 253 
Slad, Walter C, 469 
Smeeth, Charles, 1192 
Smith, George William, 254 
Smith, R. II., 43 
Smith, Thomas B., 336, 611 
Smith, William J., 1015 
Spies, Frank A., 1192 
Spofford, Charles M., 85 
Stanley, Albert H., 336 
Stanton, W. S., 43 
Steinmetz. Charles P., 973 
Stevens, F. J., 611 
Stichter, R. B., 43 
Stockwell, Fred F., 85 
Stone, Charles A., 1101 
Stone, C. L., 973, 1014 
Straus, Oscar S., 1192 
Studley, John H., 1193 
Sullivan, Dennis, 1061 

Taylor, L. M., 847 
Torrey, W. H., 847 
Tripp, Guy E., 253, 336 
Trumbull, Tohn F., 129 

Van Frank. E. M., 1101 
Van Home, William C, 611 
Van Vorst, F. B., 1060, 1192 
Vermillion. C. A., 253 
Vincent. Samuel E.. 209 
Votaw, Glen E., 932 


Wagner, John W., 43 
Waller, O. A., 423 
Weitzmann, Cecil G., 1101 
West, Erastus L., 973 
Wetterer, C. F. W., 209 
Wheeler, Herbert M., 1061 
White, Edward D., 891 
Whitenton, W. M., 253 
Widener, l^ A. B., 1015 
Williams, Elmer L., 1060 
Williams, George B.. 253 
Williams, Timothy S., 85 
Willis, E. M., 1101 
Willoughby, C. D., 209 
Wilson. H. M., 1014 
Witt, Carl, 1015 
Wright, Thomas Allen, *1280 

Yeonians, George G., 1014 

♦Denotes Portrait 

Vol. XL VI 


No. 1 

A GOOD The National Fire Protection 

EXAMPLE OF Association is a body whose in- 

CO-OPERATION ^^^.^g^^ ^.^^^ ^^^^ conflict 

with those of electric railways and other sources of in- 
surance risks. The insurance people naturally want to 
get the largest possible premiums for insuring property 
involving the least possible fire hazards. The larger 
the premiums and the fewer and slighter the fires the 
more the insurance profits. While, of course, electric 
railways do not desire to have their structures unduly 
hazardous from the fire standpoint, yet they do not 
enjoy dictation from the underwriters. There is, there- 
fore, a constant possibility of difference of opinion as 
to what constitutes a reasonable risk and what pay- 
ments should be made for carrying it. The Fire Pro- 
tection Association is under no obligation even to con- 
sult the railways in this matter and it is all the more 
gratifying, therefore, that they not only do call repre- 
sentative electric railway men into conference, but they 
accept the suggestions of these men. Such conferences 
as those held in New York and Boston within the last 
two months achieve results which could not possi- 
bly come from conflict and produce benefits far be- 
yond those originally contemplated. So conspicuous 
has been the success of co-operation in this instance 
that the following words appeared in a recent N. F. P. 
A. committee report: "The association (A. E. R. E. A.) 
has displayed a spirit of strong co-operation in harmony 
with the National Fire Protection Association in all 
matters affecting mutual interest, and friendly relations 
exist at the present time." 

ENGINEERS Maintenance cost records founded 

NEED WAY on a standard unit should form 

COST RECORDS the basis for analyzing the rela- 
tive values of way materials and types of construction. 
The records of most way departments indicate that in- 
formation about materials, the types of construction and 
the track locations are carefully and accurately kept. 
Beyond this point most engineers have hesitated to go. 
They are prone to look upon analytical statistics as a 
prodigious task, which reveal only what comes more 
quickly from experience. However, we wish only to 
call attention to the wonderful improvements that have 
been made possible by the performance records and costs 
of generating stations and repair shops. It is only by 
analyzing costs on a common unit basis that results 
may be compared on different properties. What is still 
more important, definite knowledge is available which 
shows whether the new materials or the new types of 
construction used have produced the expected results. 
Information of this kind would be especially valuable 

in analyzing the merits oK^^ef^nV^P^ of construc- 
tion and materials used in tracKTiTlpaved streets. Gen- 
erally speaking, the track cost represents approximately 
40 per cent of the total plant cost, therefore the way 
engineer must exercise most careful judgment in adopt- 
ing new types of construction and new kinds of ma- 
terials. So many years are required on most properties 
to obtain definite results that some basis of generally 
adopted comparison is all the more important. If this 
were done, track worn out under dense and heavy 
traflSc would serve as an index of what might be expected 
of track where comparatively light traffic obtains. To 
what length way-department cost records could be ex- 
tended we do not care even to suggest. We do believe, 
however, that cost records on a unit basis of the total 
tonnage passing over the track would be of incalculable 
value in making comparisons between the different types 
of materials and construction. It would permit engi- 
neers to analyze their maintenance methods and particu- 
larly to criticise their own work. Where the same type 
of track construction is under similar traffic, main- 
tenance costs on different properties could be compared. 

GREATER We hope that the New York Con- 

PROTECTION FOR stitutional Convention will adopt 
COMMISSIONERS ^^le recommendation made by 
representatives of public utility companies who ap- 
peared before the members last week and urged that the 
term of office of public service commissioners be extend- 
ed from five to ten years and that the holders of such 
offices have constitutional protection. We have often 
emphasized the fact that the tenure of office of com- 
missioners is too short for them to become properly 
acquainted with the questions to be solved and the 
precedence and the economic laws governing these pub- 
lic utility problems. A term of fifteen years would not 
be too long, but a practical fulfillment of the ten-year 
term for New York would be a step in the right direc- 
tion. As to the other point, up to the present there has 
been very little advocacy of constitutional protection for 
commissioners. The reason for this has been the com- 
parative newness of the idea of commission regulation. 
Changes in constitutions come slowly in this country, 
and it is well that it is so. Public sentiment has gradu- 
ally been crystallizing, however, in favor of commission 
form of government, but so separated from politics as 
to keep it free from the spoils system. We would ap- 
prove, therefore, any means for giving commissioners 
the same security of office as the higher judges, and 
would advocate a requirement of a concurrent resolution 
of both legislative houses by a two-thirds vote for re- 
moval. To be sure, the character of commissioners must 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

ultimately depend upon the Governor's appointive 
power, but under the above plan the individual com- 
missioner would be much more secure in office, and so 
better able to act in an unbiased way with the cases 
which come before him. For the same reason, also, a 
better class of men would be attracted to such work. 


We are wholly unable to agree with the expression 
of belief in the importance of the motor-bus as a com- 
petitor to the electric railway, which appears on another 
page of this issue, notwithstanding our respect for the 
opinions of its author. Undoubtedly the itinerant 
jitney has made serious holes in the gross earnings of a 
number of properties, but that fact certainly does not 
constitute a valid reason why the electric railway should 
enter the bus business with a view to recouping its 
losses. We have followed with the utmost care — even 
with a certain amount of natural anxiety — the whole 
of the short history of the motor-bus movement in this 
country, and as it stands at present the situation may 
be summed up in one sentence: Nowhere have there 
been given out any authentic records of the actual opera- 
tion of motor-buses which show them to be nearly as 
efficient, including all costs and all factors, as are elec- 
tric cars. 

The author expresses fear that organized capital 
might engage in the business and make greater inroads 
into the trolley receipts than the unorganized jitney 
competition, but there is even less danger of this, we be- 
lieve, than from the itinerant jitney. The regular bus is 
at a disadvantage in some respects as a traffic getter, 
compared with the second-hand touring car. In the 
first place, with the increased number of passengers 
more stops have to be made, and the bus cannot com- 
pete in speed with the smaller vehicle. Again, the bus 
does not appeal so strongly to the man who does not 
own an automobile as does the touring car. We have 
always maintained that one of the reasons which im- 
pelled some people to use the jitneys was the appearance 
of affluence which it gave, and this is shown by the re- 
quests often made by passengers to the driver to re- 
move his route sign. Finally, there is no such supply 
of second-hand motor-buses as there is of second-hand 
touring cars, so that the investment required to estab- 
lish a line of buses is very much greater. 

Organized capital has attempted to establish 5-cent 
motor-bus lines in various cities, but we know of no 
place where they have proved at all successful. In both 
Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the service has been aban- 
doned, and last week the news came from Washington 
that a receiver had been appointed for the Metropolitan 
Coach Company of that city. Of these installations it 
is hard to imagine any two cities in the country where 
the natural conditions in the way of climate, low grades 
and good paving are more favorable to the operation of 
motor-bus lines than Los Angeles and Washington. 

The sale of the Los Angeles buses was mentioned in 
this paper several months ago. In reply to a creditor's 
petition for a receiver in the Washington case the com- 

pany admitted its insolvency. It has never made ex- 
penses at any time during three years of operation. 
It was not a fly-by-night undertaking equipped with 
second-hand cars. It was a company operating six 
eighteen-passenger buses of good design over a route 
from Fifteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue (a de- 
partmental, business and hotel center) to Sixteenth and 
U Streets, traversing one of the best residence districts 
of the city. The maximum haul for a 5-cent or six-for- 
a-quarter fare was 11/2 miles. The traffic has amounted 
to as many as 65,000 cash passengers a month. But the 
line could not be made to pay even with the most eco- 
nomical, not to say parsimonious, management. There 
is no mystery about the outcome of this experiment. 
It is due simply to the fact that it cost more to carry 
passengers than was collected for the service. What 
makes the Washington bus failure especially impres- 
sive is the fact that the enterprise was well backed 
financially and had a particularly good route. If suc- 
cess could not be achieved under these circumstances it 
would be hard to find a situation that would justify the 
hope of profit in jitney operation. 

There is a profitable bus line in New York City. But 
this charges a 10-cent fare in a restricted and highly- 
profitable territory, and if there is another successful 
city bus company of reasonable size elsewhere in the 
country, the fact of its existence has never been pub- 
lished. Indeed, until someone is able to make actual, 
not paper, profits with buses at the 5-cent fare charged 
by city railways, or to serve rural districts at the same 
speeds and at the same fares that have been established 
by the interurbans, we refuse absolutely to be stam- 
peded by the spectacular features of the motor-bus. 
When its advocates can point to definite results that 
show it to be cheaper to operate than the electric car 
there may be some grounds for the consideration of 
bus operation in general by electric railways. Until 
that time arrives, however, we can only reiterate a warn- 
ing against taking up this over-exploited and apparently 
extravagant method of transporting passengers. 

It is perhaps more than a coincidence that we printed 
in last week's issue two letters from railway operators 
advocating the use of light one-man cars as a means 
for dealing with the jitney problem in small cities. The 
jitney has certainly shown the general demand for fre- 
quent service, and in emphasizing this fact it may prove 
to be a blessing in disguise. As a common carrier, it 
has no place on the streets of the city unless it assumes 
the duties which pertain to all common carriers, but 
that it may also direct attention to ways in which elec- 
tric railway service may be improved, there is no ques- 

Two plans have been suggested for changes in elec- 
tric railway practice to meet the competition brought 
by the jitney. One is the adoption of the short car 
which, in many cities, would be the one-man car. The 
second, mentioned in one of the letters last week, is 
the establishment of a zone system with a reduced rate 

July 3, 1915] 



of fare for a restricted zone in the center of the city. 
The British Columbia Electric Railway is the only com- 
pany we now recall as having taken this latter step. 
This line, preferring to apply the "aut scissors aut 
nullus" policy to its fares rather than to its service, 
recently offered as alternative to its ordinary straight 
5-cent fare a special non-transfer ticket, good only 
within the city limits of Vancouver and Victoria, at the 
rate of eight tickets for 25 cents. In the recent report 
of R. B. Stearns on the Milwaukee zone system the sug- 
gestion was also made, though not yet put into practice, 
that a reduced rate for a smaller central zone would 
further increase riding through the stimulation of short- 
haul business and through the competition with the jit- 
ney and walking. Such a step would undoubtedly be 
revolutionary, but these suggestions show the way in 
which a number of railway operators are thinking. 

The one-man car, especially the light car, is not so 
radical a departure from existing standards, and in one 
of the letters mentioned actual figures were given of 
the low injuries and damages account on two lines using 
one-man cars, as well as estimated annual net savings 
possible with one-man over two-man service. Operators 
and public officials inclined to regard the accident haz- 
ard of the one-man car as prohibitory will find a revela- 
tion in these figures, and general publicity of similar 
statistics would do much to remove prejudice from this 
type of equipment. So far as its inherent profitable- 
ness is concerned, the fact that a number of engineers 
are now engaged in designing experimental one-man 
cars of exceptionally light weight bids fair to promise 
for the future a considerable reduction in operating 
expenses, even as compared with the roseate yet con- 
servative estimates already presented. 


To graduates of engineering schools this year who 
are considering electric railway work as a chosen field, 
we unhesitatingly say that never in the history of the 
industry have opportunities been better for men with a 
real bent toward a transportation career, backed by 
staying power and a determination to do every job so 
well that it forms a stepping stone toward the next re- 
sponsibility. The day has gone when a "favorite son" 
with a fat allowance and an easygoing disposition can 
expect to go into electric railway work and hold down a 
man's position on a banking hours' schedule; but the 
time will never come when a man willing to devote prac- 
tically his whole time out of bed to mastering the prob- 
lems of transportation in the early years of his career 
on the basis of aptitude for the work and of absolute 
fidelity to every commission cannot advance in the trac- 
tion world once he is fortunate enough to get a start. 

Once the 1915 graduate becomes an employee of an 
operating company, let him realize that his future large- 
ly depends upon himself. The exact line of work which 
is first taken up is relatively unimportant. Students 
sometimes hesitate to enter platform service for fear 
that they will be swallowed up in the organization, but 
it is fair to say that this anxiety is largely unnecessary. 

A period of service at the controller and among passen- 
gers affords a trained engineer opportunity to enter 
into the problems of the transportation department 
which may be extremely valuable in comparison with 
the rather academic ideas often gained otherwise. The 
methods of handling runs, of filling in traffic blanks, day 
cards, and accident reports, of "signing up" for work, 
the close observation possible of the way in which sub- 
ordinate officials perform their tasks — these and a hun- 
dred other details afford experience which may be ex- 
tremely suggestive, however loath a man may be to pass 
more than a few months in routine duty. In years to 
come, when the executive of 1925 goes under cross-ex- 
amination in an arbitration or court case, the mere fact 
of having had actual experience on the platform or as a 
helper in the shop may give his evidence a value which 
could never be the result of purely theoretical knowl- 
edge. Work in the ranks of an operating company may 
not in itself call for the practice of principles learned 
on the hidden side of the college wall, but it gives a 
sense of proportion and a knowledge of men that come 
into play exceedingly well sooner or later. 

However a technically trained man may enter the 
service of the modern street railway, he is bound to be- 
come acquainted with the engineering and executive 
staff in due course and, in fact, will do well to let the 
employment department know his full hopes and desires 
when he goes into the work. Attendance at meetings 
of company sections of the national association, the 
gradual extension of friendship and continued study are 
likely to bring their reward in due course. Where one 
can enter a student course or as a recognized appren- 
tice, so much the better. Finally, if things go too slow- 
ly after a reasonable trial, it may be possible to apply 
for a transfer to another department with some show of 
success. Sooner or later the opportunity coveted is al- 
most sure to come to the technically trained man whose 
qualifications are known to his superiors, and if they 
are not, either the system of employment and manage- 
ment is wrong or the man himself must be at fault. 

Sooner or'later the true cost of electric transportation 
must be met by the communities which it supplies. This 
means that as long as such service is rendered, scientific 
work in it will be rewarded. We need not enumerate 
the unsolved problems of the industry. There will al- 
ways be such before it, and to those of the future the 
young men of to-day will have to address themselves. 
Public relations, scientific management, the conduct of 
l?bor affairs, — these and many other questions are com- 
ing to the front more and more as the industry grows. 
Methods may change with the years, but the fundamen- 
tal problem of economically transporting men and 
things will always be with us, and in no small degree 
the success with which its variables are evaluated in the 
years to come will depend upon the graduates of the 
present period, upon their eagerness to master details 
before they attempt to generalize, and upon their appre- 
ciation of the meaning of opportunity in the humblest 
task which is placed upon them in the drab weeks which 
so often follow the fall of the academic curtain. 


[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

Improvements in the Low- Floor Car 

Four Years of Development Have Brought the Pittsburgh Design into Its Probable Final Form — A Description 
is Published, Including Consideration of the Details of Construction of the Ix)w-Floor Motors 

and the Control Without Resistance 

Since the low-floor car was brought out in Pittsburgh, 
somewhat less than four years ago, certain changes have 
been made from time to time with the idea of improv- 
ing the operating eflSciency. The first cars of this gen- 
eral type were trailers and were placed in service in 
1911. One of these, equipped with motors, has been in 
regular operation since the summer of 1912, but the 
fiirst cars designed especially for use as motor cars have 
been in use about two years. The changes in the car 
body, although important, are very naturally over- 
shadowed by those made in the control system that 
practically eliminates the use of resistance, as well as 
by the motors which have made possible such an aston- 
ishing reduction in weight by permitting the use of 
24-in. wheels. As these features have, in all probability, 
reached the commercial form in which they will remain 
for some time to come, detailed descriptions are given 
in the following paragraphs. These include also a com- 
parison between the design of the low-floor motor and 
a standard motor of the same rating, which shows for 
the first time some of the reasons for the ability of the 
former to do its work in spite of its small size. 

The latest developments in the low-floor car design 
appear in the 100 cars which were ordered some time 
ago by the Pittsburgh Railways Company and are being 
received from the builders at the present time. In 
general appearance the new cars are like their prede- 
cessors which were described in the Electric R.4ILWAY 
Journal for April ll, 1914. However, they have lower 
steps because of a greater ramp in the floor, and in 
addition a greater proportion of the car is built from 
steel, the latter feature, together with other refine- 
ments in design, making it possible to reduce the weight 
of the car body by approximately 2500 lb. 

In the center-entrance motor cars first used in Pitts- 
burgh the top of the center door is reinforced by heavy 
rolled channels. In the new cars, however, the whole 
side of the car becomes a girder, the depth of which 
is from the top of the letterboard to the bottom of the 
side sheathing. Previously the side girder extended 

from the bottom of the side sheathing to the bottom of 
the window only, and it was necessary to reinforce 
heavily the parts around the center doors in order to 
carry the strains across this portion of the car side. 

The seating capacity is sixty. By combining longi- 
tudinal and transverse seats the company has returned 
to a plan that was very widely used in Pittsburgh before 
the advent of the first center-entrance cars. Permanent 
seats extend around the ends of the car, the control 
and brake handles being mounted on pipe railings that 
serve as seat separators. A plan is shown on page 7. 

The ramp at the center of the car is 5 in. high and 
5 ft. long. This reduces the two center-entrance 
steps to heights of 14 in. and 91/2 in. Three steps re- 
spectively 12V2 in., 8^2 in. and 81,0 in. are provided at 
the front exit, the first-mentioned one being the height 
from the rail to the lowest step tread. 

In common with the earlier designs the new cars have 
a front exit door and two doors at the center. The 
door mechanism is made up of levers, and all doors are 
mechanically controlled by the trainmen without the 
use of compressed air or electricity, it being believed 
that a manually-operated door is much more easily kept 
in order than one opened by power. The center doors 
are separately controlled by the conductor, so that either 
one or both of these doors may be used as an entrance. 
If a passenger sitting in the rear part of the car signals 
that he wants to get off, the conductor keeps the rear 
center door closed until he is ready to alight. The 
entering passengers then divide into two streams, part 
coming in one door and part in another. The front exit 
door is supposed to be used by all of the passengers in 
the front half of the car, although it has been found in 
practice that only about two-thirds of them do so. 

Some remarkable results have been obtained through 
having two streams of passengers board simultaneously 
and pass on opposite sides of the fare box. The loading 
time per passenger at certain corners is less than one 
second, the average at the heavy loading points ( includ- 
ing the time of the fellow "who never has change") 


July 3, 1915] 



being only slightly more than one second. In general, 
the separate control of the center doors has been found 
to be an excellent feature since it permits the conductor, 
without saying anything to any of the passengers, to 
guide their movements. Also it is possible in cold 
weather, when only one or two people want to board 
the car at a certain point, to open only a small part of 
the car to the outside atmosphere. 

The exact weight of the new cars, fully equipped for 
double-end operation, with two fenders, two couplers, 
two controllers, etc., is 35,600 lb. If the car should be 
arranged for single-end operation, with only one set of 
doors, one controller, etc., the weight would be 33,000 
lb. Car-body and equipment weights are as follows : 

Weight of car body, conduit, wiring and air-brake piping. 18,000 lb. 

Weight of air brakes 950 lb. 

Weight of motors 7,000 lb. 

Weight of other electrical equipment 1,250 lb. 

Weight of trucks • 8,400 lb. 

Total weight 35,600 lb. 

The car-body weight includes all accessories as well 
as the air-brake piping and the wire and conduit for 
the motors and control. The weight of steel in the car 
framing is 6800 lb. The over-all length of the body is 
45 ft. and the width is approximately 8 ft. 

From the above table it is manifest that the low total 
weight of the car is brought about in great measure by 
the reduction in weight of the apparatus under the car 
rather than in the car body itself. The small wheel, in 
itself, reduces the weight by approximately 1200 lb. 
per car, and to its use can be traced almost all the other 
weight reductions. The axles of the trucks are lighter 
because of reduced strains, and the truck itself, in all 
its members, is lighter than with the larger wheel. In 
practice the lighter weights of the members are found 
to have ample strength. Theoretically the closer the 
center of gravity is to the track, the harder the impact 
from side motion, but in practice, in slow-speed city 
service, the distance that the car body travels in a side 
"slap" seems to be the controlling factor, since the low- 
floor car rides much better over rough track than the 
high-wheeled car. The details of the truck were worked 
out under the supervision of F. R. Phillips, superinten- 
dent of equipment. 

The prominent feature of the truck is the elimination 
of end frames, the truck being held square by gussets 
that connect the transoms and the arch-bar-type side 

frames. The Grouping of Motors 

weight of 4200 lb. 
for the truck indi- 
rectly enables a to- 
tal saving of 3400 
lb. to be made over 
the standard type 
with large wheels, 
740 lb. of this sav- 
ing being in the 
smaller axles and 
1200 lb. being due 
to the smaller 
wheels. Elliptic 
springs are used, 
these resting on a 
spring plank sup- 
ported by 15-deg. 
swing links from 
the transoms, and 
it is reported that 
the arrangement 
makes the low- 
floor car actually 
ride more easily 
than the standard 
types, even in 

high-speed suburban service, where several of the cars 
of low-floor design are used. 

The electrical equipment consists of four GE-247-A, 
35-hp motors with Jones control built by the General 
Electric Company under the Jones-Welsh patents. The 
control differs from that used on the earlier low-floor 
cars in having a new type of unit switch, this being of 
the armature, type instead of the plunger type. The 
contactors are arranged in two switch-group cases, the 
reduced size making it easy to find a place for the groups 
beneath the low floor of the car. The combinations and 
connections provide for the use of interlocks on the 
contactors to establish holding circuits whereby the 
motors are maintained in parallel groups while the con- 
trol handle is being thrown off, thus affording a closed 
path of low resistance for the discharge of magnetic 
energy. In this way burning of the contactor tips is 
greatly reduced since the contactors act as commutating 
switches, and with the exception of one or two units 
have very little actual rupturing of the current to do. 

8 Runuing 

Electr'u ky.Jfjurnal 






[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

Contactor Sequeuce 













2 o 









4 o 
























8 o 








O Kunmng Points 


ElcclT-u riif.J.Minat ■ 


There is also provided a method of cutting out damaged 
motors by use of the control circuits which simplifiep 
the car wiring. 

In this control system resistance is used only on two 
transition points or when all four motors are in series 
and when the first motor is thrown in parallel across 
the line. In the original control system only two mo- 
tors worked on the transition points, whereas the above 
plan shows never less than three from the series-parallel 
position to the final position. By the use of an addi- 
tional contactor, three or more motors can be used 
throughout the entire range, but in practice this has 
been found unnecessary for the first part of the acceler- 
ating period. It should be said that a few of the con- 
trollers with the original connections are still in service 
and work very well e.xcept that the acceleration is not 
as rapid as with the new scheme. 

Since there are three running notches, the transition 
points are used only for very short intervals. It is 
found that the motormen make frequent use of the 
first running notch with all the motors in series, when 
behind slow-moving wagons, and the power, therefore, 
is not continually thrown on and off. This saves con- 
troller fingers, brakeshoes, wheels, current, and last 
but not least, nerve force of the passengers. 

Three e.xtremely hilly routes in Pittsburgh have been 
equipped with the low-floor cars, and it is found that 
the current consumption is approximately the same as 
when the same number of small-capacity single-truck 
cars were in operation on these lines. Tests lasting for 
about two and one-half months show that this control 

takes from 8 per cent to 15 per cent less power 
than with the standard, resistance-type, series-parallel 
control when used on cars of the same weight. The 
amount of saving, of course, depends largely upon the 
number of stops per mile. The design of the resistance 
and the smaller capacity of the motors, it may be said, 
help to reduce the car weight. 

One other feature of the car is a new type of com- 
pressor which was specially designed by the Westing- 
house Air Brake Company to fit the available space and 
to reduce the vertical height occupied to the absolute 

Design of Low-Floor Motor 

Naturally, the development of motors small enough 
for use with 24-in. wheels has raised some question as 
to the methods by which this most important step 
toward efficient operation has been made. As a matter 
of fact, in the design of the low-floor motors nothing 
has been skimped to save weight, and the construction 
has been worked out along normal lines, the designers 
utilizing all of the latest available knowledge about 
railway equipment to produce the best results con- 
sistent with generally accepted practice. 

This is indicated in the following table, which shows 
that there is nothing in the new design that is greatly 

i ^ 

W 26 2o00 

24 2400 

22 2200 

100 20 2000 

90 13 ISOO 

80 16 1600 

70 14 1400 

60 12 1200 

50 10 1000 

40 8 800 

30 6 600 

20 4 400 

10 2 200 

35 H. p. Output at Amp-In{)ut. 600 Volts . 
Gear 58 Teeth - Diam. of Wheels 24" 
Pinion 15 Teeth - Reduction 3.87 



■y J 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

90 100 110 

Elixiri^ Rl/.Joiirnat 

low-floor CAR — VIEW OF MOTOR FOR 


July 3, 1915] 



different from the electrical and mechanical features of 
the older types of motors. The new type, which is 
known as the GE-247 motor, is of the same rating 
as the old standard GE-81, and on this basis may be 
compared with it. The field windings of the two motors 
cannot, of course, be compared because the GE-81 motor 
is a non-commutating-pole machine while the GE-247 
motor has commutating poles. The armatures, how- 
ever, are wound with exactly the same number of turns 
per coil. In both cases the air gaps are normal, being 
eccentric, and they should not vary from each other 
more than 1/64 in. The new motor, also, is ventilated, 
whereas the older one is not. This feature has nat- 
urally increased its relative hourly rating and has given 
it as well a high continuous ampere capacity. 

Comparison Between Low-Floor Motor and Standard Motor 

GE-247 GE-81 

Rating 600 volts 35 hp 35 hp 

Rating 500 volts 30 hp 30 hp 

Clearance under frame : 

30-in. wheels .... 4 % in. 

24-in. wheels 3 5/16 in. .... 

Speed (500 volts, 55 amp) 605 r.p.m. 610 r.p.m. 

Diameter of armature 10 14 in. llVj in. 

Number of slots 27 29 

Turns per coil 3 3 

Length of commutator 2% in. 3 in. 

Thickness of shell 7/16 in.-l Vs in. % in.-m. in. 

Diameter of armature shaft 2% in. 2% in. 

Weight with gears and case 1750 lb. 2020 lb. 

Summed up it may be said that the 24-in. wheel, 
with all of its inherent advantages in reduced weight, 
has been made possible mainly by the adaptation of 
commutating poles and ventilation to a small-size 
motor, together with a reduction of 1 in. in clearance 


under the motor frame. Aside from these features the 
considerable saving in weight and size has been effected 
without departing in the least from the substantial me- 
chanical design of standard motors. The efficiency 
tractive effort and speed curves are shown in an ac- 
companying diagram. 

Details of Construction 

It should be said also that part of the saving in weight 
has been obtained by the use of the box type of frame. 
This has for long been considered necessary for large 
motors, and its adoption for a motor of this size is a 
perfectly logical step. The box frame of the new 
motor is approximately octagon in transverse section, 
and has the four main exciting poles located at angles 
of 45 deg. to the vertical. Bails are cast on the frame 
for handling the motor, and brackets are provided for 
bar suspension. A large opening is provided over the 
commutator, this being closed by a pressed-steel cover 
held in place by a cam locking device. The frame heads 
have auxiliary oil wells, and drain pockets for oil thrown 
off by the oil deflectors on the armature shaft. All 
covers on the axle and armature-bearing oil boxes have 
deep lips and are lined with thick felt held in place by 
rivets and washers, a sheet steel dustguard inclosing 
the axle between the axle caps. Provision is made for 
a 4-in. diameter of axle in the axle linings and for 
linings 7 in. in length. The gear case is made of sheet 
steel, each half being pressed from a single sheet, and 
it is supported by a horn cast on the axle cap at the 
pinion end. 

The exciting pole pieces are built up of laminations 

assembled on keys which are bolted to the frame by 
tapped bolts inserted from the outside. The commu- 
tating pole pieces are drop forgings. The mummified 
type of coil is used for both main and commutating 
field coils, the insulation following standard General 
Electric practice in all respects. The exciting coils are 
held against steel pads by spring angle fianges, and the 
commutating coils against finished seats in the frame 
in a similar manner. 

The armature, of course, is built up of laminations 
assembled on and keyed to the armature shaft, longi- 
tudinal ventilating ducts extending through it and 
through the commutator shell and armature heads. The 
commutator is BVs in. in diameter and is built up of 
hard-drawn copper, insulated with mica grooved out to 
a depth of 3/64 in. below the surface of the commuta- 
tor. The bars are insulated from the shell by cones of 
mica pressed to shape, the whole being pressed together 
hydraulically before the locking nut is tightened up. 
The insulation of the armature coils, hot banding, etc., 
and the brush-holder design also follows standard Gen- 
eral Electric practice. 

Ventilation is effected by a double or multiple fan 
which is made integral with the pinion-end armature 
head and which draws air into the motor through hooded 
openings provided in the commutator-end frame head. 
The air divides into two streams, one passing over and 
around the armature and field coils, the other taking a 
parallel path through the ventilating ducts in the com- 
mutator shell and armature core. After passing through 
the double fan the streams unite and are exhausted 
to the atmosphere through screened openings in the 
frame. By this means a positive circulation of air is 
maintained through the motor, cool air coming in con- 
tact with all parts of the motor. 

In designing this motor no effort has been made 
to reduce the weight below limits that are consistent 
with sufl[icient strength and rigidity; therefore, it is 
well suited to handle loads within its range of capacity. 
This has been demonstrated by the fact that the original 
motors of this general type have been in hard service 
for nearly two years with a low maintenance cost. In 
fact, approximately 500 of the GE-247 motors have al- 
ready been supplied for cars with 24-in. wheels, and all 
of them at the present time are giving very satisfac- 
tory results in operation. 

Congresses at San Francisco 

Eight hundred and twenty-two conventions and con- 
gresses, whose subjects cover the activities of the world 
along industrial, commercial, professional and scientific 
lines, will meet in San Francisco and the bay cities in 
connection with the Panama-Pacific International Ex- 
position during the 288 days of its existence. This is 
more than double the number at any previous world 
exposition, and to secure them practically all organiza- 
tions of importance in the civilized nations of the world 
were thoroughly canvassed by the exposition authorities. 

The attendance at each of the conventions and con- 
gresses will range from 100 to possibly 30,000 delegates 
and visitors. There will be an average of nine exposi- 
tion conventions per day throughout the entire period. 
But few days are blank, and on certain days during the 
summer months as many as thirty or forty meetings of 
various kinds will be held. 

Following are the classifications geographically and 
the popular months: national conventions, 525; inter- 
national congresses, 57 ; Pacific Coast conventions, 68 ; 
California conventions, 172. August is the month dur- 
ing which the largest number will be held, namely 249. 
July follows with 133, and September with eighty-six. 


Pacific Claim Agents' Convention 

Abstracts Are Given of Six of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Claim Agents' 

Association— Result of the Election of Ofiicers 

The seventh annual meeting of the Pacific Coast 
Claim Agents' Association was held in San Francisco 
on June 24-26. There was a full representation from 
member companies. The sessions were notable for the 
number of very able addresses and papers presented. 
One of these was published in abstract in the issue of 
this paper for last week, and abstracts of others appear 
this week. 

At the meeting on June 26 officers were elected as 
follows : 

President, Thomas G. Aston, claim agent Washing- 
ton Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash. 

First vice-president, Thomas A. Cole, claim agent 
Los Angeles Railway Corporation, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Second vice-president, W. H. Moore, San Diego Elec- 
tric Railway Company. 

Third vice-president, J. S. Mills, assistant superin- 
tendent Key Route, Oakland, Cal. 

Secretary and treasurer, H. G. Winsor, claim agent 
Tacoma Railway & Power Company, Tacoma, Wash. 

Executive committee: J. H. Handlon, claim agent 
United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal.; A. M. Lee, as- 
sistant general claim agent Northern Pacific Railway, 
Seattle, Wash. ; B. F. Boynton, claim agent Portland 
Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, Ore. ; George 
Carson, claim agent Puget Sound Traction, Light & 
Power Company ; H. K. Relf , general claim agent Spo- 
kane, Portland & Seattle Railway, and S. A. Bishop, 
general claim agent Pacific Electric Railway, Los Ange- 
les, Cal. 

Tacoma was chosen as the place for next year's con- 



The investigator, to my mind, is next in importance 
to the claim agent or adjuster. Loyalty, of course, is 
one of his first requirements. He should be above the 
average degree of intelligence and come within the most 
critical definition of the term gentleman. Then his 
personality should be pleasing, and he should approach 
people in a manner to inspire confidence. He should 
also be a good listener, be able at once to impress upon 
the witness his fairness in the case in question, and 
fairly to influence an obstinate or prejudiced person. 
He should be honest in all things, clean morally, dress 
neatly but not overdress, as his work requires him to 
meet all classes. He should be particular when calling 
upon people below him in rank not to talk over their 
heads. He should hold his temper always, but by so 
doing not let the other fellow imagine he is afraid. 

He will find cranks and critics in many places, as well 
as scores of people with complaints, real or fancied, and 
to these he must be able to make answer without pro- 
voking an argument. Many times, the fact of calling 
attention to the difficulties of operation or the tribula- 
tions of the trainmen in dealing with the public and 
endeavoring to please all, will be of material help in 
effacing prejudice and creating a friendly attitude. A 
good way out of many such incidents is for the investi- 
gator to explain that the claim department has nothing 
whatever to do with the operating end but that he will 
be pleased to call attention to the complaint or sugges- 

tion, and in this way many timely suggestions have been 
so made and reported to the proper department. 

The investigator should be sufficiently acquainted 
with the subject under investigation to know what he 
is seeking and recognize it when he sees it, thus cutting 
out all suppositions and embodying in his statement 
positive facts to which the witness could testify if called 
upon the stand later. A reasonably short, clear state- 
ment covering the facts will help to save much of the 
time of the witnesses, most of whom are disinterested 
and conferring a favor upon him. 

The investigator should be on the best of terms with 
all other employees, so far as is possible, and especially 
with heads of departments. His treatment of trainmen 
should be such that they may look upon him as a friend 
trying to build up a defense not only for the company 
but for the man or men who have had the accidents. 
If he has established this feeling he will secure many 
good tips from them. 

He should be able to use a camera to secure pictures 
of conditions at crossings, landings, steps and platforms 
as well as street intersections, thus having evidence 
which is hard to refute months or years later in a suit, 
when conditions may have changed. 



After years of work along safety educational lines 
with our trainmen in Portland in the public schools, 
and in various other ways, we began to receive letters / 
from all over this country and foreign countries inquir- 
ing about the methods and results of our work. We 
began to feel we had really accomplished some good in 
eliminating accidents, as we had reduced the number 
of accidents on our own property about thirty a day. 
One day I called on the Mayor and showing him the docu- 
ments we had received from the various cities and 
countries, I told him I thought that a public safety 
committee, backed up by prominent men in our city, 
could accomplish a great deal toward making Portland 
the safest city in the world. The Mayor thought the 
suggestion a good one and appointed a committee con- 
sisting of nine bureaus, as follows : 

Bureau of public safety — John T. Moore, captain of 

Bureau of fire prevention — A. M. Churchill, lawyer 
and chairman of fire prevention bureau of Civic League ; 
E. F. Dowell, chief of fire department, and Jay Stevens, 
fire marshal. 

Bureau of traffic — H. P. Coffin, chairman public 
safety committee of Portland Automobile Club, and 
A. S. Kirkpatrick, city traffic engineer. 

Bureau of schools — L. R. Alderman, superintendent 
of schools. 

Bureau of transportation — F. L. Burckhalter, general 
superintendent Southern Pacific Railway. 

Bureau of electric transportation — B. F. Boynton, 
general claim agent Portland Railway, Light & Power 

Bureau of industrials — M. N. Dana, Evening Journal. 
Bureau of buildings — R. L. Withrow, Evening Tele- 

July 3, 1915] 



Bureau of publicity — H. E. Thomas, city editor The 

Advisory board — G. W. Talbot, president Pacific 
Power & Light Company; F. C. Knapp, Peninsula Lum- 
ber Company, and A. H. Averill, Averill Machinery 

These men, you will see by the positions they hold, 
are representative men in representative positions. 
Each man has his branch of work to cover. 

The first public step, after our organization, was to 
get our fire marshal. Jay Stevens, to go in full firemen's 
uniform, with H. P. Coffin, chairman of our public 
safety committee at the present time, and myself, to 
our various public schools throughout the city and talk 
to the children on fire prevention. Mr. Stevens, being a 
very interesting and entertaining talker, was received 
at all the schools with great enthusiasm, and we have 
a record at the present time of having saved two 
schools and a great many lives as the result of Mr. Ste- 
ven's talks. At the time he started his school lectures 
many false fire alarms were being rung in every day, 
which not only cost about $25 each to answer, but intro- 
duced an element of danger from the heavy fire appara- 
tus plunging through the streets at breakneck speed. He 
showed in his talk to the school boys that the fire en- 
gines, in answering one of these false alarms might 
collide with a street car, injuring the firemen and pos- 
sibly the boy's own mother in the street car. This 
caused all the boys to think. They stopped turning in 
false alarms, and to-day a false alarm is a rarity in the 
city of Portland. 

For a number of years I have been gathering different 
safety data and safety propaganda of every description 
from all over the world; in fact, I have quite a large 
room in our building given over entirely to a safety- 
first exhibit. To impress the members of the Commer- 
cial Club and Portland's citizens with what was being 
done along safety lines, I had this entire exhibit moved 
to the dining room of the club, and on the occasion of 
our first general meeting there we invited a number of 
representative employers to attend. The enthusiasm 
and interest displayed at that meeting has ever since 
been growing. We held other meetings at the Com- 
mercial Club, which was then Portland's representative 
business organization. Every meeting has been largely 

Within the past few months our Commercial Club and 
Chamber of Commerce and other large clubs have com- 
bined into one organization, namely, the Chamber of 
Commerce, thus making an organization of approxi- 
mately 5000 members. The new Portland Chamber of 
Commerce in its budget just prepared, has made a very 
liberal allowance for carrying on the safety work. 

Since the establishment of the public safety commit- 
tee, our city has appointed a public-safety man. This 
gentleman, A. S. Kirkpatrick, has installed between 300 
and 400 caution signs at dangerous points all over the 
city. They are steel disks 18 in. in diameter, mounted 
on steel tubing 6 ft. high, painted red with a green 
center, and are set in concrete just inside the curbing 
on the right-hand side of the street at various dis- 
tances from danger zones, warning the drivers of teams 
and machines of the condition ahead. "Sharp Turn," 
"Steep Grade," "Railroad Crossing," "School, Drive 
Slow," "Fire Station," "Reverse Curve," "Hospital," and 
other warnings are painted on these little disks. 

Up to May 1 our public safety committee had 153 au- 
tomobile drivers arrested (and most of them were fined) 
for disobeying the traffic ordinance in passing street 
cars while the latter were discharging passengers. Be- 
fore the organization of the public safety committee 
many passengers were knocked down and injured in this 
manner, but now, when a street car stops, no matter 

how many machines there are behind it, they all throw 
in the reverse and come to an immediate stop. 

Our fire marshal has appointed a number of deputies, 
who all wear regulation fire inspector's uniforms. 
Every building in the city of Portland is being ex- 
amined by him or his deputies for fire hazards, and we 
expect to carry out just as thorough work through 
every branch of industry, and in so doing solve through 
education the greater portion of the accident problem. 
I find that by being liberal enough to take an interest 
in the other phases of safety work than that which di- 
rectly aft'ects the company I represent, a feeling of 
desire to reciprocate and help us is created among all 
classes of people in a way that could not possibly have 
been done in any other manner. 



There are many types of applicants for employment 
but comparatively few can be classed as eligible. The 
process of elimination quickly disposes of such as the 
man who cannot afford time for proper instruction; or 
the one who is always financially embarrassed ; or the 
man who is a "globe trotter" and has a pocket full of 
service letters ; or the man who can tell his instructors 
just how the work should be done. We have no use for 
the man who is dissipated or naturally uncouth in ap- 
pearance, and above all, we should shun the man who 
expects to secure a position through political influence. 

On the other hand, the employment official of ex- 
perience and mature judgment will quickly recognize 
probable merit in the following types: 

1. The man who presents a desire to undertake the 
work without condition, depending entirely on his per- 
sonality for favorable consideration. 

2. The man who presents himself at an hour which 
he selects as being most convenient for the employment 
official and enters the office in a respectful manner. 

3. Those having seen honorable service in the army 
and navy. Such men usually make satisfactory train- 
men as their experience teaches discipline and loyalty. 

The employment of men should be undertaken by one 
who is a good judge of human nature. If so, he can 
find out many of the defects of an applicant at a single 
interview. "Make haste slowly" is a splendid maxim 
for adoption by employment officials. Many an appli- 
cant who has the ability and personality to "make good" 
and a spirit of loyalty which would recommend him 
after deliberation has been disheartened and lost to the 
service through an abrupt, indifferent or discourteous 
reception of his application for employment. 

Two important essentials for employment are char- 
acter and physical fitness for the duties required. The 
investigation of an applicant's history is usually ob- 
tained through references and is often incomplete so 
that the employer's ability to judge finds its value in 
this regard. Physical fitness is determined by a medical 
examination, and such examinations should be thor- 
ough and complete. 

A man who has had experience in public service work 
requires fully as close scrutiny as others, and it is a 
mistake to assume that his record is a passport to em- 
ployment. Courtesy should be an absolute require- 
ment. If a man applying for employment walks into 
your office unannounced, if he fails to remove his hat, 
places his feet on the table or other furniture, he should 
be courteously told why he cannot have a trial. When 
you are engaged in a personal interview with an appli- 
cant, and he volunteers the information that at the last 
place he worked he could have remained had he ap- 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

proved of the methods or systems used by his former 
employer, you may reasonably question his loyalty. 
Men under twenty-five and over forty-five years should 
jiot, as a rule, be considered, although there are excep- 
tions. Trainmen under twenty-five lack experience and 
are likely to assume too great risk, while the man over 
forty-five, unless he has had previous experience, is 
hardly likely to make a satisfactory record. 

Nearly all electric railways employ one or more ex- 
perienced officials whose special duty it is to prepare 
the motorman student by instruction and demonstra- 
tion for his work at the controller. To facilitate this 
work a dummy car fitted with the necessary appliances 
is often provided. When the instructor is satisfied 
that the student is competent he is sent out on the 
different lines for instruction by experienced trainmen 
in the actual operation of cars. From ten to fifteen 
days is usually consumed in this preparatory work. 
When the student is employed as a conductor he is in- 
structed in practically the same manner, although along 
somewhat different lines. Oral examinations are al- 
ways necessary to determine the advancement made by 
students and to satisfy the operating department of 
their growing efficiency. 

From the information at hand it has been rather 
surprising that very few companies require a written 
examination. In our organization the conductor's ex- 
amination blank contains eight-four questions pertain- 
ing to operation and thirty-two pertaining to accidents 

Service Recoud of Tacoma Railway & Power Compant 
Trainmen Entering Service 
Conductors Jlotormen Total Experienced Re-employed 

1912 I>s9 109 29S 41 No record 

1913 ICF) S2 237 49 8 

1914 69 39 lOS 18 22 

Trainmen Leaving Service 

r Resigned ^ , Discharged s 

Conductors Motormen Conductors Motormen Total 

1912 lOS 59 SO 24 271 

1913 98 59 50 21 228 

1914 53 42 32 11 138 

and accident prevention; the motorman's blank has 123 
questions on operation and thirty-seven on accidents. 
So far as the effect of this system concerns our claim 
department it has been of material assistance in re- 
ducing the number of accidents as well as assuring com- 
plete and satisfactory reports. 

Final instructions should be given by the employ- 
ment official who selects and employs the applicant, and 
when this important duty is performed he should have 
before him a complete history of the man, gathered 
from the various sources at his command. Any criti- 
cism of his work or examination should be pointed out 
in a kindly but impressive manner. 

Employees who remain in the service for a number 
of j^ears are usually those who are interested in and 
have a liking for the work. These are the most de- 
sirable men, and every effort consistent with good pol- 
icy should be made to encourage them. Employees 
should have as much recreation as possible consistent 
with their duties and the condition under which they 
are employed. Comfortable quarters with good light, 
good ventilation and toilet facilities should be pro- 
vided, as should also reading matter of the right char- 
acter. Good reading matter is always appreciated and 
easily furnished. Frequent visits by the company offi- 
cials to the quarters of the men will likely result bene- 
ficially. An employee desiring to make complaint 
should be courteously received and his request promptly 
considered. The report of an employee's sickness or 
death should mean prompt action on the part of his 
immediate superior. Occasional entertainments for the 
benefit of the employees and brief discussions are 
sometimes used as a means of keeping up an interest in 
certain parts of the work. The organization of benefit 
associations has worked satisfactorily in some cities and 

much good results to both employee and employer if 
such an association is properly organized and managed. 
We believe that through welfare work many valuable 
men have been retained in our services. To support 
that contention, a record of trainmen entering and 
leaving the services of the Tacoma Railway & Power 
Company for the years 1912-1913-1914 is presented in 
the accompanying table. 

The profit and loss account of a company is affected 
materially by necessary settlement of claims brought 
by reason of the acts of its employees. In the organi- 
zations which I represent the claim department is not 
only consulted and its approval required before a stu- 
dent is assigned to regular duty, but no trainmen is 
discharged without a conference of the superintendent 
of transportation and the claim agent. All examination 
papers and other records are submitted for the guid- 
ance and the assistance of the claim department, and 
all students are sent by the superintendent to receive 
advice and instructions in safety and accident work 
from the claim agent. 



All accidents should be investigated carefully. For 
example, in a recent damage case on our road two per- 
sons were sitting in cars going in opposite directions. 
Each had a left arm projecting from a window, and as 
the cars passed the arms were interlocked, causing both 
to be broken. The contention was that the cars scraped 
together while passing in a curve. One of the witnesses 
asked at the time of the accident to have the cars backed 
up together and made a measurement which proved 
that there was plenty of space between, and the inves- 
tigation at the time showed that there were no marks 
on either car. 

The car men should be instructed to make note of 
the exact place on the street where an accident occurs 
and should call it to the attention of witnesses, who 
should be placed on record as to the exact point. Wit- 
nesses should be asked to mark the point at which an 
accident occurs by some immovable object. This may 
assist in proving that the driver was on the wrong side 
of the street, or in the act of turning the corner in vio- 
lation of the traffic ordinance, or that the accident oc- 
curred between blocks instead of on a crosswalk or at 
an intersection. 

Measurements should always be made and photo- 
graphs should be taken of the scene of the accident as 
soon as possible. The car and vehicle involved should 
also be photographed, bringing out all marks. This will 
establish the amount of damage and show the parts 
which came in contact, thus helping to prove whether 
the vehicle had just pulled onto the track or had partly 
crossed. I recall several cases where photographs were 
of considerable value to us. 

If an accident is serious it is our policy forthwith to 
have an engineer's map made of the location and vicin- 
ity, showing all houses from which any person could 
have viewed the accident. The grade and height of rail 
should also be shovra. After the map is made an in- 
vestigator should canvass every house shown thereon 
and take statements from at least one person in each 
house to ascertain whether or hot anyone in the house 
claims to have seen the accident. That this is a good 
practice was taught to us in a very serious case involv- 
ing the death of a driver of a vehicle. Two persons 
living about half a block from the scene of the acci- 
dent testified to having seen the accident, and that no 

July 3, 1915] 



■warning was given. To my mind they did not see the 
accident or car until after everything was over, and I 
believe that they would have made a statement to that 
effect had they been interviewed at the time of the ac- 
cident or shortly afterwards. 


The value of the medical department to the claim de- 
partment is derived from the aid rendered, in handling 
the situation properly, after the accident has occurred, 
although the medical department sometimes may be 
able to offer suggestions of a kind that might tend to 
prevent accidents. The physician of a railroad should 
regard himself and his department as an exceedingly 
large and important factor in the work of the claim de- 
partment, and should aid whenever possible in the sav- 
ing of expense of that department in a proper way. 

In so far as the handling of accidents is concerned, 
prior to the time the claim is adjusted or rejected, the 
medical department should act under the general direc- 
tion of the claim department in regard to calls on the 
injured person, examinations, reports, etc. This, of 
•course, in no way refers to matters of a strictly medical 
nature, as, for example, medical treatment of injured 
persons, such not being within the province of the claim 
department. Neither should the medical department 
interfere in any way in that which is strictly claim de- 
partment work, such as legal investigations, adjust- 
ments, etc. 

The physician representing a railroad as the head of 
the medical department and his assistants should be 
gentlemen of the highest standing and ability in their 
profession. Their ability should be such as to enable 
them to detect the accident faker and malingerer, mak- 
ing it impossible for them or unfair physicians to "pull 
the wool over their eyes." The company physician and 
his assistants should be of pleasing personality and 
should be capable of inspiring confidence in injured 
parties when first visiting. They should be within call 
at all hours of the day and night, to respond promptly 
to emergency calls and render first aid when necessary. 

As thorough an examination of the injured party as 
may be consistent with the conditions should be made 
at the first visit, and under no circumstances should 
the injury be minimized. If there is any element of 
doubt as to the extent of the injury, it would be better 
to resolve such doubt in favor of the injured party. 
Any departure from this policy might result most dis- 
astrously to the company. Since medical reports are the 
basis upon which settlement is made, particularly in 
cases of liability, failure to discover a bad condition 
of the claimant, if such existed, would easily bring about 
failure to reach a settlement and result in a costly law- 
suit. In making an examination of an injured person 
it is exceedingly important that the examination be 
thorough, if only for the purpose of satisfying the party 
of its thoroughness, otherwise the claimant will say to 
me that our physician had not made a thorough exam- 
ination and therefore could not tell how he was 

At the time of making the examination, if the con- 
dition of the patient will permit, the company physician 
should get, so far as is possible without offending or 
antagonizing the injured party, his complete history, 
including details relating to any accidents he might 
have previously incurred. Promptly after the examina- 
tion has been made, a full and complete report should be 
sent to the claim department. Better reports, I think, 
can be made on blank sheets than on printed forms. 

If at the time of the call of the company's physician 
on the injured party the family physician has not been 
called, the company's physician should ask the party 
whether treatment is desired by him or if the family 
physician would be preferred. If the injured party de- 
sires continued treatment by the company physician, 
such treatment should be rendered, but no effort what- 
ever should be made to induce the injured party to 
continue treatment with the company physician, and 
such treatment should be rendered only when entirely 
agreeable to the injured party. If the family physician 
or an outside physician should be called in a case, pend- 
ing its disposition, the company physician should keep 
in close touch with the injured party, either by con- 
sulting with the attending physician, or by examina- 
tions, keeping the claim department continually advised 
of the situation from every possible angle within his ob- 
servation, including information as to whether or not 
the attending physician of the injured party is disposed 
to be fair, etc. 

When visiting the injured party, the company phy- 
sician, if tactful and diplomatic, can do a great deal 
toward paving the way later for the claim agent or 
adjuster to make a reasonable settlement. This many 
times is of great benefit both to the injured party and 
to the company. 

When persons are injured in connection with our cars 
to an extent making it necessary for them to have hos- 
pital treatment, no particular hospital should be se- 
lected. The injured person should be taken to the 
nearest hospital where proper attention may be secured, 
or to any hospital that he might prefer. In a case of 
no liability and the injured person has no preference, 
then he should be sent to the city hospital for the pur- 
pose of saving expense to the company. The latter, 
however, would be a matter to be passed upon by the 
claim or operating departments, as the company phy- 
sician is not supposed to know anything about liability. 

When it becomes necessary from the viewpoint of 
the company physician to employ a specialist, who as 
a rule is not on a regular salary, the company physician 
should first ascertain whether the claim department is 
desirous of incurring the expense, as many cases might 
arise in which the company would not derive any bene- 
fit from a specialist's examination. 



The phrase "Stop, look and listen," when applied to 
vehicles at grade crossings, can hardly be considered 
a safe rule of law for the claim agent. The true rule 
is this : the driver of the vehicle "must act with such 
care and caution for his own safety as a reasonably 
prudent man would be likely to do under like condi- 

For example, if a driver's machine is comparatively 
noiseless and does not materially interfere with his 
power to hear an oncoming train he may fail to stop 
and yet not necessarily be negligent. He should look 
and listen, but if looking and listening could avail noth- 
ing, his failure to do the useless thing would not neces- 
sarily bar his right of recovery if a negligently operated 
train collided with his automobile. 

With these rules of law affecting the possible liability 
of the railway company firmly fixed in his mind the 
claim agent, in the investigation of such a collision, 
should obtain all available evidence as to the negligence 
or carefulness on the part of the railway company, either 
as to the safe or dangerous character of the location and 
construction of its road, and the crossing itself. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

The speed of the automobile and of the train should 
be investigated in order clearly to demonstrate where 
each one was at successive intervals preceding the 
moment of the collision. This opens the way for the 
application of the rule of law closely held by the courts 
that if the driver could plainly see he will be held negli- 
gent if he did not see. Again, it is important to note 
the location of the railway line near the crossing, to 
determine whether the roar of an approaching train 
would be likely to be muffled or lessened. The condition 
of the weather at the time of the accident is always 
important. Storms may impede sight, wind may 
smother sound; either may tend to make some acts 
negligent, or tend to excuse other acts which would 
under other conditions be negligent. 

The average chauffeur boldly claims that he can stop 
his machine, when running at 12 m.p.h., within a dis- 
tance of 4 ft. This is absolutely untrue when applied 
to conditions under which collisions occur. At a speed 
of 12 m.p.h. his machine travels 17^2 ft. in one second, 
so that while descending into a cut at a grade crossing 
where the view of an approaching train might be ob- 
structed, the chauffeur, when 25 ft. from the track, sud- 
denly beholds the rushing train, he only has one and a 
half seconds to come to a stop. He imagines that 25 
ft. is all that he needs, but he is mistaken. 

Following Up Watt-Hour Meter Records 
at El Paso 

Both Meters and Methods Have Stood Up Well After Nearly 
Four Years of Service 

The El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway began the use 
of Sangamo watt-hour meters in December, 1911, equip- 
ping at that time every one of its fifty motor cars. Since 
then fifteen meters have been added to new equipment, 
making a total of sixty-five motor cars. 

The energy consumption savings were first presented 
by George G. Morse, superintendent railway department, 
before the Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association 
at its 1914 meeting (see the Electric Railway 
Journal for May 30, 1914, page 1,206). Mr. Morse 
showed that an average energy consumption of 2.61 
kw-hr. per car-mile in 1911, without meters, had been 
reduced to 2.39 kw-hr. shortly after the installation of 
the meters. These averages, it should be stated, were 
readings taken at the d.c. busbars, therefore including 
all low-tension distribution losses. As the result of con- 
tinued competition and the follow-up system, the energy 
consumption for the entire system is still (April, 1915) 
at 2.39 kw-hr. per car-mile, despite the addition of fif- 
teen double-truck cars, which, of course, are heavier 
than the single-truck cars which formerly carried most 

el PASO 

car meters — INSTALLATION OF 


of the business. In fact since the meters were first in- 
stalled, the proportion of double-truck mileage has risen 
from 43.2 per cent in 1911 to about 54 per cent in 1915. 

As stated in Mr. Morse's original paper, a bogey or 
standard was set up, after test, for each of the four 
classes of cars. This bogey plan still forms the basis 
of the follow-up sys- 
tem. In Mr. Morse's 
opinion, faithful ad- 
herence to the fol- 
low - up system is 
much more impor- 
tant than the type 
of checking device 
used on the car. 

Follow-Up Records 


Reading WHEN' LEFT 71 _^_9.° J2>.. 





Reading WHE\' LEFT 


Reading \VHE\ TAKEN ^-.i.V_}>_IL 



LIN-E RUN ON 5i.«s^«^*^»=?3.rr_.. 

CAR NO. ._^?^\ 

DATE .^\>-'sAjAr 

NAME__tV\cs>^-l,X>>.«r. NO-TsJat-- 

The records begin 
with the meter slip 
made out by the mo- 
torman. On taking 
a car out, he takes 
and records his first 
meter reading. At 
the end of his work 
on that particular 
line he gets from 
his conductor the 

number of passengers handled. This record also shows 
the line on which he ran, the number of trips made (the 
mileage being figured later by the mileage clerk) and the 
car number. These motorman's slips are padded in a 



July 3, 1915] 



Inspector's Mctek Data 
Your attention is called to the performanno of the following men, made on 
April 29. 1915. 














































G laves 







book in duplicate, so that the user can keep the stub 
for his own information and check. 

The meter slips are first examined by the meter clerk 
for those men who have fallen below the bogey for their 
class of car. These delinquents are listed as shown on 
a sheet called "Inspector's Meter Data." Copies of this 
report are in the hands of all road inspectors by 11 a.m. 
the next day. Therefore, the inspectors are prepared 
to ride and correct the operating faults of the delin- 
quents while all concerned still have in mind all the con- 
ditions of the preceding day. For example, a heavy 
sand storm, as is common in the vicinity of El Paso, 
will clog the rails and so increase energy consumption. 
Another cause of increased energy is found in heavy 
rains which leave much sand on the track. The inspec- 
tors, naturally, exercise their judgment under condi- 
tions of this character. 

Records from all slips, regardless of delinquents, are 
also posted on a monthly sheet which is divided hori- 
zontally by days and vertically by routes. Each route 
is also subdivided vertically for the car number, kilo- 
watt-hours, trips and passengers. The total kilowatt- 
hours per car-mile and kilowatt-hours per 1000 
passengers are written at the top. This monthly record 
is made out in four colors, one for each type of car. 

In order to make comparisons as fair as possible, the 
number of passengers handled is noted, as above stated. 
To avoid too much clerical work, however, the compari- 
sons are made on the basis of 1000 passengers carried 
with any given type of car. The factor of schedule 
speed does not enter, as this is the same on any given 
line for any given period of the day, no comparisons 
being made between different lines. The average sched- 
ule speed of the system is 8.1 m.p.h. 

The recapitulation of the monthly record for each 
type of car is prepared in typewritten form, as shown, 
for posting at the carhouses. This report presents 
each motorman's name, number, kilowatt-hours per car- 
mile, kilowatt-hours per 1000 passengers and his rela- 
tive rating. This rating is obtained by dividing each 

Meter Performance — Sunset Heights 

ClasB D Care April, 1915 

Kw-hr. per Kw-hr. per 

Name No. car-mile 1000 passengers Rating 

Shearer 154 1.76 388 95 

Baker 196 1.83 570 98 

Werner 108 1.86 445 100 

Bloxom 34 1.90 585 102 

Hayelett. 36 2.00 420 108 

Average 1.86 465 

Ratings are given on car-mile performance. 

No ratings given unless the equivalent of a full day's mileage has been made. 

Superintendent Transportation 


Superintendent Railway Department 


man's average kilowatt-hours per car-mile by the grand 
average of all men on the same line and type of car. 
The reference to passengers carried is used only where 
two men have the same rating on a kilowatt-hours per 
car-mile basis. 

The interest of the men has been maintained chiefly 
by publishing their records, but their run privileges 
are sometimes modified by the nature of their perform- 
ance. Before the men began to use meters they had no 
conception of the value of electric energy. The use of 
the meter has given them an entirely new point of view. 
Although the kilowatt-hour was an unfamiliar unit to 
the men, they soon became accustomed to it among 
themselves. However, they refer to the readings as so 
many "points" rather than so many "kilowatt-hours." 


The fact that these meters have now been in service 
for nearly four years makes the question of their main- 
tenance cost a matter of special interest. Until re- 
cently the meters were maintained by the general meter 
shop of the lighting department, but they are now cared 
for directly by the railway department. For the year 
1914, the cost of maintaining sixty-five meters was only 
$159.33, or $2.44 per meter. This total includes the cost 
of repairing six meters burned out by lightning. Out- 
side of these repairs, the chief expense was the removal 
and straining of oxidized mercury through cheesecloth, 
the replacement of the mercury and reassembling of the 
meters. This purification is carried out about once in 
five months. The total cost mentioned also covers the 
expense of testing. The special calibration meter used 
for such testing was purchased from W. T. Mobray, 
Providence, R. I., at $150. 

Illinois Association Trip to Milwaukee 

Outing and entertainment features comprised the en- 
tire program of the Illinois Electric Railways' Associa- 
tion on June 25. 

About eighty members and guests under the guidance 
of F. E. Fisher, president, and W. V. Griffin, secretary, 
left Chicago at 9.30 a. m. on the steamer Christopher 
Columbus and arrived in Milwaukee at 2.30 p. m. where 
they were entertained by the Milwaukee Railway & Light 
Company. They returned to Chicago over The Chicago 
& Milwaukee Electric Railway and the Northwestern 
Elevated Railway line. 

En route to Milwaukee dinner was served in the main 
dining room of the steamer. After dinner. President 
Fisher called the members to order and impromptu re- 
marks were made by several speakers. A vote of thanks 
was tendered Mr. Griffin in appreciation of his work in 
planning the trip. 

On arrival at Milwaukee, R. B. Stearns, vice-president 
The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, con- 
ducted the party through the large Cold Springs shops 
and then through the Public Service terminal and office 
building of his company. 

At 5 p. m. the party under the guidance of G. S. 
Henry, superintendent, and F. E. Low, traffic agent, left 
Milwaukee on a two-car train of the Chicago & Mil- 
waukee Electric Railroad, arriving at Chicago via the 
Northwestern Elevated Railway at 7.45 p. m. 

Ground was recently broken and the tunnel work 
begun on the projected electric mountain railway from 
the city of Bergen, Norway, to the summit of Mount 
Floien, the construction of which is estimated to cost 
$160,000. Bids for its construction and equipment 
were issued in January, 1915. 


New York Electric Railway Association Meets 

The Subjects Discussed Were Center-Entrance City and Suburban Cars, Financial Conditions, Jitneys and 
Interurban Highway Crossings, while Public Relations Were Considered at the Banquet 

The thirty-third annual convention of the New York 
Electric Railway Association was held at the Oriental 
Hotel, Manhattan Beach, New York, on June 29 and 30. 
There was an attendance of between sixty and seventy 
at the technical sessions. 

The convention was opened on Tuesday at 11.15 a. m. 
by President Hamilton, who delivered an annual ad- 
dress dealing with the present needs of the electric 

Mr. Hamilton referred to the extremely trying year 
through which the electric railway companies had passed 
during the past twelve months. He said that they had 
suffered financially along with industry generally as a 
result of the European war, and far more so than many 
industries on account of their inability to retrench to 
the same extent and counteract in various ways the effect 
of business depression. In addition, the companies had 
received another set-back in the form of jitney-bus com- 
petition, which has been and is still a serious menace to 
the industry. The electric railways are being compelled 
to sell transportation at a price based on service and 
under conditions of production of years ago. Although 
the traveling distance has increased vastly and the cost 
of production has advanced with leaps and bounds, the 
rate of fare has remained stationary. Jitney-bus com- 
petition and the business depression have reduced the 
earnings of the companies to an alarming extent, while 
expenses have increased to a degree which makes the 
5-cent fare more and more inadequate for the actual 
needs of the companies. What the industry needs at 
this time is not "watchful waiting" but helpful action. 
It is all very well to theorize and discuss the many prob- 
lems with which the industry is confronted and to 
sympathize with each other. But far more can be 
achieved if the companies assemble their best efforts 
and actively pursue fearlessly and honestly an organized 
campaign that will bring about the result and relief 

An example of effective and honorable activity is 
illustrated in the methods used by the association in 
advocating the enactment of the so-called jitney-bus 
bill. Thorough publicity was given to the railway side of 
the question, and a large number of representatives of 
various street railways appeared in a body at the public 
hearing on the bill and stated why the companies favored 
the legislation under consideration, in justice to all. It 
is gratifying to state that the bill is now a law of the 
State of New York. This fact indicates that the legisla- 
tures have been awakened to the fact that the interests 
of public service corporations must be protected to some 
extent, for the reason that these corporations do not 
exist by themselves alone but are necessary to the com- 
munities which they serve. 

The report of the secretary and treasurer was then 
read. It stated that two companies had recently joined 
the association, namely, the New York & Stamford Rail- 
way Company of Portchester, N. Y., and the Interna- 
tional Railway Company of Buffalo. 

Report of Safety Rules Committee 

The president then called for the report of the com- 
mittee on safety rules, of which John J. Dempsey is 
chairman. This report was presented verbally by Mr. 
Dempsey. He said that the committee of the association 
had met at Albany with the committee of the Empire 

State Gas & Electric Association. Subsequently, the 
bureau of standards at Washington had announced that 
it was preparing a set of safety rules, and the committee 
had decided not to take any further action until a report 
had been rendered on the proposed rules by the com- 
mittee that had been appointed by the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association. 

On motion of Mr. Peck the association decided to con- 
tinue the committee on safety rules with instructions- 
to review and criticise the proposed National Electric 
Safety Code promulgated by the bureau of standards 
and to act, subject to the approval of the executive 
committee, with the committee of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association on this subject. 

Center-Entrance Car for City and 
Suburban Service 

The paper by W. G. Gove, superintendent of equip- 
ment Transit Development Company, Brooklyn, was 
then presented. An abstract of this paper appears else- 
where in this issue. After Mr. Gove had read this paper 
he showed on the screen a very interesting collection of 
views of different types of cars used in Brooklyn from 
early days. 

In referring to his paper Mr. Gove explained that the 
car described was designed by the company's own force 
and also went through the hands of others interested. 
Mr. Menden, chief engineer of the company, was the 
first to think of it and was largely responsible for its 
design as well as that of the new subway cars of the 
company. Mr. Menden had had a long experience in 
the transportation side of the industry as well as in the 
engineering side, and this was of great help to him in 
the design of the car. A sample car was built before 
the final plans were finished. 

At the close of Mr. Gove's paper various questions 
were asked him, and the following information, among 
other points, was brought out: The ball-bearing center 
plates are kept clean by blowing them out and by using 
a light lubricant. They have proved very successful. 
Although the cars were built largely in the shops of the 
company. Mr. Gove does not recommend this plan as a 
rule, believing that better satisfaction will be obtained 
when cars are purchased from regular manufacturers. 
The plan was adopted in this case owing to a combina- 
tion of unusually favorable circumstances. The cost of 
the car complete was about $6800 and the company is 
adding this year on capital account about $100, making 
the total cost per car about $6900. Mr. Gove estimated 
the life at thirty years. No trouble had been experi- 
enced with the concrete flooring breaking due to oscilla- 
tion or weaving of the car. At the point where passen- 
gers enter there is a great deal of wear, and Mr. Gove 
thought that the entire floor of the pit of the car would 
have to be renewed probably each year. 

Insufficiency of 5-Cent Fare 

On Tuesday afternoon President Hamilton first called 
upon Z. K. Graham, secretary of the Utilities Publica- 
tion Committee, to explain the plan of issuing the public 
utilities reports, annotated, as arranged with a firm of 
law publishers. A paper by E. G. Connette, president 
International Railway, on "What Can We Give for a 
Nickel?" was then read by Secretary C. C. Dietz. Mr. 
Connette's paper is abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 

July 3, 1915] 



In the discussion on this subject the following points 
were brought out: 

W. H. Collins, general manager Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad, said that as the 5-cent fare is 
prescribed within the confines of cities, legislation will 
be needed to increase the fare. The commission can be 
appealed to for relief, but the problem is how to find a 
remedy for the present difl^iculty. 

C. G. Young, consulting engineer, New York, stated 
that the present conditions must be met somehow. The 
passenger wants more for the "jitney," and the company 
has to pay out more. One solution is to let the cities 
participate in the net earnings. The cities, being part- 
ners, would be interested in increasing these earnings. 
In the direction of economy rides could be shortened 
and transfers cut out in some cases. The large amounts 
spent for taxicab service show that the public is willing 
to pay for service. * 

R. L. Rand, vice-president Richmond Light & Rail- 
road Company, described the experience of his company 
in drafting and pressing a bill exempting it from paving 
requirements for a period of ten years. There was no 
opposition, but the bill was side-tracked. Mr. Rand 
said that the paving requirement is antiquated and out- 

E. F. Peck of Allen & Peck, Inc., Syracuse, recom- 
mended the appointment of a committee to study the 
subjects discussed in Mr. Connette's paper. 

H. W. Blake, Electric Railway Journal, said that 
while it will be difficult to increase fares there would 
probably be less public opposition to doing so because 
of the precedent of higher steam railroad passenger 
fares, and the principal thing now was to decide upon 
the best plan for each locality and work toward that end. 
There were three ways of raising fares and each had a 
precedent. They were: (1) Raise the unit fare to 6 
cents as in Massachusetts. (2) Retain a 5-cent unit fare 
for a restricted district and charge additional 2-cent 
fares for exterior zones. While railway managers may 
consider this system complicated the experience in Mil- 
waukee had shown that the problems of collection could 
be satisfactorily solved both as regards the company 
and the public. (3) Charge for transfers as in Cleve- 
land. For this also there is an operating precedent. 
While these reforms seem revolutionary and may be dif- 
ficult to secure, each is not seriously difficult from an 
operating standpoint. 

James E. Hewes, general manager Albany Southern 
Railroad, described the tax-reducing campaign which his 
company had been conducting in the suburban territory 
served by it. Previous experience was with rising as- 
sessments, but after two years' effort the taxes have 
come down from 9 per cent of the income to 5 per cent, 
and the assessment 25 per cent each year. The com- 
pany demanded meetings of the assessors one month be- 
fore the preparation of tax budgets and presented evi- 
dence of assessment inequalities. 

E. S. Fassett, New York Switch & Crossing Com- 
pany, New York, thought that the publication of infor- 
mation in recent years should make tax reduction easier. 
If tax commissioners can be made aware of conditions, 
then reductions would be made by the franchise tax 

C. Gordon Reel, consulting engineer, Kingston, N. Y., 
contended that the companies were often to blame for 
inequalities in assessments as their reports were not 
properly prepared. 

After the close of the discussion a letter was read 
from the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company inviting 
members to visit the new instruction school and to ride 
on the new subway cars. 

A vote was also taken passing a resolution for the 

appointment of a committee to report at a later meeting 
on Mr. Connette's suggestions. President Hamilton 
announced that he would appoint this committee later. 

Messrs. E. S. Fassett, W. H. Collins and E. F. Peck 
were appointed as the nominating committee. 

Jitney-Bus Competition 

At the session on Wednesday morning James E. 
Hewes, general manager Albany Southern Railroad, 
presented a paper entitled "Jitney-Bus Competition" 
which is abstracted on another page. He emphasized 
the dift'erence between the real jitney bus that consisted 
of an old automobile driven by its owner and the high- 
grade, large-capacity motor-bus, saying that the former 
was not a menace to the electric railway industry but 
that the latter could be used to good advantage, es- 
pecially on new routes, to test and to build up the traffic 
with possible installation of an electric line later. 

The discussion was opened by Joseph K. Choate of 
J. G. White & Company who had had a wholly contrary 
experience to that outlined by Mr. Hewes. If the motor- 
bus should become permanent it would eventually have 
to pay for its use of the highways which had been con- 
structed at an even higher cost than railways. In New 
Jersey he had established a short bus line to form a 
physical connection between two separated sections of 
a trolley road. The traffic conditions were excellent but 
the line lost 100 per cent in six months and had to be^ 
abandoned. The repairs were excessive. Depreciation 
of all gasoline-driven vehicles also was impossi- 
bly high when compared to those on electric rail- 
ways. As for the buses in London, these were put on 
years before the electric railways and had never com- 
peted with them, as implied by Mr. Hewes. He had 
investigated motor-bus operation for New York City 
and had found that any fare less than 10 cents was im- 

Paul Smith, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing- 
Company, then spoke in support of the makers of elec- 
tric railway equipment, saying that the demand for 
low weights had arisen and endeavors had been made^ 
to meet it long before the advent of the jitney bus. 

William H. Collins, Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville 
Railroad, outlined his experiences with interurban bus 
competition, which in one instance consisted of a bus 
line operating 4 miles for a 5-cent fare in direct com- 
petition with the railway. A campaign of education 
including daily statements published in the local papers 
had been efficacious in producing refusals to grant fran- 
chises to motor-bus lines because there was no real 
necessity for the new service. Climatic conditions, he 
said, constituted the strongest argument against the 
motor-bus in central New York, as buses could not main- 
tain service in heavy snow. However, there might be 
conditions where the bus could be used satisfactorily 
for supplementary service. 

J. P. Barnes, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, 
considered that publicity had been a major cause of the 
jitney's success, and that the railways should talk more 
about the railways in public and less about the jitneys. 
It was not necessary to have local holders of railway 
securities in order to hold the public's friendship. 

H. W. Blake, Electric Railway Journal, disagreed 
with some of Mr. Hewes' figures. He believed that the 
figures quoted for gasoline consumption of motor-buses 
was low, but even on the basis mentioned in the paper 
the cost of power would be less for an electric car than 
for the motor-bus when figured on the seat-mile. The 
same basis should also be used in estimating the invest- 
ment. He thought that the figure of 10 per cent for 
depreciation on the electric railway was much too high. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

but a sixty-passenger car would have nearly three times 
the number of seats of a twenty-two passenger bus and 
more than three times the carrying capacity. Hence 
the annual depreciation, even on the basis given in the 
paper, would be one-third higher for the bus than for 
the car if the relative carrying capacities of the two 
vehicles were taken into consideration. The same ratio 
of comparison ought to be applied also to the figures on 
operating cost of 21.8 cents per mile quoted for the 
twenty-two-passenger bus. Two such buses would be 
equal in seating capacity to a single city forty-four- 
passenger car and the cost of operating two such buses, 
or 43.6 cents, ought to be more than ample to operate 
one such car to advantage. He also believed that the 
public would require, for its own protection, regulations 
for motor-buses similar to those required of other com- 
mon carriers. 

In answer, Mr. Hewes admitted the importance of 
considering the relative size of the average bus and the 
average railway car in making cost comparisons but 
cited the case of a successful interurban bus line at 
Pittsfield, Mass., which charged 2 cents per mile and 
was reported to have cleared 100 per cent in six months 
The speed, however, was only 12 m.p.h. 

W. B. Rockwell, Eastern Pennsylvania Railways, 
Pottsville, Pa., spoke of the real economy of electric 
power notwithstanding the large investment required, 
on account of the facility of distribution. The jitney 
from every moral aspect was thoroughly bad. In Read- 
ing the local civic society had voluntarily taken up the 
matter of suppressing the business. It would soon be 
considered a public disgrace to ride in a jitney bus. 

W. 0. Wood, New York & Queens County Railway, 
said that the railways ought to try to put themselves 
on the same taxation basis as the jitney and not try to 
put the jitneys on the railway basis. 

Protection of Highway Crossings 

William H. Hyland, claim agent Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad, then read a paper on highway 
crossings which is abstracted on another page in this 

In the discussion J. P. Barnes read some remarks 
prepared by C. R. Barnes, who in his official connection 
with the Public Service Commission of New York, Sec- 
ond District, made a special point of the fact that auto- 
mobile drivers paid more attention to crossing signs 
put up by automobile organizations than to those put 
up by railway companies. He asked therefore for the 
appointment of a committee to co-operate with the auto- 
mobile clubs of the State and with the Public Service 
Commission in regard to crossing protection. In re- 
sponse to this it was decided that the association would 
gladly confer on the matter whenever the Public Service 
Commission would call for such a meeting. Mr. Barnes 
also asked for co-operation in regard to existing dis- 
crepancies in the railway rules on carrying explosives, 
and this matter was referred to the executive committee. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour the question box 
was omitted and the association proceeded to the elec- 
tion of officers, the following being unanimously elected : 

President — John J. Dempsey, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

First vice-president — James P. Barnes, Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Second vice-president — Wilbur C. Fisk, New York, 
N. Y. 

Secretary-treasurer — W. S. Stanton, Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

Executive committee members were elected as fol- 
lows : J. S. Doyle, New York, N. Y. ; C. F. Hewitt, Al- 
bany, N. Y. ; James E. Hewes, Albany, N. Y., and E. J. 
Dickson, Buffalo, N. Y. 

President Dempsey was then escorted to the chair, 
responding with a few well-chosen words. After reso- 
lutions of thanks to the retiring president and secretary- 
treasurer the meeting adjourned. 

The Social Features 

The social features included automobile trips for the 
ladies, an auction bridge tournament on Tuesday after- 
noon, dancing after the banquet Tuesday evening, and 
a baseball game following the Tuesday afternoon session 
between the "managers" and the "peddlers." In this 
baseball game the managers won with a score of 15 to 
10, if the oflficial score is to be believed. The highest 
batting average was made by C. F. Banghart, general 
manager Binghamton Railway, who, in addition to mak- 
ing many base hits, scored a run every time that he 
came to the plate, which was five times during the five 
innings. In consequence of this achievement, he re- 
ceived a statue of Charlie Chaplin, which was the prize 
offered for the largest number of runs made by any 
individual player. 

The Banquet 

The banquet held on Tuesday evening was remark- 
able from the fact that at the speakers' table there sat 
four members of the New York State Public Service 
Commission, namely, Judge Edward E. McCall, chair- 
man, George V. S. Williams and Robert C. Wood of 
the first district commission and William Temple Em- 
met of the second district commission. Of these, ad- 
dresses were delivered by Messrs. McCall and Emmet. 
The banquet was attended by upwards of 200 persons 
and was marked by evidences of a co-operative spirit 
in the matter of public utility regulation. President 
James F. Hamilton presided as toastmaster and was 
very happy in his introduction of the speakers. 

Commissioner Emmet discussed the regulatory situa- 
tion in New York State, frankly admitting its short- 
comings but expressing an expectation of fuller under- 
standing between the utilities and the commissions. He 
said that regulation is not such a sore subject as it 
once was. While the regulatory program outlined by 
Governor Hughes was viewed with some apprehension 
it would be unthinkable now to go back to the old order. 
The apprehension was based upon the fear of the intru- 
sion of politics into a field where expert knowledge was 
needed. There are still annoying features in regula- 
tion, but sensible men do not let these bother them. 
The "black horse cavalry" no longer disturbs the sleep 
of public utility men. Old-fashioned strike legislation 
has, through regulation, become a thing of the past. 
While regulation is not perfect its imperfections are 
being remedied, and the public utility men of the State 
and the commissioners are good friends, and friends of 
the principle of governmental regulation. The principal 
source of irritation has been due to the impossibility of 
staking out definitely the line of demarcation between 
regulation and government ownership and operation. 
For example, in the matter of supervision of service of 
street railways the commissions have sweeping powers, 
going into many matters of operating detail. Under 
the law they must give hearings on matters of this 
kind. It is a question whether this feature of the work 
should not be considered a part of the principle of gov- 
ernment operation rather than regulation. A large sec- 
tion of the public expects the commissions to look after 
all operating details. Mr. Emmet raised the question 
as to whether this is a proper function for a public 
service commission. 

In regard to the friction which has occurred in mat- 
ters of regulation, all parties concerned are to blame. 
The sensible course for public utility men to take is 

JULY 3, 1915] 



that which has been taken by the New York Electric 
Railway Association in the line of co-operation. Such 
co-operation is necessary in the solution of the problems 
involved. Public utility men should accept the principle 
of regulation, which is still in the experimental stage. 
While it is in this stage, inconsistencies must be over- 
looked. When the public comes to realize the attitude 
of public utility men toward regulation, many of the 
present problems will be solved. The public utility in- 
dustry needs business men who are also statesmen. Mr. 
Emmet expressed the belief that regulation has seen 
its worst day and that a period of understanding is 

Mr. Emmet was followed by Nathan C. Kingsbury, 
vice-president American Telephone & Telegraph Com- 
pany, whose central thought was the need for co-opera- 
tion among public utilities. He called attention to the 
fact that one-fifth of the wealth of the country is in- 
vested in public utilities which form a stable business 
necessary for the people. The margin of profit in this 
business is small and the problem of operating at a 
profit is a difficult one. Favorable conditions are neces- 
sary. A public utility corporation which is not now 
making money but which is serving the public faith- 
fully can look forward with hope. On the contrary, one 
which is making money but which is not giving good 
service Is doomed to failure. The men who started 
utilities were far-sighted, even considered visionary by 
some. After launching the utilities many of them 
stepped out, leaving difficult problems for their suc- 
cessors to solve. The day of these promoters has now 
passed but they did a good work. The speculative meth- 
ods necessary in the early days are not needed now. All 
that is expected is a fair return. In the early days 
investors thought that they were investing in private 
business when they put their money into public utili- 
ties. It is now realized that this is not the case. 

In order to improve conditions the public service cor- 
porations should get together on a co-operative basis. 
They have many interests in common and the public 
does not discriminate among them. In a community 
where one utility is successful others are apt to be so 
also, whereas the reverse of this is at the same time 
true. In the past public service corporations have not 
known each other. Now they are getting together. An 
example of this is seen in the co-operation which has 
been brought about in the use of transmission pole 
lines. Utilities could get together on the matter of 
valuation and in promoting an interest in public service 
commission decisions, many of which reach several utili- 
ties. The managements of the utilities must work to 
make the work of the commissions successful. Failure 
of the valuation commission work of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, for example, would spell disaster to 
some corporations. 

Mr. Kingsbury emphasized the value of the publicity 
clause of the code of principles of the American Asso- 
ciation. The utilities must control public opinion 
through publicity. An example of large appreciation of 
this fact is shown by the activity of the warring govern- 
ments of Europe in publishing the facts regarding the 
beginnings of the war. All that the war can do is to 
force the countries into a state of mind wherein they 
will give and take. When this time comes public opinion 
will be all powerful. Secret methods cannot be success- 
ful in public utility matters. New capital is constantly 
needed and if a company is not making money it cannot 
get capital. This fact tends to secrecy as to financial 
conditions, but such secrecy is not warranted. Much 
adverse legislation might have been prevented if the 
railways had practised publicity earlier. 

Regulation can be overdone, and the commissions 
should realize the conditions under which public utility 
operations must be conducted. For example, the Euro- 
pean war has made inroads on capital, the warring 
countries paying high rates of interest. This will make 
it more difficult to get capital for utilities and also for 
municipal and other public improvements. This is indi- 
cated by the fact that at the New York bond sale this 
week the city has to pay nearly 41/2 per cent for its 
money. While the utilities do not ask for a high rate 
of return, they do ask for stability and such a rate as 
will attract capital. 

Referring again to the subject of publicity Mr. Kings- 
bury pointed out that the railways must have a desire 
to serve, and that if there is some policy which cannot 
be made public that policy should be abandoned. Public 
utility securities are widely distributed and this fact 
should be made known. Further, the utilities are not 
ashamed of the men who promoted, developed and now 
manage them. The public service corporations have 
had much to do with the beneficent development of this 
country. They have added great wealth to the country 
and have fostered a homogeneous development. They 
make for prosperity and peace. 

Judge McCall began his address by emphasizing the 
magnitude of the task of operating the properties in 
the metropolitan district. This task he said is unpre- 
cedented. New York City is spending $366,000,000 on 
rapid transit because of a realization of the tremendous 
growth in the demand for service. The service is not 
perfect, but the public insists that it should be so. Judge 
McCall agreed with Commissioner Emmet in regard to 
the separation of regulation and supervision of opera- 
tion, expressing his belief that the former is the func- 
tion of the commissions. He has stood for conservatism 
and the conservation of property rights, and has not and 
will not allow public clamor to trespass upon these. 
He had asked himself and his visitors many times why 
public utilities should not give good service when they 
have every cause to do so. He stated that much of the 
hostility to public service corporations does not come 
from the public but from interested persons. In closing 
he invited the association to co-operate with the com- 
mission in team work in bringing about a better under- 
standing of the problems of regulation. 

Before calling upon Charles C. Peirce, vice-president 
of the Manufacturers' Association, the last speaker on 
the program, Toastmaster Hamilton read telegrams 
from C. Loomis Allen and J. H. Pardee, expressing 
regret that they could not be present and sending good 
wishes for the meeting. 

Mr. Peirce's plea was for appreciation of the supply 
men. The manufacturer occupies no small position in 
the public utility business. He has worked shoulder to 
shoulder with the pioneers in building it up. This is 
evident from the importance of the work done by such 
men as Sprague, Edison, Westinghouse and other great 
inventors. He also said a good word for technical 
journalism and the work that the Electric Railway 
Journal has done in furthering the electric railway 
cause. He said that the name of James H. McGraw 
will stand with that of other pioneers for the work that 
he has accomplished in developing his side of the in- 
dustry. As a further illustration of the identity of 
the manufacturer with the electric railway, he said that 
while the manufacturer has worked with the railway he 
has also suffered with it. 

After a rising vote of thanks to the distinguished 
speakers of the evening the banquet gathering broke up 
about midnight and adjourned to the dancing floor of 
the hotel. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 


With this question as the point of departure, E. G. 
Connette, president International Railway, suggested 
several of the problems involved in the furnishing of 
urban transportation at the 5-cent rate. The nickel was 
adopted as a convenient unit of exchange in carrying 
passengers, the distances in the beginning being very 
short and no transfers being issued. In the progress 
of time lines were extended and transfers were issued 
so that the payment of a 5-cent piece entitled a passen- 
ger to ride from city line to city line, in many instances 
from 5 to 20 miles. 

"As the necessities arose for the extension of lines 
and franchises were sought by companies, the public 
authorities have been from time to time imposing addi- 
tional conditions. One that is now very burdensome 
arose out of the conditions existing during horse-car 
times because the horses, traveling between the rails, 
wore out the roadway. The reason for this require- 
ment has long since passed, but the burden of the ex- 
pense remains. The cost of paving the so-called 'rail- 
road strip' is represented in the 5-cent fare, while the 
abutting property owner receives the benefit besides an 
appreciation of the value of the property by reason of 
the street railway service. Patrons of the street rail- 
way should not be required to contribute even indi- 
rectly toward charges of this kind." 

Mr. Connette also explained how the payment of 
percentages of gross receipts and franchise taxes, the 
original continuing expense due to change from horse 
cars to electrical propulsion, the cost of eliminating 
grade crossings, the advance in the costs of labor and 
materials; the carrying of firemen and policemen free 
in many communities, etc., have added to the burdens 
of the street railway until it now faces a crisis. 

"Public service companies are now face to face with 
the necessity for considering seriously the question re- 
sulting from the foregoing conditions and discovering, 
if possible, some way in which they can either increase 
their return or decrease their expenditures. The prob- 
lem can be approached from two points of view: (1) 
Should and can the unit of fare be increased? (2) 
Can the expenses and burdens of transportation com- 
panies be lightened so that they may continue to carry 
passengers for the same unit of fare and still earn a 
reasonable return upon the capital invested? I think 
it will be conceded by all that the last suggestion, if 
practicable, would be the most desirable. 

"It seems to me that the traveling public and the 
company are entitled to have the rights of the parties 
readjusted on a more equitable basis. If the compa- 
nies were permitted to receive a reasonable return 
upon the capital invested and then have everything 
over and above that expended for real transportation 
service for the benefit of the traveling public, eliminat- 
ing and removing from the companies the burdens of 
tax which they now bear, which go toward purposes 
other than transportation, it might still be possible to 
continue to charge not more than 5 cents and at the 
same time pay a reasonable return upon the capital 
invested. The other alternative is to raise the unit of 
fare from time to time to cover the increasing ex- 

"The time has arrived to center attention on this 
question and evolve some plan by which relief can be 
secured. Under the public service commission's law 
as it now stands the commission has the power to regu- 
late rates and can do much to relieve the situation if 
it is deemed wise to exercise that authority. The ef- 
forts of the public service companies should first be 
employed either to procure legislation directly reliev- 
ing our properties of other burdens and costs not act- 

ually involved in transportation problems or, as an 
alternative, endeavor to have the powers of the com- 
mission enlarged so that it may relieve the companies 
of these burdens in every proper case. In any event 
we should endeavor to make the commissioners con- 
stitutional officers so that they may fearlessly perform 
their duty." 


On the subject of the jitney bus, James E. Hewes, 
general manager Albany Southern Railroad, said sub- 
stantially as follows : 

I take the radical position that the gasoline-driven 
vehicle has come to stay, and that its great potentiali- 
ties can be, to a certain extent, used for our own bene- 
fits. I also take the radical position that, if this new 
form of transportation has come to stay, we must make 
use of it or else compel the electrical companies, the car 
builders and the truck builders to give us an electrical 
vehicle that will compete on equal terms with this new 
form of competition. 

One of the best types of auto-buses with which I am 
acquainted is a convertible twenty-two-seat, 5-ton car 
(loaded), having a solid tire and a pneumatic tire on 
each wheel. The engine is four-cylinder, 30-hp. capac- 
ity. The weight of the car is 10,000 lb., or 455 lb. of 
car weight per seated passenger. A first-class interur- 
ban car, seating sixty passengers, weighs 60,000 lb., or 
1000 lb. per passenger. 

A horsepower can be delivered to the wheel of this 
gasoline car, with gasoline at 15 cents per gallon, at less 
cost than can be done by the average trolley company 
that makes electric current in a power house situated, 
say, approximately 20 miles from the trolley car, with 
coal at $3.25 per ton delivered to the boilers. A first- 
class auto-bus can do a car-mile at a power cost of IV2 
cents. The type of auto-bus I speak of makes 10 miles 
on a gallon of gasoline, and the gasoline costs approxi- 
mately 15 cents per gallon. Therefore, our competitor 
can operate a mile, can produce a horsepower where he 
wants it, can operate a ton-mile or a seat-mile at less 
cost than we can, and can carry a passenger in his auto- 
bus with one-half the weight that we can. 

Let us now consider the item of investment and make 
a comparison between our competitor and ourselves, 
taking the item of investment as one unit, and compar- 
ing a trolley car with an auto-bus. 

We pay $9,000 for a 30-ton interurban car, with a 
seating capacity of sixty, equipped with four 75-hp. 
motors, type "M" control air brakes, lighting circuits, 
two trolleys, registers, etc. 

A first-class auto-bus of twenty-two seating capacity 
costs $4,500 complete, or just half the cost of our trol- 
ley car of sixty seating capacity, but the seat cost of the 
jitney is $205, whereas the seat cost of the interurban 
car is $150. The $205 per seat cost of the jitney is all 
the investment that our competitor has, but our $150 
seat cost is only the smallest portion of our real net seat 
cost, because, after we buy our trolley car, we must 
build power houses, lay tracks, erect poles, pave streets, 
bond our tracks, equip trolley lines, construct and equip 
transformer stations and substations, until we have a 
total investment of approximately the following : 

Power house cost per car ?3,00O 

Substation cost per car 1,200 

Trolley line cost per car 2,000 

Track cost per car 20,000 

Cost per car 9,000 

Total cost of trolley car before it can run $35,200 

I submit these figures only as a basis for comparison 
of first cost, and primarily to draw attention to the fact 
that our first cost, reduced to a seat basis, is vastly 

July 3, 1915] 



greater than that of the first-class auto-bus. If the de- 
preciation of the bus were at the rate of 33 per cent and 
the depreciation of a complete trolley system were but 
10 per cent per annum, including obsolescence, the bus 
would, nevertheless, show a total depreciation less than 
ours, because 33 percent of $4,500 is $1,485, whereas 10 
per cent of $35,000 is $3,500. 

Now, the bus has been made possible only by reason 
of the improved roads, built at the expense of the state 
and county. It has also been made primarily possible by 
the great economic development of the gasoline motor 
and the remarkable development of the automobile 
chassis. And we are confronted with the fact to-day 
that the average automobile is a higher development of 
mechanical principles than the trolley car. The tendency 
of our electrical engineers is to make our equipments of 
greater capacity and greater weight. The tendency of 
the automobile manufacturers is to reduce the amount 
of horsepower and lighten the weight of their automo- 
biles. We must look to the electrical engineers to help 
us solve our problem. Our car builders must create a 
revolution in the car if they wish to stay in the game. 
Otherwise the electrical engineers and the car builders 
will be in the same position as we will be, namely, look- 
ing for other jobs. 

I believe, as I have stated before, that gasoline trans- 
portation has come to stay, and that we should make use 
of it at first, or experimentally, as an auxiliary or aid 
in the development of our traffic. Where we seriously 
consider extensions to our lines, we can well use the 
gasoline vehicle, not paralleling our traffic, but begin- 
ning at the ends of our lines and transferring passen- 
gers to the extension territory, until the traffic becomes 
sufficiently reliable and congested to warrant the instal- 
lation of tracks and trolley. 

Other uses for the auto-bus by trolley companies 
would be in locations where there is considerable distance 
between our parallel tracks in congested districts that 
invite the jitney. In such districts it is well to con- 
sider the possibilities of the auto-bus, because in such 
localities the jitneys take away a permanent form of 

By using the auto-bus to the extent cited, we will im- 
mediately win back the nickels we have lost and will do 
more than anything else to discourage jitney-bus com- 
petition and to prevent capital entering this field, be- 
cause the jitney thrives best in a field originating in a 
congested district and paralleling our lines, and by car- 
rying passengers to points beyond our track limits. 

Few of our passengers would take a jitney-bus to 
points beyond our lines if they could ride in comfortable 
cars to our track limits and then be carried to points 
beyond in a comfortable, well-equipped auto-bus oper- 
ating on a regular schedule. One such bus, by making 
frequent short trips, would replace many buses making 
a long trip. 

Generally speaking, an electric traction company, if 
it used an auto-bus as an auxiliary, would discourage 
competition on any extensive scale, and would prevent 
organized incorporated capital from entering the field, 
which is the most dangerous feature of this form of 
competition. Most of the jitney competition is now in 
the hands of "shoe-string" capitalists, but when organ- 
ized capital enters the field we will have to fear the 
worst. If, however, we make use of the gasoline auto- 
bus as an auxiliary, organized capital will be slow to 
enter the jitney-bus field. 

We have, indeed, a serious problem to consider. 
There never was a time in our history when we were 
confonted with a problem that required us to make 
greater efforts to accomplish economies, and to combine 
our great capital to prevent further inroads into the 

field. We must organize our capital to prevent organized 
capital from entering the field of competition; we must 
combine our legal talent to have enacted such laws as 
will place our competitors on an equal basis with us; 
and we must enlist the combined talent of the electrical 
engineers and the car builders to give us a vehicle that 
will place us on an even footing with the jitney-bus 

I will say, in conclusion, that the total cost, including 
fixed charges, for operating an auto-bus-mile for a bus 
having twenty-two seats, based upon an annual bus- 
mileage of 30,000, is 21.8 cents per mile. There are few 
electric roads that can equal this. For over ten years 
more passengers have been carried by buses in London 
than have been carried by trolley lines. The service is 
just as good and as regular. When London got the bus 
habit, and the buses became popular, the capitalists 
owning surface trolley lines promptly unloaded them on 
the city and obtained exclusive franchises to operate 
the bus lines. 


An account of the center-entrance car for city and 
suburban service was given by W. G. Gove, superintend- 
ent of equipment Transit Development Company, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., but as this car has been fully described 
in these pages, the technical features of this paper will 
not be furnished here. Mr. Gove concluded his re- 
marks as follows: 

One hundred and one cars of the center-entrance type 
have now been in service on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
system for over two years, and the results obtained have 
been very satisfactory. The principal advantage of this 
car is the reduction in boarding and alighting accidents, 
due to the doors being closed at all times when the car 
is in motion. 

The following table gives a comparison of boarding 
and alighting accidents per 1000 car-miles for three dif- 
ferent types of cars, operated on the same lines during 
the last calendar year : 

Accidents per lOOft 
Type of Car Car-Miles 

Closed, semi-convertible and convertible 0.11 

Open 0.26 

Center-entrance 0.03 

Another operating advantage of this car is its ability 
to carry an increased number of passengers with a de- 
creased number of cars. This is accomplished by the 
shorter stops required, as passengers are entering and 
leaving at the same time, and by the increased seating 
capacity. On one line it was possible to make a reduc- 
tion of seven cars per day on the schedule, or 190 trips 
and 24,142 ton-miles, with an increase in seat-miles of 

When the cars were first placed in service it was 
thought there might be some slight delay at terminals in 
loading and unloading passengers and in collecting fares 
as passengers entered. This has not been the case. At 
the Park Row terminal of the Brooklyn Bridge the pas- 
sengers are allowed to board through both entrances 
and exits on one side of car, after all passengers have 
alighted from the opposite side. Fares are collected as 
the car is crossing the bridge. 

At Borough Hall and Atlantic Avenue, the only two 
heavily congested points in Brooklyn, passengers are 
prevented from entering by way of the exits by two in- 
spectors, one located at each exit, who also assist pas- 
sengers to board the car. Fares are collected as passen- 
gers enter, but transfers are not issued until after the 
car starts. By this arrangement no delays are occa- 
sioned and schedules are easily maintained. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

The light weight per passenger-seat is also an item 
not to be overlooked. This is saving money, not only in 
power consumption, but in wear and tear on equipment 
and roadbed. 


In introducing this subject for discussion William H. 
Hyland, claim agent Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville 
Railroad, first outlined the relation of the growth in au- 
tomobile traffic during seventeen years, in which period 
the number operating in New York State has increased 
from forty-five to 150,000. At the same time the pos- 
sible speed has increased from 25 m.p.h. to very high 
values. He stated further in substance as follows: 

The qualifications necessary for operating an auto- 
mobile in the State of New York do not include that of 
normal vision. Any person who can purchase an auto- 
mobile, or any member of his or her family, even though 
partly deaf and with impaired vision, is allowed to op- 
erate automobiles upon the highway. There is a strik- 
ing contrast between the requirements for driving an 
automobile and an interurban car. The motorman of to- 
day must not only be sound of body, but he must have 
perfect vision and hearing, tested by a competent physi- 
cian every two years and after any severe illness. Much 
responsibility naturally rests upon the motorman, and 
for this reason the greatest care is exercised in selecting 
him. It should be quite comforting to nervous people to 
know that out of every 100 men who enter the train 
service only twenty become motormen, and only five of 
this number become motormen of interurban cars. The 
motorman is thoroughly trained to meet every emer- 
gency, and his efficiency is as carefully looked after as 
that of anything upon the i-ailroad. 

There are differences of brain power, taste, aptitude, 
physical power, mental strength, moral force and vision. 
With these inherent differences there must be different 
results. These great differences among men are the 
causes of many accidents at highway grade crossings. 
Whichever way we turn we find signs safeguarding the 
grade crossings. It is, however, impossible to get away 
from the personal equation. Frequently an eye fails to 
locate and measure correctly the position and speed of an 
approaching car; an ear fails to hear the warnmg bell 
or whistle; a hand fails to stop the horse or slow down 
the automobile, a mind goes "wool gathering" for a mo- 
ment, and here we have, I believe, the cause of 95 per 
cent of our grade-crossing accidents. 

With the advent of the automobile, railway com- 
panies caused signs to be erected facing the highway 
at points well back from crossings. These signs urged 
drivers of automobiles to slow down and look out for the 
cars. Crossing signs were illuminated so that they 
who ran, even in the dark, could read. Wherever pos- 
sible, trees and buildings which in any interfered with 
a clear view of the tracks from the highway were pur- 
chased by railroad companies and removed. Of course, 
all highway grade crossings are dangerous places, but 
some crossings are safe as compared with other cross- 
ings. At the more dangerous crossings — that is, where 
people, on the highway, by looking cannot see and by 
listening cannot hear approaching cars — cars are 
stopped before crossing the highway. The whistle is 
sounded and the bell is rung. In fact, everything that 
railroad companies can do to safeguard the lives of peo- 
ple on grade crossings is done, but all the precautions 
in the world will not save the lives of those who drive 
vehicles recklessly over railroad crossings. 

Acquiring definite information is, of course, the 
chief reward of all systematic reading and thinking, 
and in these days, when knowledge means much, this is 

important. It is especially important when the knowl- 
edge gained is on a practical subject, like the one in 
question. However, I really believe that if the man- 
agers of railroad companies should withdraw their at- 
tention from all other matters and center it upon the 
subject of the protection of highway grade crossings, 
they could learn nothing that they do not already know. 
The need of the railroad manager is not more informa- 
tion from the claim department upon this subject, but, 
on the contrary, it is money with which to eliminate 
these dangerous places. To obtain the money with 
which to do this most important work will depend 
largely, I believe, upon the attitude of the public toward 
railroad corporations. 

The railroad is the partner of the business man. 
Partnership implies working together for a common 
end, and when the partners shall have viewed this sub- 
ject from the same angle, railroad managers will have 
money with which to eliminate these dangerous cross- 
ings, and not before. Railroad companies are doing 
everything in their power to safeguard crossings, 
through men and machinery and by the posting of large 
signs, warning automobilists to look before crossing the- 
track. They are doing their part and should at least 
receive due credit for their efforts and improvements. 

A Remedy for Dusting Concrete Floors 

At a recent meeting of the American Concrete Insti- 
tute the question of eliminating the dusting of con- 
crete floors was brought up for discussion. This prob- 
lem is of particular interest to electric railways because 
of the generally adopted practice of using concrete floors 
in shops, carhouses and power stations. In this discus- 
sion it was brought out that more than thirty different 
methods had been attempted to eliminate this undesira- 
ble characteristic, but only two or three had been found 
at all satisfactory. Silicate of soda was included among 
those proprietary remedies which had given fair re- 
sults. A better remedy, however, was discovered twelve 
years ago when the dust on the floor of a generating 
station damaged the bearings of some of the machines. 
A coating of linseed oil was applied to eliminate the 
cause of the trouble. In this case raw oil was used 
and the excess wiped off with waste, but later develop- 
ments have demonstrated that boiled oil was better 
than raw oil, since it dried more quickly. One objec- 
tion to the oil was that it produced a mottled appearance 
due to unequal absorption, but this undesirable feature 
has been overcome by the inclusion of lamp black, which 
gave the floors so treated a uniform slate color. 

It was generally agreed that dusting of concrete 
floors was the result of using a mixture too rich in ce- 
ment, or sand of too fine grain. Both of these causes 
are readily obviated by the use of a coarser and harder 
sand, or even crushed granite screenings in the wearing 
surface, and by a reduction in the quantity of cement. 
The more recent introduction, however, of fine iron and 
steel filings into the cement used in the wearing sur- 
faces of floors is meant to attain the same end, and 
logically there is no reason why it should not. Another 
precaution employed to improve the wearing quality of 
concrete floors is to use only enough water to make the 
surface trowel without undue effort. It should also be 
allowed to cure for at least ten days, during which time 
it should be sprinkled frequently to complete the hydra- 
tion of the cement. 

The Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, 
which adopted Eastern time shortly after Cleveland 
made the change, has returned to the use of Central 
standard time. None of the other towns and cities on 
its line used Eastern time. 

July 3, 1915] 




The New York Jitney Law 

International Railway Company, 

Buffalo, N. Y., June 28, 1915. 

To the Editors: 

I notice a statement in the table on page 1224 in 
the Electrical Railway Journal for June 26, that the 
New York law regarding jitneys provides "that no 
jitney shall operate until the owner has procured the 
consent of the local authorities and has executed a bond 
in an amount fixed by said local authorities." 

The law goes further than this. It also provides that 
they cannot operate until they have secured a certificate 
of convenience and necessity from the Public Service 
Commission, and in order to get this it will be necessary 
for any jitney operator to show by testimony under oath 
at a regular hearing before the Public Service Commis- 
sion t'hat the service is a public necessity and con- 
venience. E. G. Connette, President. 

Rating of Railway Substation Machinery 

New York. N. Y., June 30, 1915. 

To the Editors : 

Your editorials on "Continuous vs. Normal Rating of 
Railway Substation Machinery," with their advocacy of 
continuous instead of nominal rating, suggest the de- 
sirability of introducing another factor into the rating 
of duty-cycle machines, or those whose cycle of load 
repeats itself with more or less regularity. 

The heat generated in an electrical machine is pri- 
marily expended in raising its temperature. The greater 
the heat capacity of the machine, the more heat will be 
required to raise its temperature a given number of 
degrees, or, to put it another way, the greater the heat 
capacity, the less will be the temperature rise with a 
given expenditure of heat. As soon as the temperature 
begins to rise, however, the heat no longer confines itself 
to raising the temperature of the machine, as part of it 
is dissipated in the air by radiation and convection. At 
first the heat dissipation will be unimportant compared 
to the heat absorption, but as the temperature rises, it 
assumes increasing importance until, at a certain tem- 
perature, the rate of dissipation equals that of absorp- 
tion. This is the temperature at which the machine 
will run continuously with the energy losses assumed. 
The greater the heat-dissipating ability of the machine, 
the less the temperature rise in continuous operation or, 
to put it another way, the greater the dissipation the 
greater may be the energy losses for a given tem- 
perature rise. It is therefore obvious that the funda- 
mental characteristics of a machine, from the point of 
view of heating, are its thermal capacity and its thermal 
dissipation quality. 

The continuous rating of a machine, being a measure 
of its thermal dissipation, is a perfectly satisfactory 
measure of its capabilities under practically constant 
load conditions, such as occur in lighting stations. In 
railway substations, however, the fluctuating character 
of the load renders the continuous rating less complete as 
a measure of capability, and necessitates an additional 
rating which will measure the capability of the ma- 
chine to absorb the heat generated by heavy loads of 
short duration. The rating which accomplishes this is 
the thermal capacity. 

Unfortunately, the thermal capacity has not been 
standardized as a rating. True, it is mentioned in an 
appendix to the 1914 Standardization Rules (Section 
447), but only in connection with railway motors. 

The nominal rating is a rather abortive attempt to 
combine the thermal dissipation and thermal capacity in 

Time, t 

one figure. Such an attempt is like trying to define a 
parallelogram by giving its area only, without refer- 
ence to its shape. In either case the combination of the 
two quantities into one makes the rating fit innumerable 
cases. For example, a machine of high thermal capacity 
and low thermal dissipation may have the same nominal 
rating as a machine of low thermal capacity and high 
thermal dissipation. The two machines will be of 
radically different design, suited to entirely different 
services, but will have the same rating. 

The thermal capacity depends upon the amount, dis- 
position and specific heat of the materials of which the 
machine is composed. The thermal dissipation depends 
upon the ventilation, the areas of heat-dissipating sur- 
faces and the specific radiation of these surfaces. How 
can these two distinct properties of a machine be put 
into the rating? 

An answer to this question is suggested by a con- 
sideration of the curve of temperature rise of a machine 

operating at any constant 
load. The form of such a 
curve is shown by the ac- 
companying sketch, from 
which it will be observed that 
during the early stages of 
the run, the temperature rise 
follows an almost straight 
line law due to the fact that 
practically all the heat 
generated is used in raising 
the temperature of the ma- 
chine. Later the curve bends over due to the increase of 
heat dissipation as a machine becomes hot. The ther- 
mal capacity of the machine is proportioned to the slope 
of the straight line part of the heating curve with re- 
spect to the vertical axis. Thus if the mean temperature 
rise in t hours is T degrees with a constant load, giving 
a loss of P kilowatts, the thermal capacity will be Pt/T 
kilowatt-hours per degree rise. The ratio t/T which 
gives the slope of the curve with respect to the vertical 
axis, may be determined by stopping the heat run after, 
say, fifteen minutes and taking temperature readings. 
Assuming that this plan is practicable, we would be 
equipped with a measure of the thermal capacity of the 
machine which may then be used to determine its 
capability for carrying overloads for short periods. It 
is unnecessary to enter into the details of how this is 
done, but let it suffice to say that if we are provided 
with a load diagram and the thermal characteristics of 
the machine, it is an easy matter to plot a curve of tem- 
perature rise, no matter how complicated the diagram. 

The practicability of determining the thermal ca- 
pacity as here outlined is, perhaps, open to doubt, due to 
the uncertainty of the temperature rise, which will 
probably be a small quantity and due to the uneven dis- 
tribution of heat in the machine. There is, however, 
sufficient promise in the plan to warrant careful investi- 
gation. The standards committee of the A. I. E. E. has 
given the matter considerable thought, but received 
little or no encouragement from the railway men. I 
wish to commend the subject to the attention of electric 
railway engineers in the hope that a demand will arise 
for the rating of railway machinery in accordance with 
its thermal characteristics. The adoption of the con- 
tinuous rating will supply one of the two necessary rat- 
ings. Is it not time for us to talk for the other? 

William L. Del Mar. 

The Chicago (111.) Tunnel Company has issued an 
elaborate folder entitled "Lifting the Lid in the Loop" 
for the purpose of acquainting the public with the prop- 
erty and the benefits derived by shippers and the city 
at large through the tunnel. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

OCTOBER 4 to 8, 1915 

American Association News 

OCTOBER 4 TO 8, 1915 

Under the Auspices of the A. E. R. A. and N. E. L. A. a Meeting Is Held in Manila at Which Public and Private 
Ownership of Utilities Is Discussed — Committee and Section Activity 


The committee to develop uniform definitions of the 
American Electric Railway Transportation & Traffic 
Association met at the headquarters in New York on 
June 25. The following were present: H. C. Donecker, 
chairman; William C. Greenough and Frederic Nicholas. 
The committee went over in detail the definitions re- 
ported by the 1913 committee on the same subject and 
definitions contained in the 1911 report of the commit- 
tee on construction of schedules and time-tables, and 
also considered suggested changes and additions. 

The definitions, which have been reported to the as- 
sociation but not yet adopted formally, will be consid- 
ered carefully by the members of the committee in com- 
parison with definitions contained in the reports of the 
committees on rules and construction of schedules and 
time-tables and the joint committee of the Engineering 
and the Transportation & Traffic Associations on block 
signals for electric railways. Several of the terms 
which have been defined tentatively are of equal inter- 
est to allied associations and in order that the defini- 
tions may be satisfactory to each department of opera- 
tion concerned, the committee will ask for the appoint- 
ment of joint committees to act on these matters. Sev- 
eral additional terms were suggested for definition. The 
committee will hold another meeting on July 13. 


As announced in the issue of the Electric Railway 
Journal for June 26, page 1211, the May meeting of 
the joint Manila Electric Railroad & Light Company 
section of the American Electric Railway Association 
and the National Electric Light Association was devoted 
to the subject of the relative advantages and disadvan- 
tages of private and government-owned public utilities. 
A paper with this title was presented by W. R. 
McGeachin, manager of the railway department of the 

Mr. McGeachin's paper was based upon quotations 
from a number of important articles and reports. He 
first stated that while theoretically government owner- 
ship of all public utilities is the ideal condition, the 
principal argument against the public ownership of cer- 
tain utilities is that the basic political and social con- 
ditions under which these utilities have existed and do 
exist are not ideal. This is not a theoretical reason but, 
being based on practical results and existing conditions, 
furnishes an all-powerful and irrefutable argument. 
Mr. McGeachin quoted from the National Civic 
Federation report giving the results of the investiga- 
tion conducted by that body during 1905 and 1906, from 
the report of W. D. Mahon and L. D. Bland to the Amal- 
gamated Association of Street & Electric Railway Em- 
ployees of America in 1914, from an address on Euro- 
pean public-utility conditions by W. J. Clark of the 
General Electric Company, from the proceedings of the 
conference of mayors held in Philadelphia last year and 
from the code of principles of the American Electric 
Railway Association. Abstracts of these various state- 
ments can be found in the file of the Electric Railway 

In the discussion of Mr. McGeachin's paper L. L. 
Vincent, superintendent of electric testing of the com- 

pany, expressed the belief that in America the people 
are willing to give private owners of public utilities a 
chance to earn a reasonable return on their investment, 
provided satisfactory service is furnished and that the 
code of principles of the association, when applied, will 
have the effect of educating the people generally and 
preventing hostile agitation. He considered the Amer- 
ican Telephone & Telegraph Company's experience with 
publicity to be typical of the effects of frank publicity. 

Clifford H. French, auditor for the Philippine Islands, 
referred to the fact that the incentive of profit is absent 
in public operation of utilities. Recent inquiries in 
China showed him that the operation of the railways 
by the government was more or less of a failure because 
the government could not pay suitable salaries to keep 
employees in a contented state of mind. He believed 
that no present government is organized on a basis of 
efl^ciency as compared with great representative cor- 

M. F. Loewenstein, president Pacific Commercial Com- 
pany, referred to the difference between a Canadian 
Pacific train and an Inter-Colonial train as they stood 
side by side in the station at Montreal. As a result of 
the comparison he did not favor government ownership 
of railroads as much as he had done previously. He 
instanced the government ownership and operation of 
steam railroads in Australia where on one trip he was 
obliged to ride on three different trains, as one road 
had a narrow gage, one a standard gage and one a 
broad gage. He considered that the public ownership 
and operation of street railways in Sydney was satis- 
factory and noted that a long ride was given for a 
penny. Comparatively unsatisfactory conditions in Mel- 
bourne were explained by the fact that the company's 
franchise was about to expire and for that reason needed 
improvements were not attempted. 

H. M. Pitt, president of the Manila Merchants' Asso- 
ciation, stated that government at best is a cumbersome 
affair, and if it is possible to relieve it in any way of 
its multifarious duties it is good for the government 
and the public to do so. He stated that the government 
operated the ice plant in Manila under compulsion as 
the plant was built by the military government and was 
turned over to the civil government. For years the ice 
plant maintained a price for ice that was out of all 
reason, and it never reduced the price until the private 
companies did so after getting into a fight among them- 
selves. Governmental ownership and operation of the 
ice plant in Manila is hardly a criterion of the success 
of such ownership of utilities. 

The political aspect of the question was pointed out 
by M. D. Royer, traflSc manager of the Manila Railroad 
Company, a steam railroad. He referred to the differ- 
ences in conditions with regard to government owner- 
ship in European countries and the United States, and 
especially with regard to the possibilities of political 
control under government ownership. Conditions in 
the United States at this time do not warrant such 

The experience of Japan in government ownership 
was outlined by Y. Mikami, manager of the Mitsui 
Bussan Kaisha. He said that the cumbersomeness of 
governments had been proved, and therefore the less 
the governments do the better for the people. In Japan 
it was necessary in many cases for the government to 

July 3, 1915] 



inaugurate public utilities in order to have them, and 
principally for this reason the people of Japan advo- 
cated such ownership, but this does not prove anything. 
It is not surprising that in the United States, where the 
people are more practical than any other people in the 
world, public utilities are generally privately owned. 

George H. Fairchild of Welch, Fairchild & Company, 
sugar planters, in referring to his experiences on gov- 
ernment-owned railroads in Europe said that the service 
given by them was inferior to that furnished by the 
American railroads. 

In closing the discussion C. N. Duffy, vice-president 
of the company, said that the people who advocate 
government ownership and operation are usually non- 
taxpayers. Speaking as a taxpayer he felt that when- 
ever a government can or does operate public utilities 
as efficiently and as economically as a private company 
can and does, then and not until then is it time to take 
up the question for consideration. The men engaged 
in the public-utility business are performing a public 
service and are doing presumably what the government 
could not, or would not, undertake to do. He instanced 
the local electric railway, light and power system. The 
real reason for the success of privately-owned public 
utilities, and for the failure of government-owned public 
utilities, lies in the fact that in the latter there is no 
hope of individual financial reward, the personality of 
the man is lost sight of, and the individual's right to 
assume authority and discharge responsibility is hope- 
lessly entangled in masses of red tape. 

Referring to the advocacy of government ownership 
and operation of telephone and telegraph lines by the 
Postmaster-General of the United States, he called at- 
tention to the fact that the Postmaster-General also 
advocated the operation of rural free delivery postal 
service privately, as it had cost the government during 
the last fiscal year $56,000,000 whereas the service could 
have been performed privately for $20,000,000. 

Mr. Duffy did not favor limited franchises for pri- 
vately-owned utilities but preferred the indeterminate 
permit. He said that the franchise granted by the 
Philippine Legislature, recommended by the Board of 
Public Utility Commissioners for the Philippine Islands, 
for a hydroelectric plant on the Caliraya River was for 
a term of ninety-nine years. The government reserved 
the rights under certain conditions to purchase the prop- 
erty within twenty years after the plant began opera- 
tion provided that the actual cost should be paid, plus 
10 per cent, and plus such additional amounts as would 
equal the return in cash equivalent to an average of 
not less than 10 per cent on such actual cost for each 
year during the period of operation after adequately 
providing for maintenance and depreciation of the 
property and safeguarding the investment. 

Referring to Mr. Loewenstein's impressions of rail- 
way service in Sydney, Mr. Duffy remarked that if the 
speaker had been called upon to pay in taxes his share 
of the deficit resulting from the operation of the street 
railway system his impressions might be different. In 
conclusion, he said that no privately-owned public-utility 
company, no investor in any such company and no em- 
ployee in any such company objects to regulation that 
means fair treatment and protection to the interests 
regulated ; that such regulation makes a privately-owned 
public utility stronger and better in every way and is 
best for the public; that the advanced and progressive 
privately-owned public-utility company knows full well 
that if it does not conduct its business according to 
business principles it cannot, will not and should not 
succeed and that the privately-owned public utility that 
gives the best service practicable at the least cost and 
that serves the public best, serves itself best. 


Financing electric railways, signals and interlocking 
were the subjects discussed at the meeting of the 
Chicago Elevated Railroad Section of the American 
Electric Railway Association held on June 22. When 
President Johnson called the meeting to order there 
were 110 members and guests in attendance and Sec- 
retary Smith reported sixteen new applications, which 
made the total membership 169. In the business ses- 
sion before beginning the regular program, it was sug- 
gested that an official pin cheaper than the one adopted 
should be available for those who could not afford to 
buy a gold one. This matter will be taken up with the 
parent association for action. 

E. A. Brion, comptroller of the Chicago Elevated 
Railways, spoke on "How Funds Are Provided for Elec- 
tric Railway Development." He described the different 
classes of securities employed, the manner in which 
they are marketed and the desirability of the various 
classes. It was shown by concrete example how the re- 
turn on the various classes of securities varies with 
their safety and how the demanded return on all securi- 
ties is steadily advancing. Mr. Brion also spoke of the 
holding company and its purpose, as well as the various 
factors which affect the marketing of the securities. 

A talk on "Signals and Interlocking" was given by 
J. W. Stephenson, signal engineer of the company. 
The history of signal development was outlined be- 
ginning with the installation of the red ball at the cross- 
ing of the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the 
New England Railroads at Hartford, Conn., in 1852. 
Various types of interlocking machines installed on the 
Chicago Elevated Railroads were described, and the 
members were informed of several features which were 
developed on the company's lines, such as the "hesita- 
tion" frogs and the detector route locking. 

"The Life of Treated Gears and Pinions" was the 
principal subject brought out by the Question Box and 
this was discussed at length. It was decided that this 
would be the last meeting before the summer adjourn- 
ment. It is believed the section will be kept very much 
alive during the summer by the activities of the mem- 
bers who desire to be elected as delegates to the national 
convention at San Francisco. 

The Anthony N. Brady Memorial Medals 

The American Museum of Safety is sending to elec- 
tric railways accident report forms for use in the com- 
petition for the Brady memorial medals which were 
awarded last year for the first time to the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway, Russel A. Sears and Henry V. Neal. The 
committee for formulating the conditions of competi- 
tion comprise Arthur W. Brady, president Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana, chairman; Wilbur C. Fisk, 
president Hudson & Manhattan Railroad; C. S. Ser- 
geant, vice-president Boston Elevated Railway and 
W. H. Tolman, secretary, director American Museum of 
Safety. The committee on awards consists of Bion J. 
Arnold, chairman Board of Supervising Engineers, 
Chicago Traction; Hon. W. J. French, commissioner 
Industrial Accident Commission, State of California; 
James H. McGraw, president McGraw Publishing Com- 
pany ; Frank J. Sprague, New York ; Prof. George F. 
Swain, chairman Boston Transit Commission, and Dr. 
W. H. Tolman, secretary. 

The conditions of the competition are substantially 
the same as last year, but they have been improved in 
detail in accordance with suggestions received by the 
committee. They are contained in a circular published 
by the American Museum of Safety, 14 West Twenty- 
fourth Street, New York. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

Equipment and Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical 
Practices in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

(Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will be Paid for at Special Kates.) 

Furnace for Heating Soldering Irons 


The gas furnace illustrated in the accompanying 
drawing was designed for use in heating soldering 
irons and solder pots in shops where a number of men, 
say from six to ten, are winding, repairing and bend- 
ing armatures. It is a home-made furnace set up in 
the following manner: 

The stand consists of a piece of 6-in. pipe, 30 in. long, 
with a table welded on the top and a base welded on 
the bottom. The table is 30 in. long, 24 in. wide and 

Plan with 

.■ Burner 



(5os Pipe ■' 


Vz in. thick. The base is somewhat smaller and is im- 
bedded in the concrete floor a few inches below the 

On the table is a cast-iron box, housing the burners, 
and consisting simply of two sides with a heavy, re- 
movable top, the whole box being in two parts held 
together by dowel pins. The top may thus be lifted 
off to expose the burners. The division of the box into 
two sections also gives a convenient means for replac- 
ing the small bars which are provided over the burner 
to support the irons. As these are in the flame they 
warp and have to be changed occasionally. The pro- 
vision of the removable top also makes the furnace 
available for heating solder pots, boiling water, heat- 
ing irons for light blacksmith Avork, etc. 

The burners are U-shaped loops of half-inch pipe 
perforated with i,8-in- holes. They are laid together in 
the overlapping position shown in the diagram. Two 
3/4-in. pipes, one each for air and gas, are brought up 
from below the floor through the stem to a large open- 
ing near the top whence they lead to the burners. A 

valve is inserted in each pipe just below the table. 
Fastened to the flat iron top on each side of the burner 
is a bar, shaped to form a rest for the soldering-iron 

In designing this furnace, economy, neatness, con- 
venience and safety were the considerations. The use 
of one central furnace does away with numerous indi- 
vidual fires, thus economizing fuel and insuring more 
nearly continuous use of the one fire. The inclosing of 
the pipes in the stem conduces to neatness, and the 
furnace is adapted to be centrally located for easy ac- 
cess by the users. The elimination of many small fires 
is conducive to safety and as this outfit is entirely of 
iron it is inherently fire proof. 

Testing Corner in Atlantic City Shops 


For the purpose of making the standard as well as 
special tests of electrical equipment, the arrangement 
of apparatus shown in the accompanying illustration 
has been adopted. At the left is shown an 1100-volt 
transformer used for break-down tests and beneath it a 
transformer and wattmeter board on which is an a.c. 
watt-hour meter and alongside it a switch in the low- 
voltage a.c. circuit leading to the transformer, by open- 
ing which the a.c. line to the main switchboard is killed. 


The principal instruments and switches are grouped 
on a small home-made switchboard consisting of two 
marble panels, which happened to be on hand, mounted 
on an angle-iron frame. 

At the top of the board is a d.c. circuit breaker, to 
the right of which is a snap switch and pair of terminals 
for the d.c. voltmeter. In the center at the right is a 
d.c. ammeter arranged with shunts for reading either 

July 3, 1915] 



100 or 1000 amperes. The range is controlled by two 
single-pole switches which short-circuit the respective 
shunts. The low-amperage switch is to the left of the 
ammeter and the high-amperage switch below it. To 
the left of the d.c. ammeter is a 60-amp. a.c. ammeter 
with a short-circuiting switch immediately beside it. 
Below the a.c. ammeter is the main a.c. circuit switch 
with fuses, and at the bottom of the board is a double- 
pole double-throw switch, connected in one direction for 
the field test and in the other for the armature test. 
Connections to the equipment under test are made from 
behind the board. 

Immediately below the board is a water rheostat, 
consisting of an iron terminal plate suspended in an oil 
barrel concreted in for permanency. The barrel is pro- 
vided with a drain pipe at the bottom so that the stand- 
ing water may be changed as often as desired. The 
position of the terminal plate is controlled by a rope 
running over a drum on the back of the board. The 
drum is rotated by means of a small hand wheel on the 
front of the board. A weight is used to counterbalance 
the plate. 

On the stand in front of the switchboard is a trans- 
former for testing field coils for short circuits, con- 
sisting of a laminated iron core with a primary 
winding, the coil under test forming the secondary. The 
illustration shows the field coil of a Westinghouse No. 
68 motor ready for short-circuit test, while the arma- 
ture of the same motor is on the stand at the right 
ready for current and insulation tests. In addition to 
the test set described we have a K-36 controller mounted 
with circuit breaker and resistances for complete test 
of motors before they are installed on the trucks. 

The testing equipment described above is used for 
making the following routine and special tests: 1100- 
volt a.c. insulation tests on armatures and other appara- 
tus ; a.c. field tests for "shorts" ; a.c. armature tests for 
"shorts" ; d.c. circuit-breaker tests ;' ohmic resistance 
tests of any apparatus, and in general any other a.c. 
or d.c. tests requiring large or small current. While I 
am aware that test sets are installed in most of the 
larger electric railway shops throughout the country, I 
believe that the arrangement of this one will be of in- 
terest as it is quite complete. 

Ventilation Holes in Motor Frames 


R. H. Parsons' article in the issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal for June 19, on "A Simple Ventilat- 
ing Scheme for Increasing Motor Output" recalls to 
the mind of the writer similar work which was carried 
out when he was with the Puget Sound Electric Railway 
in 1911. 

The company had in service a number of GE-66 motors 
geared 47:37. The operating conditions of these motors 
were so severe that with an outside temperature of 34 
deg. C. the internal temperature of the motors ran as 
high as 105 deg. between the field poles. These high 
temperatures caused the melting of the solder in the 
rear-end clips of the two-piece armature coils, necessi- 
tating rewinding. 

We therefore removed the standard handhole covers 
and replaced them with pieces of sheet iron in which 
9/16-in. holes had been perforated at about the same dis- 
tance between the edges of the holes. With the perfo- 
rated covers substituted for the top handhole covers 
alone, the maximum temperature dropped to 77 deg. ; 
and with the top, back and bottom handhole covers per- 
forated, the temperature fell to 60 deg. and even to 55 
deg. C. 

A Home-Made Wheel Grinder 


The accompanying photograph shows a device made 
in our shops for grinding wheels. This consists of a 
1-hp. motor, with an emery wheel attached, fitted to the 
too] holder of our 36-in. wheel lathe. This attachment 
is secured to the tool holder by four bolts so that it can 
be removed quickly when necessary. We are, of course, 
able to gri^nd but one wheel at a time with this device. 


The average time required to grind a pair of wheels 
is from two to three hours, depending on how badly they 
are skidded. We have been using this device since Jan- 
uary, 1914, grinding from one to four pairs of wheels 
per month. We have lately used it for truing up steel 
wheels where there was a slight difi'erence in diameter 
and in case the flanges did not require turning. The en- 
tire cost of this installation was $50, including the cost 
of a second-hand motor. 

Emergency Truck Changing at Los Angeles 

The accompanying cut shows a vehicle used by the 
shop forces of the Los Angeles Railway. This is 
used to carry a completely-equipped motor truck which 
is always ready for emergency replacements at the call 




[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

of the chief dispatcher. The dolly is supplied with a 
skidby means of which the replacing truck is readily 
lowered and the defective truck raised to the platform 
for return to the shops. 

Making the Standee Comfortable 

A patent, No. 1,142,867, has been issued by the 
United States Patent Office under date of June 15, 
1915, which proposes the separation of surface-car in- 
teriors into small sections or units each providing 
standing space for a limited number of passengers. 
By segregating each unit every individual within such 
a space has a place from which he cannot be crowded 
and at the same time the railings surrounding the unit 
provide him with a firm and natural support during his 

The accompanying Figs. 1 and 2 show plans of a 
center-entrance motor car having an aisle which is off" 
the center line of the car and thus provides room for 
the series of units along one side of the car. The units 


Differential Gears to Eliminate Rail 

For a number of months the Huddersfield Corpo- 
ration Tramways, Huddersfield, England, has had in 
operation eleven cars fitted with differential driving 
gears. These cars have been operated on track which 
was formerly subject to corrugation, to the exclusion 
of other cars, to determine primarily the effect of elim- 
inating wheel slippage. Incidentally information was 
desired upon the subject of energy consumption and 
life of tires with wheel slippage eliminated. It was the 
theory of R. H. Wilkinson, general manager and engi- 
neer of the tramways, that corrugations are caused 
by skidding and slipping of the wheels due to unequal 
diameter. If this theory is correct the elimination of 
slipping should have beneficial effects in the three di- 


are separated from each other by horizontal pipe rail- 
ings which are set about waist high and which may 
take either the form of an attachment to a vertical 
stanchion at the seat line or else continuous railing 
running horizontally from the car side to the center line. 
Wooden partitions are suggested for use in some cases. 

The plan shown in Fig. 2 differs from that shown 
in Fig. 1 only in having the single seats arranged in 
tandem. The latter feature, by locating the foot space 

for seated passengers be- 
tween the cross-seats, 
makes available for 
standing passengers a 
corresponding space in 
the aisle, and in addition 
insures those who occupy 
the cross-seats from 
close contact with those 
who stand. In Fig. 1 
the plan provides for 
two seated passengers 
and four standing pas- 
sengers in each unit. 

The inventors believe 
that this arrangement 
will prove superior to 
the use of both hand 
straps and stanchions 
because the horizontal 
partitions between the units will provide definite sup- 
port for standing passengers at the proper position. 
It is also believed that the race for vacant seats which 
is a conspicuous and unpleasant feature of modern 
rush-hour travel will be eliminated, because passengers 
who have once gained a standing place within a given 
compartment acquire a natural right to vacancies within 
their compartment. 


rections indicated. Experience thus far has shown 
very satisfactory results as regards corrugation and 
tire wear, although there have been no appreciable 
energy savings. The cars are running on rails which 
were corrugated by cars of the ordinary fixed wheel 
and axle type. For the purpose of the experiment the 
corrugations were carefully ground out. 

The construction of the differential gear can be seen 
from the illustrations. Referring to the line cut it will 
be noted that a differential driving axle gear is substi- 
tuted for the ordinary gear one side driving the near 
wheel through a bevel gear mounted on the extension 
of its hub, while the other side drives the far wheel 
through the axle, which carries a similar bevel gear 
mounted on a collar forming an integral part of the 
axle. By this drive each wheel takes a speed determined 
by its circumference. The axle is carried in ordinary 
bearings. The wheels differ from the standard wheels 
in that they are straight rather than dished, in order to 
bring the tread and point of support m.ore directly under 
the center of th3 length of the wheel boss and bearings, 


July 3, 1915] 



the better to support the axle equally over the full 
length of the boss bearings, giving parallel wear of 
bush and axle by approaching center running. 

It will be noted that the wheel near the differential 
gear is mounted loose on the axle, the hub being bushed 
with a bronze bearing, while an extension of the hub 
carries the bevel gear. The appearance of the gear as 
attached to the wheel is shown clearly in one of the half- 
tones. The main spur axle gear is also loose on the 
axle and is similarly bushed. It consists of a cast-steel 
rim with machine cut teeth mounted on a cast-steel 
center which carries four bevel pinions meshing with 


the aforesaid bevel gear. The second bevel driving gear 
is bolted to a collar which is forged on the axle. All 
of these parts are securely bolted together with driving- 
fit bolts. 

A thrust collar, made in halves bolted together, fits 
snugly into a groove in the axle on the outer side of 
the wheel, to take the thrust of the bevel gears. This 
construction permits the easy removal of the gears so 
that they may be lined up in case of wear. 

The experiments which are being made with these dif- 
ferential gear drives should be of great value in settling 
questions as to the causes of corrugation, the effects of 
wheel slippage on curves, etc., and the effect on tire 
wear of inequalities in wheel diameter. 

All-Steel Cars for London & Port Stanley 

Five cars for the London & Port Stanley Railway 
have recently been completed by the Jewett Car Com- 
pany, the design providing for service in accordance 
with the highest interurban standards. The railway, 
which is a 1500-volt electrification of an old steam 
road between the cities of London and Port Stanley in 
the province of Ontario, Canada, really constitutes a 
first step in the extensive general plans of the Ontario 
Municipal Railways, and the service includes locomo- 
tive-hauled freight trains and multiple-unit passenger 
car trains of both limited and local classes. 

The recently completed cars are to be used in motor 
service at the head ends of the two-car trains. They 
are 61 ft. 1% in. long over buffers and are exceptionally 
wide, being 9 ft. 6 in. over posts. This makes possible 
seats that are 40 in. long, with an aisle 26 in. wide. 
The car body is divided into baggage, smoking and 
general passenger compartments, respectively 9 ft., 12 
ft. and 25 ft. in approximate length. In the main com- 
partment there are two saloons with metal tile walls and 
a tile floor set in cement. The seats in the main and 
smoking compartments are on 34-in. centers, and the 
total seating capacity is fifty-six. 

The bottom framing of the car is made up of struc- 
tural sills with pressed-steel cross-bridging, plate bol- 
sters with pressed-steel fillers being used. Side posts 
are alternately of double channels and tees of light sec- 
tion, with angle-iron corner posts. The posts at the 
bulkheads and partitions are also of channels, with a 
channel header across between side plates. All of these 
posts have light wood fillers. The entire outside of the 
car and the bulkheads are composed of steel plates, the 
side girder plates and letter boards being of Vg-in. 
steel and the pier-post panels, etc., being 3/32 in. thick. 
The carlines are of pressed steel, and the roof is 
sheathed with steel plates laid across the full width 
of the car. 

The cars are fitted with extra heavy steel pilots and 
Tomlinson M. C. B. drawbars. The interior finish is 
mahogany, inlaid with inside and outside Gothic sash 
and cathedral glass, and storm sash are fitted to all 
body windows. The ceiling is of agasote, while the 




[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 



floor, which is of wood, is covered with linoleum. The 
car is lighted by semi-indirect system with pendant 
fixtures, light wiring being in concealed conduit. The 
heater wiring is also concealed. 

There is a vestibule only on the rear end, and this 
has triple steps covered with Edward's steel trapdoors. 
Both saloons are very completely equipped with flush 
hoppers; wash stands with liquid soap holders, towel 
racks, etc., all toilet-room fixtures being nickelplated. 
The interior of the car presents an exceptionally taste- 
ful appearance, the mahogany being finished in a rather 
light tone, and great care has been exercised in select- 
ing soft harmonizing colors both for ceiling and for 
stained glass. 

Nothing in the way of incidental equipment, such as 
buzzers, air sanders, fire extinguishers, etc., has been 

omitted, while a large switch cabinet with a slate back 
extends from floor to ceiling, this containing all elec- 
trical switches. The roof is a compromise arch design 
having an ogee curve on each side, making a very good 
lines especially in the hood. 

The electrical equipment for each car consists of four 
General Electric ventilated motors of 125-hp. hourly 
rating, connected permanently in series groups of two. 
The insulation, however, is designed for 1500 volts. 
The control is double end and energy for this is derived' 
from a 1500-600-volt dynamotor which will have a suf- 
ficient capacity also to light the motor car and its trailer 
as well. Pantographs will be used for current collec- 
tion. Each car will carry a combined straight and au- 
tomatic air-brake outfit of the variable release type 
supplied by 1500-volt air compressors. 


July 3, 1915] 



Choke Coils and Disconnecting Switches 

The choke coil, disconnecting switch and fittings illus- 
trated herewith are typical of the new and more com- 
plete line of such apparatus recently brought out by 
the Electric Service Supplies Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa. The fittings which accompany this line are all of 
new designs and especially noteworthy. 

Both choke coils and disconnecting switches are made 
for standard and underhung mounting, as well as for 


1^i - ft- 

-t^K 1 



voltages up to 35,000 and all standard ampere capacities. 
They are made with a base of channel iron, either 3-in. 
or 4-in., depending on the size of the coil or switch. 
Iron pins are riveted into this channel, and insulators 
cemented to these pins support iron caps, which in turn 
support the terminal blocks, terminals and coil or switch 
proper. All channel bases are drilled with 9/16-in. 
holes in each end and, therefore, may be mounted on 
any flat supporting member by bolts or lags. These coils 
and switches are very rugged in construction and pos- 
sess great electrical and mechanical strength. The 
switches are designed for disconnecting and controlling 

T 1 / , 


high-voltage lines, branch feeders, emergency feeders, 
etc., as well as for lightning arrester disconnecting 
switches that are installed to disconnect arresters from 
the line for the purpose of inspection or repair. The 
manufacturers claim that these devices are so designed 
that when they are used in conjunction with Garton- 
Daniels lightning arresters, a maximum of protection 
may be expected. 

The line of fittings referred to consists of malleable 

iron pipe clamps for mounting switches or coils on either 
parallel or transverse piping, disconnecting switch locks 
for use particularly on underhung types as assurance 
against any tendency for the blade to be blown open, 
disconnecting switch stops which prevent the blade from 
opening beyond a given angle, switch blade operating 
attachments which provide an extra large hole in the 
switch blade to facilitate the quick opening of the switch 
in an emergency, and disconnecting switch hooks in 
lengths from 4 ft. to 12 ft. for operating the switches 
from a distance. 

A Novel Form of Motor Bus for Interurban 

There will soon be placed in service between St. Paul 
and Minneapolis a novel transportation unit that is 
called a "highway coach" by its builders, the McKeen 
Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb. This is stated to be 
not an omnibus, not a street car and not a jitney bus, 
but the most comfortable, luxurious, exclusive and up- 
to-date means of transportation in urban or interurban 
passenger service. It will compete for the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company's intercity traffic at twice the 
fare charged heretofore, the rate between cities being 
20 cents and the local rides costing 10 cents. 

The highway coach is equipped with individual chairs 


of a new, steel-spiral-spring, pneumatic shock-absorb- 
ing cushioned type. This embodies all the cushioning 
effects of a 2-ft. spiral spring, and it has four air cush- 
ions operating in conjunction with it and differentiated 
on each other, the combination acting both as a cushion 
and shock absorber. The car is guaranteed by its 
builders to afford the most easy-riding method of trans- 
portation known to man. 

Plate-glass, air-tight, round windows afford an al- 
most uninterrupted panoramic view in all directions, 
the window when open being hinged to the ceiling and 
giving a full opening of 24^/2 in. in diameter. Exhaust 
suction ventilators on the roof maintain constant cir- 
culation and removal of the air. The car is electrically 
lighted, and between each two windows is an electric 
push button for convenience of passengers in signaling 
the driver, who controls the two door-operating mech- 

Entrance to the car is gained through a two-leaf out- 
ward folding door beside the driver's position, the pre- 
payment fare collection being under his supervision. 
Exit is through double-leaf outward folding door in the 
side near the rear. Instead of a high step from the 
mud, the passengers take this car at the curb, the coach 
entrance being only 15 in. from the ground and the 
initial step about 7 in. high. 

Adequate heating facilities for the car are obtained 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

from the waste products of the gasoline engine, there 
being twice the necessary heat units available for main- 
taining the proper temperature of the interior of this 
car in the coldest of winter days, and with this large 
supply of waste heat there is no additional expense in 
providing the passengers with plenty of moderately 
heated fresh air. 

The chassis is a SV^-ton gasoline truck, having a 
wheelbase of 216 in. The length of the frame behind 
driver's seat is 22 ft. The coach may be equipped either 
with rubber tired wheels for road service or with flanged 
wheels for use on urban rail lines. 

Light-Weight Car for Cleveland & Eastern 
Traction Company 

A car that has just been completed by the G. C. Kuhl- 
man Car Company for the Cleveland & Eastern Traction 
Company, possesses to an exceptional degree the feature 
of light weight that has recently become prominent in 
interurban car design. The railway company's lines 
extend east from Cleveland to Middlefield, with a branch 
to Chardon, a town of 1400 population. The land in 
this region is somewhat hilly, but lends itself to general 
farming, the principal industry which supports a popu- 
lation of 15,500, and the new car will be operated be- 
tween the interurban terminal at the Public Square of 
Cleveland and Chardon, a run of 32 miles. It will make 
an average number of stops of four per mile, the maxi- 
mum grade encountered being 11 per cent. 

In the design of the car the utmost attention was 
given to the elimination of all unnecessary weight, and, 
in view of the fact that no sacrifice of strength or omis- 
sion of equipment for obtaining the most eflicient and 
safe operation was made, the result is extremely inter- 
esting, as is shown in the accompanying table, in which 
for comparative purposes is included a table of dimen- 
sions and weights published in a recent issue of Elec- 
tric Railway Journal. 

Steel Construction 

The underframe is composed of angle side sills with 
eleven light I-beam crossings between the bolsters; the 
end sills are made in the form of a trussed frame, with 
angles at the top and channels at the bottom. Diagonals 
at each end are arranged to serve as center knees, and 
ai'e brought well back of the bolster. They are strongly 
reinforced with angle gussets at the trussed end sills. 
A powerful construction for the attachment of the draw- 
bars and anchors consists of angles and plates riveted to 
I-beams extending from the bolster to the end sill. The 
bolsters are made up of pressed steel diaphragms with 
10-in. top and bottom members. At the rear platform 
the outside knees are omitted to provide an opening for 
the steps, and the angle forming the roof framing and 
the angle at the top chord of the side frame extend 
through to the corner post and aid to support the outer 


portion of the platform by means of structural steel 

Each side of the car, from the side sill of the under- 
frame to the top plate, is constructed to form a girder. 

Cleve. & 

East Fostoria Union Trac. Chicago 

tn-ei -all length.54 ft. 6 in. 56 ft. 9 '/■• in. HI ft. in. 48 ft. in. 

O ver-all width. . 8 ft. 6 in. Sft. 6'/. in. S ft. i/, in. f> ft. 8 3/16 in. 

Weight of body 23,186 lb. 29,550 lb. 45,200 1b. 35,600 1b. 
Weight of trucks 

and equipment 36,214 lb. 38,450 lb. 40,400 1b. 34,900 1b. 

Total weight. .. 59,400 lb. 68,000 1b. 85,600 1b. 70,500 1b. 

of which the principal member is a continuous plate of 
3 32-in. steel riveted to the side sill angle, steel belt rail 
and the posts. The posts are of tee-section, and are 
alternately single and double, on account of the twin- 
window arrangement. The top chord of the girder con- 
sists of an angle riveted to all post heads. Additional 
stiffness is imparted to the girder by means of a contin- 
uous sash rail at the bottom of the top sash which is 
dadoed over each side post. 

The roof framing consists of an angle on each side, 
with the horizontal web turned in, and steel carlines 
riveted to the vertical web. Wooden nailing strips are 
bolted to the carlines, and canvas nailing strips are 
bolted to the angle roof sills. After the roof was placed 
on the carbody, the side angles were riveted to the angle 
top chord of the side girder. 


July 3, 1915] 



The front and rear vestiblues are framed alike; the 
sheathing around the front end is of the same thickness 
as the side plates, while at the rear end it is composed 
of No. 14 sheet steel. The letterboards are made of 
sheet steel, and continue in line with the side letter 

Interior Details 

There is a double flooring, the bottom layer of yel- 
low pine and the top of maple, except at the aisle, where 
interlocking tiling extends the full length of the carbody 
proper. The tops of the trap doors over the steps and 
the floor between the steps and the rear platform are 
also covered with interlociking tiling, cemented to maple 

The headlinings are composed of sheet steel and in- 
stalled in a continuous piece from the curtain box 
molding on one side to the same point on the opposite 
side, and are the length of two windows, except at the 


center, where they are cut to suit the partition. The 
only longitudinal moldings are those for the curtain 
boxes and advertising signs, and for covering the joints 
of the headlining; the latter are painted the same color 
as the headlining. 

The lower side sashes have brass sash stiles, and are 
capable of being raised their full height. The upper 
sashes, as has been already stated, are made in a con- 
tinuous section and are glazed with pressed prism Gothic 
glass. An interesting feature of the windows is a novel 
type of window guard, which is made of strongly framed 
diamond mesh wire screens. The window guards are 
attached to the bottom of the lower sashes and slide into 
pockets in the side walls when the sashes are lowered. 
When a sash with its screen guard is raised, the lower 
part of the screen guard covers the pocket opening, and 
thus prevents rubbish from being forced into the pocket. 
The inside lining below the windows consists of sheet 

The partitions between the motorman's compartment 
and smoking compartment, and between the smoking 
compartment and main compartment are of African ma- 
hogany. They are glazed in the upper part and have 
single sliding doors. On the left side of the car, next to 
the rear platform, is a toilet room with standard ap- 

pointments and with a flooring consisting of a single 
slab of marble. 

Seating Arrangement 

All of the seats are placed transversely, with the ex- 
ception of the one opposite the toilet room. The type 
used is a non-reversible, light-weight seat, made without 
seat rails and having the pedestal and seat back support 
of pressed steel in one piece. The wall plate is pressed 
in one piece to form the back support at the wall end. 
The seats are upholstered in twill-woven rattan, and 
are of Brill manufacture. The total seating capacity is 
sixty-three, seventeen seats being located in the smok- 
ing compartment which has a transverse seat along the 
front bulkhead with a folding seat opposite the space at 
the door to the motorman's compartment. Continuous 
parcel racks are provided in both compartments, and a 
package and mail cage is located at the rear of the 
motorman's platform. 

Twelve Brill "Exhaust" ventilators, six on each side 
of the roof, are installed and these have regulating reg- 
isters attached to the headlining. The equipment in- 
cludes hot-water heating system, air brakes, automatic 
air couplers, fender, sand boxes, trolley retriever, anti- 
climber bumpers, registers, signal lamps, air whistle, 
etc., and the car is mounted on Brill 27-MCB-2X trucks, 
which have a wheel base of 6 ft. 9 in., 34-in. wheels, and 
are suitable for a speed of 50 m.p.h. They are equipped 
with four 65-hp. motors per car. The bolster centers 
are 31 ft. dVn in., and the trucks are arranged to radiate 
on a curve of 37 ft. 6 in. 

The Aeroscope at the Panama -Pacific 

One of the most astonishing of the amusement de- 
vices installed at the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San 
Francisco is one which raises its passengers to an ele- 
vation of 330 ft. above sea level and provides a sea 
horizon of 200 miles. This is called the Strauss Aero- 
scope and it is reported to be the largest passenger- 
carrying machine ever built. However, on a smaller 
scale it would be peculiarly adaptable to ordinary amuse- 
ment parks. 

The device is fundamentally a Strauss trunnion bas- 
cule bridge mounted on a revolvable tower. The tower 
in turn is mounted on a series of eight trucks which 
travel on a circular railway track 60 ft. in diameter, 
four of the trucks being provided with 15-hp motors 
and trains of gears to drive them in either direction. 
At the apex of the tower, 48 ft. above ground, are 
mounted two 15-in. shafts, or trunnions, and upon them 
the huge arm of the structure is mounted. This pro- 
jects 200 ft. in front of the trunnions and 38V2 ft. 
behind them, the rear end carrying a 380-ton counter 
weight that is made of reinforced concrete. The rear 
end of the arm is provided with two circular racks which 
are engaged by pinions driven by two 11-hp motors, and 
these raise or lower the arm as desired. The arm is 
provided also with two air propellers mounted near the 
end. These propellers are driven by a 3-hp motor and 
they assist in raising the arm and in steadying its 

As an amusement device pure and simple, the Aero- 
scope is unique. The tower and its car are brilliantly 
illuminated at night and as the lines of the structure 
are graceful throughout it is particularly inspiring 
after dark. It moves majestically, each trip consuming 
ten minutes, and the view afforded from the car is 
unparalleled. The total capacity per day approximates 
6000 passengers, and during the first four weeks of 
the exposition the Aeroscope carried 65,000 patrons. 



[Vol. XL VI, No. 1 

The importance of the bascule bridge principle, as 
applied in the aeroscope, has even been recognized by 
the United States government which, it is reported, has 
arranged with the constructors for the application of 


the principle to military searchlight towers to be erected 
at the various coast-line fortifications. 

Absolute safety for the passenger is guaranteed by 
the provision of both power and handbrakes under the 
control of an operator who travels with the car, provi- 
sion having been made in the design for a wind velocity 
of 60 m.p.h. 

Self -Lubricating Brushes 

The "No-Spark" carbon brush manufactured by the 
Calebaugh Self-Lubricating Carbon Company has been 
making a remarkably successful record on several elec- 
tric railways, the principal feature being an ability to 
run without chipping, splitting, or breaking. This has 
been demonstrated on the lines of the Lehigh Valley 
Traction Company where a number of test sets of the 
brushes have been installed. 

Harry Branson, superintendent of equipment of this 
system, states that a test set of brushes recently re- 
moved from a car on the Bethlehem Division had made 
a mileage of 24,957 and had given excellent results, 
having been installed in Westinghouse 101-B motors. 
Other brushes of the same type are in service on West- 
inghouse 303 and 38-B motors, used elsewhere on the 
system, but these have not yet been removed because 
their condition is good. The commutators are all in 
excellent shape. 

The makers claim that the "No-Spark" brush makes 
a frictionless contact because of its self-lubricating 
qualities and that it reduces the commutator wear 90 
per cent, giving a dark-brown gloss on the commuta- 
tor surface in a very short time after application. It 
will, in consequence, carry some 50 per cent more load 
than that normally allowed per brush and is moisture- 
proof as well as fracture-proof. Naturally, the spark- 
ing is reduced to the absolute minimum. 

New Type of Steel Pole 

A novelty in poles recently brought out by the Carbo 
Steel Post Company, Chicago, makes use of the revolu- 
tionary but logical principle that pole legs should be 
anchored under ground (thus putting the legs in 
straight tension or compression when a transverse force 
is applied) instead of being set in 
concrete to form a cantilever with 
the bending stresses localized at 
the ground line. 

The makers believe that rigidity 
in a direction parellel to the wires 
on a pole line is undesirable, be- 
cause if a wire should break the 
load is concentrated on the two 
poles at the break. If flexibility is 
provided the poles bend until the 
unbalanced force exerted by the 
wires is transmitted back from the 
break to a large number of the 
other poles, thus preventing actual 
failure of any pole. In conse- 
quence both the transmission line 
poles and the trolley poles designed 
by the company are of a modified 
A-frame type with the long dimen- 
sion transverse with the line. 

The poles are buried about 4 ft. 
or more in the ground, and each 
leg is provided with anchor plates 
to hold the feet of the pole firmly 
in place through the weight of 
earth resting on them. At the 
ground line is a sway plate that ex- 
tends between the legs, giving a 
certain amount of longitudinal re- 
sistance to pull. Rusting at or below the ground line 
is prevented by a special finish which is stated to be 
proof against moisture and alkaline soils. 

The material used in the construction of the poles is 
a high-carbon steel of uniform texture with an elastic 
limit over 50,000 lb., thus providing the desired light- 
ness. It is stated that this metal will not pit even if 
left unpainted, and on this account the life is long in 
comparison to the ten or twelve years' use to be ex- 
pected from wooden poles. The first cost, pole for pole, 
is reported to be about the same for wooden poles and 
for the new design, but owing to the superior strength 
of the latter only about half as many poles per mile 
are required. The total cost of a light transmission line 
with the new poles is estimated to be about three-fourths 
of the cost involved when wooden poles are used. 


Effects of Heat Treatment on Nickel and 
Manganese Steel 

In a paper presented before the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers at Buffalo recently, Robert R. 
Abbott stated that for a heat-treated 11/2 per cent plain 
manganese steel, the manganese in excess of that con- 
tained in a nickel-manganese steel of a corresponding 
carbon content (about 0.34 per cent) exerts a strength- 
ening effect equivalent to that of about three times the 
same amount of nickel. While the effect of manganese 
on a steel which has not been heat-treated is to increase 
the toughness slightly, its effect upon a heat-treated 
steel is decidedly the reverse. In the case of nickel the 
effect upon an untreated steel is practically zero, while 
in a heat-treated steel nickel increases the toughness 
decidedly. An untreated steel containing about IV2 per 
cent of manganese is fully as tough and is stronger 
than a nickel steel of about 3%, per cent nickel. 

July 3, 1915] 




Women Fast Taking the Places in Tramway Service of Men 
Needed at the Front 

(From Our Regular Correspondent) 
Fifty additional women have started training as car con- 
ductors in the service of the Glasgow Corporation Tram- 
ways Department, bringing the total number of their sex on 
active duty or in training to 250. The places of so many 
men have to be filled that it is expected the number of 
women appointed will soon reach 500. The list of women 
applicants now contains about 1400 names. 

The traffic receipts on the Glasgow Tramways during the 
last financial year amounted to £1,070,353, being £8,083 
less than in the preceding year. The count of the actual 
number of passengers carried during the year has not yet 
been completed, but up till May 29, which leaves only two 
days short in the year, the figures were 334,584,216, as com- 
pared with 334,676,627 in the corresponding period of the 
preceding year. Taking into account the exception of these 
two days' statistics and the circumstances of the war during 
the past ten months, the total number of passengers car- 
ried during the year which began on June 1, 1914, compares 
very favorably with the preceding year's total of 

The Coventry City Council has decided to employ a dozen 
women conductors. The women are to be between thirty 
and forty years of age, to work forty-eight hours a week, 
receive 6%d. an hour wages and wear uniforms. 

The trolley scheme of the Hove Town Council has been 
abandoned until after the war. The project has been a 
source of controversy from its inception in 1911. After a 
bitter Parliamentary campaign in 1912 the plan received 
legislative sanction in such a form that both Hove and 
Brighton were left to pursue their own course, and com- 
plications ensued, from which the only escape seemed to 
be a costly arbitration. Brighton, in fact, was about to 
apply for the appointment of an arbitrator when the war 
prevented further proceedings. 

The Corporation of Birmingham has decided to increase 
all the tramcar fares in the aggregate 10 per cent. Assum- 
ing that the volume of traffic remains constant, this will 
result in a gain in the takings of £60,000 per annum. The 
present rates were fixed in February, 1912, and the pro- 
posed alterations will in the main be a reversion to those 
in operation prior to that date. At present the average 
penny fare carries a passenger 2 miles 600 yards. When 
the new scale comes into operation the distance for the 
same money will be reduced to 1 mile 1200 yards. Outside 
this radius there will be an increase of a halfpenny on the 
present rates. As regards workmen's fares, they will go up 
%d. on each return ticket. Though passengers in the penny 
zone will find all the distances curtailed, an increase in the 
number of overlapping stages wiW help slightly to improve 

At a meeting of the tramways committee of the New- 
castle Corporation the general manager reported that since 
the last meeting of the committee forty-eight women con- 
ductors had been trained; that twenty-four were in full 
charge of cars on the Osborne Road route, and that the 
rest were in training on the Jesmond route. The general 
manager expressed his appreciation of the help given by 
the public to the women conductors, as well as of the serv- 
ices of the inspectors and motormen. Application for fur- 
ther women conductors are desired. The committee has 
decided to abolish halfpenny workmen's fares, the minimum 
in future to be Id. 

The Edinburgh & District Tramway is employing on its 
cars twenty women conductors, who received preliminary 
training at the depot. The manager has expressed himself 
as highly satisfied with the manner in which they are per- 
forming their duties. The employment of women con- 
ductors in Edinburgh, however, is opposed by the tramway- 
men. The management has agreed that their employment 
shall not exceed the period of the war; that eff'orts will be 
made by the company to obtain male labor, and that old 
employees discharged from military service will be replaced 
in their positions. An amicable settlement has therefore 
been arrived at, and it is likely that Edinburgh will have 
many women on the tramways in the very near future. 

The Manchester Ratepayers' Association has addressed a 
letter to the treasury urging it to refuse sanction at present 
to the carrying out of the Manchester electricity scheme 
for new works at Barton. It is pointed out that the great 
amount of skilled labor required for the construction and 
manning of the new works would cause a serious drain 
upon the already weakened labor market and tend to draw 
men away from work immediately necessary for the prose- 
cution of the war, and that there is not likely to be any 
overwhelming pressure upon the Manchester electricity de- 
partment for some time. 

Owing to the fact that 2000 tramwaymen in Manchester 
have enlisted, the Manchester Corporation is considering 
the advisability of engaging women conductors to fill some 
of the places. 

The Salford Corporation tramway workers have accepted 
the terms offered by the borough tramway committee of a 
war bonus similar to that recently awarded by arbitration 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The terms are a bonus of 2s. 6d. 
a week for married men and householders. Is. 6d. a week 
for single men, and Is. a week for youths under the age 
of eighteen years. The question of the employment of 
women conductors was discussed at a recent meeting of the 
men, and a resolution was proposed asking the management 
to withdraw the women and offering the support of the 
Salford branch of the men's union and of the Trades and 
Labor Council in finding suitable male labor for the cars. 
If these efforts are not successful, however, the resolution 
provides that the men shall work with the women on certain 
conditions. The women conductors, of whom sixteen have 
been trained, are to work on cars running from Weaste 
to the Cliff and from Irlams-o'-th'-Height to the Market 
Place, Broughton. 

The strike on the London County Council Tramways has 
now definitely collapsed though it seemed that it would be 
renewed when the tramways manager's decision to rein- 
state only men over military age became known. The 
Council has taken a very firm position as regards this, all 
men of military age being refused, unless they can show 
special reasons for exemption from the rule. Mr. Fell has 
stated that every effort will be made to deal sympathetically 
with the cases of the men of military age who have good 
reasons for not enlisting. During the week ended May 
12 — that before the strike began — the total traffic receipts 
were £50,891, as compared with £42,779 for the correspond- 
ing week in 1914, but for the following three weeks the 
figures were only £22,460, as against £44,961; £12,610, as 
against £44,961; and £23,586, as compared with £47,346. 
No official notification has yet been received from the men's 
joint strike committee or their unions that the strike is 
at an end. While before the dispute great difficulty was 
experienced in maintaining full service, it is estimated that 
at least 90 per cent of the normal number of cars are now 
in operation. 

Reporting upon recent proceedings before the House of 
Commons committee regarding new tramway schemes, the 
London County Council mentions the important fact that, 
in connection with the proposal for extending the Farring- 
ton Road tramways, the chairman of the select committee 
declared that the committee would very much like to see a 
scheme to carry the tramways through to South London. 
So keen, however, was the opposition to many of the 
schemes that Parliamentary sanction has been granted only 
in the case of the less important ones — those involving 
little change and small expense. 

Adverse comments were made at a recent meeting of the 
Birmingham watch committee on the action of tramway 
conductors who refused to work with a number of women 
and sent the authorities an ultimatum that if the women 
were not withdrawn there would be a strike. The com- 
mittee has been reluctantly compelled to accede to the 
demand, because the cars are carrying so many munition 
workers that it cannot run the risk of having them stopped. 

The Portsmouth Town Council has decided to engage 
women conductors to take the place of men who have joined 
the forces. Of 330 motormen and conductors in the corpora- 
tion service 137 have enlisted and thirty entered other 
government service. The women conductors will be paid 5d. 
an hour, and will be supplied with a uniform. 

A. C. S. 


News of Electric Railways 


Proceedings Begun on June 28 With the Presentation of 

Case of the Men 

Arbitration of the differences between the Chicago surface 
and elevated railway companies and their employees was be- 
gun on June 28, with Mayor Thompson as umpire, State's 
Attorney Maclay Hoyne, arbitrator for the employees, and 
James M. Sheean, representing the railway companies. Eight 
questions are to be arbitrated and each side has the right to 
present evidence through counsel. The following are the 

1. Percentage of straight runs and consecutive hours in 
which swing runs shall be completed. 

2. Maximum time covered by straight runs on Sundays. 

3. Allowances for fall-backs for meals and reliefs, if any, 
on the streets for meals. 

4. Hours of service, including weekdays, Sundays and 
holidays for employees other than trainmen provided for in 
this agreement. 

5. Number of years to receive maximum wage scale and 
wages for all trainmen, including trainmen on cinder, sprin- 
kler, supply and other cars. 

6. Hours of service and wages paid car repairers, motor 
repairers, inspectors, dopers, car placers, car cleaners, jani- 
tors, terminal men, or other men around caihouses. 

7. Allowance for turning-in time. 

8. Seniority and efficiency with n.en outside of train 

9. Night car hours and wages. 

10. With reference to employees outside of the train 
service the company recognizes seniority of service, but in 
connection therewith efficiency shall be taken into considera- 

William Quinlan, president of the local union, was the 
first witness. He gave evidence regarding the methods of 
employing men in the early days and at the present time, 
and also outlined the existing working conditions and what 
he believed should be done to improve them. He claimed 
that the large and heavier cars, refinements in their equip- 
ment and increased vehicular congestion made the work of 
the motorman increasingly more difficult. Regarding the 
idle time of extra men between swings, Mr. Quinlan claimed 
that the men could not engage in other business without ob- 
taining a permit from the company. He said that the pres- 
ent allowance of five minutes for turning-in time should be 
increased to ten minutes. According to Mr. Quinlan it at 
one time required only one month to reach the maximum 
wage scale, whereas it now required six years. This was 
brought about by the union conceding increased time to 
reach the maximum whenever a new wage agreement was 

Mr. Quinlan claimed that the graded scale had discouraged 
the men and offered an opportunity for abuse, but stated 
specifically that the present management of the companies 
had not taken advantage of this. No more accidents were 
charged against the new men than the old when working 
conditions were taken into consideration. The fact that the 
hours of the new men were longer and their runs undesira- 
ble as compared with those of the old men accounted largely 
for the increased number of accidents recorded against them. 
It was Mr. Quinlan's opinion that a man is as proficient a 
conductor or a motorman at the end of one year as he ever 
will be. Questioned regarding wages and working condi- 
tions of the employees outside of the train service, Mr. Quin- 
lan said they were paid less than ordinary building laborers 
while they performed duties requiring much more skill. He 
also contended that the duties of motormen on sprinklers, 
cinder, supply and other utility cars were identical with 
those of the motormen on passenger cars, and he said that 
the men on these runs should be included in the regular train 

George W. Miller, attorney for the railway companies, in 
cross-examination of Mr. Quinlan, brought out that present 
working conditions were much better than those of the past. 
He also showed how improvements in car equipment and de- 
sign had aided in reducing accidents and in decreasing the 

responsibilities of both motormen and conductors. Prior to 
1912 eighteen different transfers were used by the surface 
lines, whereas only four have been in use since 1912. Re- 
garding swing and split runs. Attorney Miller in his exami- 
nation of Mr. Quinlan, emphasized the importance of fur- 
nishing a service to meet the riding habits of the public and 
by bringing out that the speed varied with the conditions on 
the street he refuted the argument regarding the alleged in- 
crease in speed. Although Mr. Quinlan claimed the speed 
had increased he did not know it to be a fact. Mr. Quinlan 
also acknowledged that long service with the company tend- 
ed to increase the feeling of responsibility and interest and 
that high wages added to this increase. Concerning the ro- 
tating and standing list of extra men, he claimed that the 
company preferred the former and the men preferred the lat- 
ter or standing list. This completed Mr. Quinlan's testimony. 

On Tuesday morning, June 29, John Ernst, a cabinet- 
maker, was examined. Inquiry showed that he was getting 
33 cents an hour for steady work, but he believed that he 
was not being paid enough. On cross-examination it was 
brought out that he based his idea of the wage he should re- 
ceived upon that received by workers in other shops. M. C. 
Boyle, a conductor, was examined next. He had been in the 
service for twenty-seven years and was receiving the maxi- 
mum wage of 32 cents an hour. This was insufficient. When 
he entered the service he had $1,000 in the bank. Of this 
only about $600 was left. He had used about $125 to make 
up his deficiency in living expenses. He was also examined 
legarding the transfer system, trip sheets and car loadings. 

James M. Sheean, the arbiter selected by the Chicago sur- 
face and elevated railways, served as attorney for the West- 
ern Railroads in the arbitration of wages and working con- 
ditions for the locomotive engineers and firemen. Mr. 
Sheean was born in November, 1866, at Galena, 111., was 
graduated at Beloit College in 1887 and studied law under 
his father. He was admitted to the bar in 1889, in which 
year he was taken into partnership with his father and 
uncle. He moved to Chicago in 1901 and for three years was 
with the firm of Pan, Calhoun & Glennon. In 1904 the law 
firm of Calhoun, Lyford & Sheean was organized, and as a 
member of this firm Mr. Sheean is serving as arbiter for the 
railway companies. For a number of years he has served as 
a trial attorney for steam railroads. 

Maclay Hoyne, the arbitrator selected by the employees, 
is State's attorney of Cook County. He was born in Chi- 
cago in October, 1872, and was graduated from Williams 
College in 1895 and Northwestern Law School in 1897. In 
July, 1913, Mr. Hoyne was appointed assistant corporation 
counsel of Chicago and two years later was made first as- 
sistant corporation counsel. He resigned from this office in 
June, 1907, to engage in private practice and four years 
later again was appointed first assistant corporation counsel. 
In this capacity he served as counsel for the Subway & Har- 
bor Commission and was in immediate charge of the litiga- 
tion between Chicago and the Peoples Gas, Light & Coke 
Company regarding gas rates. Mr. Hoyne is also credited 
with drafting the Chicago 70-cent gas ordinance, upon which 
issue former Mayor Harrison was elected to his last term of 
office. Mr. Hoyne was elected State's attorney of Cook 
County in November, 1912, on the Democratic ticket. 


A new working agreement has been signed by officials of 
the New England Investment & Security Company and by 
representatives of the employees' unions on the Springfield 
(Mass.) Street Railway and the Worcester (Mass.) Consol- 
idated Street Railway to continue in effect from May 31, 
1915, to May 31, 1916, taking the place of a three-year agree- 
ment which expired on the former date. According to ad- 
vance reports no increase will be granted the employees of 
the Springfield company, but there will be an increase on the 
Worcester lines to a maximum scale of 31 cents an hour, the 
minimum being 25 cents. The day rate at Springfield will 
range from $2.30 to $2.85. The agreement practically equal- 
izes the wages on the system under the "nine-hour-in-elev- 
en" law. The full agreement will be made public after rati- 
fication by the local unions. 

July 3, 1915] 




Questions Involved in the Recent Strike Explained by the 

On June 18 the Chicago (111.) Surface Lines carried in 
the daily newspapers an advertisement explaining the issues 
in the controversy that resulted in the suspension of railway 
service in that city for two days. Its termination was re- 
ferred to as a victory for arbitration. The statement was 
concerned with correlated subjects of arbitration, labor and 
capital and dealt with all three features. The company said 
in part: 

"The question settled in this crisis was not one of wages, 
hours or other conditions of employment, and was not, we 
repeat, a question as to whether Chicago should have a 
strike lasting two days or two months; but the much more 
fundamental question as to whether men in a twentieth 
century democracy should settle their differences in accord- 
ance with twentieth century ideals and standards, or by 
recourse to the methods of primitive man and feudal gov- 
ernment. The issue was rather as to whether civic progress 
could be set back, even temporarily, by any group of men, 
either capitalists or working men, in the second largest city 
of the most progressive democracy in the world. The 
result was a victory for the principle that civilized men 
either should settle their differences face to face and man to 
man or should leave those differences to an impartial body 
of their fellow men. 

"There was a time when large employers were inclined 
to reject arbitration and when public service corporations 
were operated by men who looked upon them as purely 
private corporations, but that time has passed. There is 
something to be said, if not in justification, at least in 
explanation, of the old type of railway builder and corpo- 
ration operator. Trained in the individualistic school of 
his time, he believed that he was entitled to the fruits of 
his labor, and he resented interference with what he con- 
sidered his private business. His time has passed and a 
new type of man has taken his place. But the fight which 
oftentimes is made upon his successors is based upon the 
belief that the old type still exists. 

"The worst that can be said of the type that has passed 
is that these men held the point of view of their time. 
Their time has passed never to return; the public has a 
new point of view and the management of great properties 
to-day is vested in men whose point of view has changed 
with the times. All that the men in charge of public 
corporations ask to-day is that the public realize the change 
that has come in the ownership and management of such 
properties; that the men in charge of them are endeavor- 
ing — and are succeeding up to the limit of their capacity 
as men — to put into their business a spirit and practice in 
accordance with the newer ideals and standards of to-day. 
They expect no special consideration from the public; they 
want only fairness, and expect to give it. 

"There have been signs in recent controversies between 
labor and capital that labor itself, after having long ago 
won capital to the principle of arbitration, was beginning 
to question, and possibly would reject altogether, this great 
principle, because it had not at all times resulted favorably, 
or perhaps even fairly, to the workers. 

"As we have stated heretofore, we believe that the prin- 
ciple of arbitration frequently has been misused and mis- 
understood; but we do not believe that these errors should 
be charged to the principle itself; nor do we believe that, 
on account of such errors, the enormous victory of labor 
in first establishing the principle of arbitration as a means 
of settling disputes should be lost or forgotten. 

"If it be admitted that the older and outworn methods 
of capital constituted a tyranny, it must be admitted also 
that a resort to force on the part of labor in these enlight- 
ened times would constitute no less a tyranny, not only 
over the interests of the employer, but over the public 
interest as well. It is obvious that there can be no gain in 
the substitution of one tyranny for another, and that the 
efforts of labor men and employers alike should be directed 
toward the elimination of all tyranny and the substitution 
of sound principle, safeguarded by honest men, as we 
believe the great principle of arbitration has been safe- 
guarded in the agreement under which the present differ- 
ences are to be adjusted." 


The special committee of the City Council, to which was 
referred the proposed franchise of the Cleveland & Youngs- 
town Railroad for a freight terminal in Cleveland, was to 
meet on July 2 to hear arguments on the disputed points 
between the company and the city. Electrification of the 
freight yards and the streets to be vacated in the Broad- 
way-Orange Street district are the principal points in 

Attorney S. V. McMahon informed the committee on 
June 24 that the Broadway Improvement Association had 
employed an engineer to make plans for subways under the 
proposed terminals at East Twenty-third , Street and Pitts- 
burgh Avenue. The company's engineers declared that such 
plans would be impractical and Mayor Baker expressed the 
opinion that neither grade crossings nor subways would 
answer the purpose. He suggested that the city reserve 
the right to require the construction of overhead bridges. 
Director of Public Service Sidlo is preparing a report on 
the proposition. He will probably recommend electrifica- 
tion of the terminals. 


The Thompson committee appointed by the last New York 
Legislature to inquire into the workings of the New York 
Public Service Commissions will resume its hearing in New 
York City on July 15. The new chairman of the commit- 
tee is Merton S. Lewis, first deputy attorney general. He 
succeeds Col. William Hayward, now a member of the Pub- 
lic Service Commission for the First District. It will be 
recalled that Governor Whitman failed to agree with the 
report of the majority of the committee with respect to 
the commission for the First District and that he appointed 
Mr. Hayward to succeed Mr. Maltbie, whose term of office 
had expired, and vindicated the commissioners. The investi- 
gating committee will now concern itself with the public 
service commission law and with the rapid transit contract 
in Greater New York and will report its findings to the 
next Legislature. 


On the afternoon of June 29 Harry C. Weatherwax, vice- 
president of the Delaware & Hudson Company, controlling 
the United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y., and Charles 
F. Hewitt, general manager of the United Traction Com- 
pany, agreed to take up again on July 1 the consideration 
of the questions at issue between the traction company and 
its employees. The principal question involved is in re- 
gard to jurisdiction over all the lines of the United Traction 
Company by the Amalgamated Association, which objects 
to the operation into Albany of cars of the Hudson Valley 
Railway manned by members of the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers. 

The United Traction Company has issued a statement 
reviewing this question. The contract between the Hudson 
Valley Railway and the United Traction Company, both 
controlled by the same interests, for the operation of 
through cars from points on the Hudson Valley Railway 
into Troy, via Waterford, was entered into on June 7, 1901. 
Under the terms of this agreement the Hudson Valley Rail- 
way furnished at its own expense the men to run its cars 
over the tracks of the United Traction Company. The 
Amalgamated Association contends that its contract covers 
this run and that the cars operated into Troy by the Hud- 
son Valley Railway should be manned by members of the 
Troy division of the Amalgamated Association. 

For the first ten years of the contract between the com- 
panies the men operating the cars of the Hudson Valley 
Railway into Troy over the lines of .the United Traction 
Company belonged to the Amalgamated Association. Sub- 
sequently they seceded and joined the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers and the Order of Railway Conductors. 
In its statement the United Traction Company says that as 
far as it is concerned it feels that these organizations 
should settle the matter between themselves and should 
not involve the company or the public. While both the 
United Traction Company and the Hudson Valley Railway 
feel that they cannot undertake to settle the differences 
between the two organizations, they are willing, if it is 
desirable, to be a party to arbitration proceedings. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 


Henry L. Doherty, chairman of the board of the Toledo 
Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio, met with a few 
members of the franchise committee of the Toledo City 
Council on the afternoon of June 29 and discussed informal- 
ly a number of points in the new draft for a franchise made 
by that committee. President Frank Coates and Attorneys 
Tracy and Rathbun Fuller of the company also were present. 

Mr. Doherty and Attorneys Thomas H. Tracy and Rath- 
bun Fuller told the franchise committee that they must re- 
fuse to accept the clause in the tentative franchise which 
provides that the company recognize the initiated municipal 
ownership ordinance as legal. Mr. Tracy suggested that a 
clause be inserted saying that the franchise under consid- 
eration shall not affect or be affected by the municipal own- 
ership oidinance. Mr. Doherty objected to the clause in the 
proposed franchise which would require the company, in 
case the city purchased the property, to accept at least half 
the bonds issued against the property for the purchase. 
The bonds would be a lien against the property only and not 
against the tax duplicate. Mr. Doherty said the company 
preferred a cash settlement. The committee was informed 
that the company would insist on a rate of fare that would 
yield 6 per cent on the investment; a guarantee that it 
would be reimbursed for any loss during the year's try-out 
of the 3-cent fare; assurance that the property will be pur- 
chased at its appraised value if a franchise is granted any 
other company, and that it should not be required to begin 
again if the try-out period is interrupted. 

At the conference on June 30 agreements were reached 
on a number of points, but several others were still in dis- 
pute at the close. One of these pertains to the return on the 
investment during the try-out period, and another is the 
proportion of bonds the company shall take in case the city 
purchases the property. Mr. Doherty wanted a stipulation 
that the company accept one-third of the bonds at a fai)' 
market value. Chairman Dotson insisted that they should 
be taken at par and accrued interest. 

Mr. Doherty expressed surprise when informed of the 
Mayor's assertion some time ago that he would veto any 
franchise agreement reached by the committee and the com- 
pany representatives, but Chairman Dotson expressed the 
belief that Council will approve the franchise under consid- 
eration. It was agreed between the parties that the fran- 
chise should be submitted to a vote of the people at the pri- 
mary election on Sept. 14, instead of the regular November 
election. Mr. Doherty asked the committee to have the ten- 
tative draft of the franchise printed, leaving blanks for the 
portions upon which an agreement has not been reached, and 
that another conference be held the afternoon of July 2. He 
desired to reach an agreement on the entire franchise, if 
possible, before he returned to New York on July 3. 


Toronto Railway and City in Contest for Short Line Desired 
by the City for Its Civic Railway 

At noon on June 29 the Board of Control of Toronto, On- 
tario, issued instructions to Works Commissioner Harris to 
tear up the remainder of the tracks of the Toronto & York 
Radial Railway's Metropolitan division on Yonge Street 
south of Farnham Avenue, and this has been done. Shortly 
after the order was issued by the controllers the Toronto 
Railway opened the legal battle over the franchise question 
at Osgoode Hall. The company through its solicitors issued 
a writ against the city "for an injunction to prevent the de- 
fendants, the Corporation of the city of Toronto, from re- 
moving the tracks on 1320 ft. of Yonge Street south of 
Farnham Avenue, and for a mandatory order to replace so 
much of the said tracks as have already been taken up." 
This injunction is pending. 

At the Board of Control meeting Controller Spence op- 
posed the action of the board on the ground that it might 
prejudice the city's interests before the Ontario Railway 
Board, when the members consider the railway application 
for an order to operate. Mayor Church claimed that the al- 
leged sale of tracks by the Metropolitan to the Toronto Rail- 
way was not carried out according to the requirements of 
the railway act. 

Mayor Church issued a statement in which he said: 
"The franchise has elapsed, and no one can renew it but 
the people. The sale of the Metropolitan to the Toronto 
Railway means nothing, as the Metropolitan had nothing to 
sell after midnight last Friday except the rails and over- 
head fixtures. The district south of Farnham Avenue to 
the Canadian Pacific Railway crossing is the most important 
in Toronto and is the funnel for Sir Adam Beck's radial rail- 
ways. The 1891 agreement of the Toronto Railway does not 
give it the right to operate this service, as the Beck act is to 
be read into the section requiring the vote of the people. 
The subway at the head of Yonge Street will not be finished 
for some time. Before the Toronto Railway can operate, it 
will have to secure an order from the Dominion Railway 

The Mayor proposes that the city lay a permanent pave- 
ment on the street and a double line of tracks and find a way 
to link up with the St. Clair Avenue line of the Toronto Civic 
Railway operated by the city. 

The Toronto Railway's answer to the action of the city of- 
ficials in tearing up the tracks was heard by the Ontario 
Railway Board on June 29. H. S. Osier, counsel for the 
company, appealed to the board for an order compelling the 
city to relay the tracks and affirming the right of the com- 
pany to give a service over that section. Mr. Osier declared 
that the work of tearing up the tracks had been continued in 
contempt of the board after the company had appealed to 
the board. He held that under its agreement with the city 
the Toronto Railway had the right to operate upon all 
streets with the exception of the portion of Yonge Street 
where the York Radial Railway had a franchise. When the 
radial company no longer had that right it fell to the To- 
ronto Railway. A remark by the chairman of the railway 
board that the line was better than nothing and that the 
city had apparently treated with indifference the efforts of 
the company to accommodate the public brought a vigorous 
objection from Mr. Fairty for the city. In reserving judg- 
ment Mr. Mclntyre of the Railway Board expressed the 
opinion that some interim arrangements should be made for 
the convenience of the public. 

Amalgamated to Meet in Rochester. — The fourteenth 
convention of the Amalgamated Association of Street & 
Electric Railway Employees of America will be held in 
Rochester, N. Y., in September. The Boston News Bureau 
says that a concerted effort may be made by New England 
car men at the meeting to have the arbitration clause 
stricken from their constitution as a result of the Bay 
State Street Railway arbitration award. 

New Stone & Webster Offices in Texas. — A suite of 
offices in the Scanlan Building at Houston, Tex., has been 
engaged for the district office of the Stone & Webster Man- 
agement Association. L. C. Bradley, assistant district 
manager of the association, will occupy the new quarters 
with his office force on July 10. Mr. Bradley formerly had 
supervision over the Dallas properties controlled by Stone & 
Webster, which work has now been assumed by Charles F. 

Commissions as Constitutional Bodies. — Representatives 
of many public utility corporations which are under the 
jurisdiction of the Public Service Commissions of New York 
State joined on June 23 in urging a Constitutional Conven- 
tion committee to make the commissions constitutional 
bodies. At present they have only legislative authority for 
their existence. It was urged that the change would add 
dignity to the commissions, tend to take them out of poli- 
tics and add force and weight to their rulings. 

The Philadelphia Transit Ordinance. — By unanimous vote 
the Common Council of Philadelphia, Pa., has passed the 
ordinance authorizing the $6,000,000 transit loan. The 
finance committee's plan is to have the loan ordinance 
transmitted to the Mayor as soon as it is concurred in by 
Select Council. Immediately upon being advised that the 
ordinance has been approved by Mayor Blankenburg, the 
finance committee will report the appropriation ordinance, 
which will be passed by both chambers. The committee 
proposes to allot $3,000,000 for preliminary work on the 
Broad Street subway and $3,000,000 to the Frankford Ele- 
vated line. 

July 3, 1915] 



Financial and Corporate 


Middle West Utilities Company 

The comparative statement of income, profit and loss of 
the Middle West Utilities Company, Chicago, 111., for the 
fiscal years ended April 30, 1914 and 1915, follows: 

I'Jlf). 1914. 

Total income $1,528,855 $1,466,760 

Expenditures 168,855 165,068 

Balance $1,360,000 $1,301,702 

Interest 378,684 227,516 

Net income $981,316 $1,074,186 

Preferred stoclt dividend 598,048 566,925 

Balance $383,268 $507,261 

Written off 80,000 75,000 

Balance $303,268 $432,261 

Due from subsidiary companies 78,504 147,416 

Total surplus $381,772 $579,677 

The report show^s total income of |1, 528,855, comparing 
with $1,466,760 in the previous year, an increase of $62,095. 
Interest charges were increased $151,168 and preferred 
stock dividends were increased $31,123, but in spite of this 
the company surplus for the year, after all deductions, stood 
at $303,268. 

The report states that owing to the unsettled conditions 
the increase in gross business of the subsidiary operating 
companies was not equal to what might have been expected 
under normal conditions. The combined earnings of the sub- 
sidiary companies for the last two fiscal years follow: 

1915. 1914. 

Gross earnings $7,634,745 $7,345,350 

Operating expenses 4,877,016 5,036,696 

Net $2,757,729 $2,308,654 

Fixed charges (paid outside holders) . . $1,307,629 $908,032 
Dividends (paid outside holders) 310,428 474,816 

Total $1,618,057 $1,382,848 

Earnings accruing to Middle West Utili- 
ties Company $1,139,672 $925,806 

Of the foregoing earnings $437,123 come into the com- 
pany's treasury as interest on bonds and debentures, $269,- 
774 as interest and brokerage on money advanced and $354,- 
270 as dividends on stocks, leaving a balance of $78,504. 
This is the company's proportion of the surplus carried in 
the aggregate surplus accounts of the subsidiary companies 
on their own books. 


At the meeting of the committee of the upper house of 
the City Council of Kansas City, Mo., to which the ordi- 
nance extending the time limit for the acceptance of the 
street railway franchise was referred, Frank Hagerman, at- 
torney for the receivers of the Metropolitan Street Railway, 
outlined the history of the negotiations under the terms of 
the franchise. He suggested that the only hope for agree- 
ment lay in the proposal of Judge Hook of the Federal 
Court to present a plan of reorganization for the adoption 
of the stockholders and bondholders. Mr. Hagerman had 
no idea what would happen if the franchise was returned. 

The participation of the city in the management of the 
street railways under the new franchise was indicated at 
the session by the questions and remarks of Aldermen. 
Under the court's sanction the receivers have employed 
P. J. Kealy, suggested by the street railway interests, and 
Robert P. Woods, suggested by the city, to perform prac- 
tically the duties which will be performed by the board of 
control provided for in the new franchise. In response to 
questions by Aldermen, it was pointed out that these gen- 
tlemen are actually performing such duties, especially in 
reference to schedules and service. Judge Evans urged 
that since Judge Hood had so plainly indicated his convic- 
tion that service to the public was the first consideration 
of any settlement, the Council should accede to his request 
for an extension of four months in the time limit for ac- 
ceptance of the franchise. 

The City Council of Kansas City has granted an extension 
to Nov. 7, four mouths, to the time within which the Kan- 

sas City Railways must accept the franchise voted by the 
city. The action was in response to a request of Judge 
Hook of the federal court, who said he would prepare a plan 
for the acc'eptance or rejection of the interested parties, and 
would recommend final cancellation of the franchise if this 
plan was not adopted. The Council has also extended to 
Nov. 20 the opportunity for the interurbans to accept the 
conditions of the franchise bearing on a union station. 


In a letter to the Electric Railway Journal George E. 
Hamilton, president of the Capital Traction Company, Wash- 
ington, D. C, asks that a denial be published of the item 
which appeared in the issue of this paper for June 26, page 
1223, to the effect that negotiations were being conducted 
tor the merger of that company with the Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Company. Mr. Hamilton says: 

"Permit me to state that the Capital Traction Company, 
its officers and directors, have no knowledge whatever of 
any such negotiations and that the article referred to is en- 
tirely without foundation in fact." 


The Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway, Oakland, Cal., 
has asked the Railroad Commission of California to ap- 
prove its new plan of financing. This plan embraces two 
agreements, one with the bondholders and the other with 
the stockholders of the company. The agreement between 
the Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway and the bond- 
holders of the Oakland & Antioch Railway and the San 
Ramon Valley Railway was originally executed on Nov. 19, 
1914, and was amended on Jan. 1, 1915. The agreement pro- 
vides that the bondholders shall deposit with the Union 
Trust Company, San Francisco, those coupons which will 
mature in the years 1915, 1916 and 1917. As security for 
these it is provided that the Oakland, Antioch & Eastern 
Railway shall deposit with the trustee prior to Jan. 1, 
1918, first mortgage bonds in an amount which, at 80 per 
cent of their face value, will equal the par value of the 
coupons deposited and unpaid on Jan. 1, 1918. A further 
provision is made that the Oakland, Antioch & Eastern 
Railway shall cancel the unsold portion of the note issue 
authorized by the Railroad Commission on Feb. 3, 1914. 
The stockholders' agreement, dated Nov. 19, 1914, provides 
that each subscriber thereto shall pay to the trustee, as 
a loan to the railway company, the sum of $3 on each share 
of stock held by him. These payments are to be made 
according to the following schedule: Jan. 1, 1915, $1 per 
share; July 1, 1915, $1 per share; Jan. 1, 1916, 50 cents per 
share, and July 1, 1916, 50 cents per share. As security for 
those advances the railway agrees to deposit with the trus- 
tee its promissory notes in equal amount. These notes are 
to be secured by first mortgage bonds in the ratio of two 
to one. 


By the payment of a portion of two judgments at once 
and agreeing to pay the remainder on Dec. 24, 1915, the 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company prevented 
the appointment of a receiver to collect its rental, in the 
Federal District Court at Cincinnati on June 24. Edna 
Wilson et al, executors and trustees of George B. Wilson, 
deceased, and Julius C. Levi and Samuel Leopold, executors 
of Marks Leopold, Philadelphia, each secured judgment in 
the Federal Court on Dec. 24, 1914, for $5,479.17, repre- 
senting the principle and interest on five debenture bonds 
of the Dayton Traction Company, a subsidiary of the defend- 
ant company. 

Both plaintiffs had asked for a receiver for the rents, and 
a temporary restraining order had been issued to prevent 
either the Ohio Electric Railway, which operates the prop- 
erty under lease, or the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Trac- 
tion Company from disposing of the property or money 
belonging to the defendant, except on order of the court, 
and the hearing was set for June 24. Attorneys, however, 
informed the court that a settlement had been arranged 
and asked for a continuance. This was granted. The 
company is to pay $3,125 on each claim at once and the 
remainder on Dec. 24, when it receives an installment of 
rental from the Ohio Electric Railway. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala. — The July dividends will not be paid on the com- 
mon and preferred stocks of the Birmingham Railway, Light 
& Power Company. This decision was reached on account 
of the general business depression. An initial dividend of 
3 per cent was paid on the preferred stock in January, 
1902, and 3 per cent has been paid since then to and in- 
cluding December, 1914. In 1903, 3 per cent was paid on 
the common stock; in 1904 and 1905, 4 per cent; in 1906, 

5 per cent; in 1907 and 1908; none; in 1909, 2 per cent; in 
1910, 5 per cent; in 1911, 7 per cent; in 1912, 8 per cent, 
and in 1913 and 1914, 6 per cent. 

Chicago (111.) Elevated Railways. — The investigation 
conducted by the Illinois Public Utilities Commission on the 
complaint of J. B. Hogarth against the Chicago Elevated 
Railways collateral trust has resulted in the dismissal of 
the case. The commission found that the collateral trust, 
against which the complaint was filed, was not a public 
utility, and that therefore the commission had no jurisdic- 
tion in the case. The answer of the company to the alleged 
violation of the utilities act by the trust was referred to in 
the Electric Railway Journal of March 20, page 599. 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad, Willoughby, 
Ohio. — The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio has author- 
ized the Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad to issue 
$20,000 of its 5 per cent bonds, to be disposed of at not less 
than 80, the proceeds to be used to reimburse the income 
for improvements paid out of the earnings in 1914. The 
Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula Railroad has been au- 
thorized to issue $10,000 of bonds on the same basis and 
for a similar purpose. The latter company is owned by the 

Empire United Railways, Syracuse, N. Y. — The Public 
Service Commission for the Second District has authorized 
the issue of $42,400 of car trust certificates by the Empire 
United Railways to pay in part for twelve new pay-as- 
you-enter cars to cost $52,980, the company paying $10,580 
in cash. The certificates are placed with the Guaranty Trust 
Company, New York, N. Y., bear interest at 6 per cent, 
and mature in three yearly installments from 1916 to 1919. 

Kanawha Traction & Electric Company, Parkersburg, 
W. Va.— The Fidelity Trust Company, Baltimore, Md., as 
trustee is offering at 98 ^4 and interest, to yield about 6 
per cent, the unsold portion of the authorized issue of 
$1,100,000 of two-year 5 per cent mortgage gold notes of 
the Kanawha Traction & Electric Company referred to in 
the Electric Railway Journal of June 19, page 1180. 
The notes are dated June 15, 1915, and are due on June 15, 
1917. The interest is payable on June 15 and Dec. 15 in 
Baltimore. The notes are in the denomination of $1,000 
and $500. The Kanawha Traction & Electric Company was 
incorporated in April, 1915, and on June 7, 1915, absorbed 
by consolidation the Parkersburg, Marietta & Interurban 
Railway, which was incorporated in 1902, and purchased 
the properties of the Parkersburg Gas, Electric Light & 
Street Railway Company, the Parkersburg Interurban Rail- 
way and the Marietta Electric Company and leased the 
property of the Muskingum Traction Company. There are 
outstanding $150,000 of first mortgage 5's of 1938 of the 
Parkersburg Gas, Electric Light & Street Railway, $550,- 
000 of consolidated 5's of 1942 of the Parkersburg, Ma- 
rietta & Interurban Railway, $150,000 of first mortgage 6 
per cent bonds of the Marietta Electric Company due in 
1942 and $1,100,000 of two-year 5 per cent notes of the 
Kanawha Traction & Electric Company due on June 15, 
1917. The Kanawha Traction & Electric Company has 
authorized $1,500,000 of common stock and $1,500,000 of 6 
per cent preferred stock, cumulative after July 1, 1916. 
Of the common stock $1,100,000 has been issued and of the 

6 per cent cumulative preferred stock $1,078,500 has been 

Lake Erie. Bowling Green & Napoleon Railway, Bowling 
Green. Ohio. — On June 25 Judge Killits of the Federal Dis- 
trict Court at Toledo granted a decree for the sale of the 
Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Railway. The action 
was taken in the case of the Union Trust Company against 
the railroad. 

Lima & Honeoye Light & Railroad Company, Lima, N. Y. 

— The Public Service Commission of the Second District 

of New York has refused to allow the Lima & Honeoye 
Electric Light & Railroad Company and the Lima-Honeoye 
Light & Railroad Company to separate their electric light 
from their railway business, on the ground that this would 
result in a default under the lease between companies ap- 
proved by the commission in 1910, to the disadvantage of 
the public, as the operation of the railroad would be ulti- 
mately abandoned because it is unprofitable. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 
La. — E. H. Rollins & Sons, Boston, Mass., are offering at 
100 and interest a block of 6 per cent debentures of the 
New Orleans Railway & Light Company of 1913 due on 
June 1, 1916. 

New York (N. Y.) Railways.— An additional $500,000 of 
first consolidated mortgage 5 per cent fifty-year bonds of 
the Broadway & Seventh Avenue Railroad due in 1943 has 
been listed on the New York Stock Exchange. This makes 
the total of this issue listed to date $8,150,000. The bonds 
are issued from escrow to refund the same amount of sec- 
ond mortgage 5's due in 1914. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. 
— Hayden, Miller & Company, Cleveland, Ohio, are offering 
at par and interest the unsold portion of $500,000 of 6 per 
cent secured gold bonds of the Northern Ohio Traction & 
Light Company of 1915. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 

A quarterly dividend of 1 per cent on the $10,000,000 of 
coinmon stock of the Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Rail- 
way has been declared payable on July 1 to holders of 
record of June 30, contrasting with 1% per cent paid quar- 
terly from Jan. 1, 1912, to April 1, 1915. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, N. J. 

— There has been listed on the Philadelphia Stock Ex- 
change $261,000 of additional general mortgage 5 per cent 
sinking fund gold bonds of the Public Service Corporation 
of New Jersey due on Oct. 1, 1959. This makes the total 
amount listed to date $36,998,000. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash. — The Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Com- 
pany has declared a quarterly dividend of three-fourths of 
1 per cent on its preferred stock, payable on July 15 to 
stock of record of July 2. This is a reduction of three- 
fourths of 1 per cent from the regular quarterly dividend 
of IV2 per cent, the dividend paid on April 15 having been 
at the latter rate. 


Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Wheaton, 111., quar- 
terly, IV2 per cent, preferred. 

Chicago City & Connecting Railways, Chicago, 111., quar- 
terly, IV^ per cent, preferred participating certificates. 

Chicago (111.) City Railway, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Railway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, quarterly, IV2 per cent, preferred. 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, first preferred; quarterly, l^A per 
cent, second preferred; quarterly, 1 per cent, common. 

Interstate Railways, Philadelphia, Pa., 30 cents, pre- 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark., 3 per cent, preferred; 5 per cent, common. 

London (Ont.) Street Railway, 3 per cent. 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H., quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., 
quarterly, IV4, per cent, preferred. 

New England Investment & Security Company, Spring- 
field, Mass., 2 per cent, preferred. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb., 
quarterly, IV^ per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1 per cent, 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., quarterly, 1% 
per cent, common. 

Porto Rico Railways, Ponce, Porto Rico, quarterly, 1% 
per cent, preferred. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio, quar- 
terly, IVi per cent, first preferred; quarterly, 1% per cent, 

July 3, 1915] 



Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio, quarterly, 1% per 
cent, first preferred. 

Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Railway, quarterly, 2V2 per 



Operating- Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Period Revenues Expenses Income Charges Income 

Im., Apr., '15 $237,747 *n49,664 $&8,083 $56,808 t$31,269 

1 14 252,461 •152,176 100,285 56,050 $44,291 

4 15 962,584 *606,509 356,075 227,441 $128,894 

4 14 991,579 *618,246 373,333 222,733 $150,877 

Im., May, '15 $2,904,773 *$1, 280, 115 $1,624,658 $911,861 $$786,463 
1 " " '14 2,948,937 *1, 292, 504 1,656,433 911,861 $810,296 

11 15 30,744,300 *12,836,463 16,907,837 10,003,551 $7,470,966 

11 " " '14 30,800,728 '►13,764,780 17,035,948 10,211,703 $7,391,442 


1 ■' 
12 " 
12 " 

1 " 








93,824 3,151,221 

N. Y. 

478,333 3,331,372 
268,896 2,882,325 


May, '15 $789,118 $499,383 $289,735 
'14 806,123 472,114 334,009 
'15 3,821,110 2,544,657 1,276,453 
'14 3,722,869 2,388,582 1,334,287 

$137,153 $$154,937 
133,979 $200,522 
668,218 $620,944 
651,183 $687,454 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



'15 $76,698 *$43,293 $33,405 $4,201 $29,204 

'14 81,419 *47,940 33,479 4,522 28,957 

'15 1,016,196 *555,052 461,144 50,350 410,794 

'14 937,340 *513,504 423,836 51,268 $379,567 


Im., Apr., 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 








1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 











■►559, 719 







1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


Apr., '15 $605,180 *$394,5S2 $210,598 $181,325 $29,273 

■14 702,770 *427,455 275,315 175,267 100,048 

'15 8,072,022 *4, 905, 546 3,166,476 2,141,107 1,025,369 

'14 8,726,264 i'5,028,377 3,697,887 2,088,304 1,609,583 



Apr., '15 $123,465 ■►$79,250 $44,215 
'14 171,411 *97,861 73,550 
■15 1,910,801 *1, 077, 722 833,079 
'14 2,159,227 *1, 207, 272 951,955 

Apr., '15 $52,076 ■►$36,425 $15,651 
'14 62,836 *40,239 22,597 
'15 677,608 '►459,907 217,701 
'14 711,162 ■►452,308 258,854 





Apr., '15 $21,850 ■►$11,812 $10,038 $5,580 
'14 24,344 ■►1 5,357 8,987 5,660 
■15 267,497 ■►173,886 93,611 66,805 
'14 290,491 176,943 113,548 67,491 

Apr., '15 $152,211 ■►$98,241 $53,970 $36,058 
■14 196,149 ^^109, 759 86,390 35,669 
'15 2,283,457 ■►1,256,641 1,026,816 434,963 
■14 2,434,215 »1, 375, 662 1,058,553 432,240 












1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



1 " 
12 " 
12 " 








Apr., '15 $25,164 '►$15,337 $9,827 $6,449 
'14 26,505 ■►16,695 9,810 6,427 
'15 342,908 '►207,650 135,258 76,146 
'14 375,098 ■►210,677 164,421 74 560 






1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

Apr., ■IS $14,517 ■►$8,998 $5,519 $2,146 




■14 13,589 
•15 181,151 
'14 169,899 





•Includes taxes. tDeflcit. $Includes non-operating income. 

Traffic and Transportation 


Washington Bus Line in Receiver's Hands — Regulatory 
Ordinances in Philadelphia, Rochester, Flint, 
Taunton and Newport 

H. S. Wilson has been appointed receiver of the Metro- 
politan Coach Company, Washington, D. C, by Judge 
Could of the District Court. It is announced that the com- 
pany will continue to operate its herdic line in Sixteenth 
Street N. W., between Pennsylvania Avenue and U Street 
under the direct supervision and management of Mr. Wil- 
son. Officials of the company consented to the appointment 
of the receivers to take over its business following the filing 
of a suit in the District Supreme Court against the com- 
pany in which it was alleged that James O'Donnell had 
been unable to collect on a judgment against the company in 
March, 191.5, for the sum of approximately $.500. 

Ihe Metropolitan Coach Company has had an application 
pending before the Board of Public Utility Commissioners 
of the District of Columbia to authorize an issue of $150,000 
in bonds. The commission would allow only $118,000 to 
cover necessary expenditures. In a letter to the Public 
Utilities Commission. S. Dana Lincoln, president of the 
company, said in part: 

"Referring to your letter of April 14 and with reference 
to the previously declared attitude of the commission with 
respect to our application for permission to issue $150,000 
of bonds, we must repeat that the position taken by the 
commission is such as to make it impossible for us to 
finance our needs and therefore impossible to contjpue the 
operation of the Metropolitan Coach Company. As we 
have heretofore pointed out, the proposed issue of bonds 
would not, except as to the amount specified for new ve- 
hicles and garage, have increased the indebtedness of the 
company. It would, however, have enabled us to put an 
existing debt (which was incurred in establishing and equip- 
ping the motor vehicle service) in such form that it could 
have been carried at the same time to the company's im- 
provement plans that were being executed. We have also 
expressed the opinion that in applying to the case of this 
company rules formulated with reference to the utilities 
of a wholly difi^erent character the commission takes the 
position that makes a further attempt to continue operation 
unprofitable and impossible." 

The report of the company to the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of Washington for 1913, the latest available, contains 
the following operating figures: gross receipts, $24,734; op- 
erating expenses, $23,(554, or 95.63 per cent of gross receipts; 
interest and taxes, $4,381; loss for the year, $3,301. At the 
beginning of 1913 the deficit was $119,121, making the def- 
icit at the close of 1913 $122,422. The cost of equipment is 
given as $22,997, and current assets $1,181. Funded debt at 
the close of 1913 was $95,600, and current liabilities $26,001. 
In 1913 the line carried 577,539 passengers paying regular 
fare, and it carried 243,068 passengers on transfers from 
the Washington Railway & Electric Company's H Street line. 

A measure to regulate the operation of the jitney has 
been passed by the Common Council of Rochester, N. Y., 
and is now before the Mayor for signature. Vehicles carry- 
ing five passengers are to pay a license fee of $50. Ve- 
hicles carrying more than five passengers and not more 
than ten are to pay a tax fee of $60. Vehicles carrying 
more than ten passengers are to pay a license fee of $75. 
The bond required is $3,000 for each car carrying not more 
than ten passengers and $5,000 for each car carrying more 
than ten passengers. If an owner operates more than 100 
jitneys he may give a blanket bond for $25,000. A number 
of owners operating more than 500 jitneys may unite in one 
blanket bond of $50,000. The fare by jitney is to be not 
more than 5 cents within the city. Jitneys are to be in- 
spected once a month under the direction of the Commis- 
sioner of Public Safety, who is also authorized to designate 
hours and routes of service. The ordinance will not revoke 
any of the licenses granted previous to its adoption. 

The Council of Flint, Mich., has passed an ordinance 
regulating the jitney, effective on July 15. The measure 
provides for a license fee ranging from $25 for five-passen- 



ger buses upwards and for a bond of $5,000 to $10,000 for 
buses of five to seven-passenger capacity and of $20,000 
for those over ten-passenger capacity. The regular seating 
capacity of the buses must not be exceeded. 

The ordinance committee of the City Council of Rich- 
mond, Va., has recommended to the Council for passage 
an amended ordinance designed to regulate the jitney in 
that city. The proposed ordinance requires an indemnity 
bond, fixes certain routes and limits the carrying capacity 
of the vehicles. The committee after voting down several 
amendments adopted a motion fixing the bond of the first 
car at $2,000, and $500 for each additional car. The license 
fees for cars are fixed according to the route and the 
number of passengers carried. The minimum license for a 
four-passenger car is $30 and the maximum license for a 
nine-passenger car is $75. 

A jitney regulatory ordinance has been passed in Taun- 
ton, Mass. The measure provides that no vehicles shall be 
operated for hire in Taunton until a license in the sum 
of $100 has been obtained and that a bond in the sum of 
$5,000 shall be taken out for the first vehicle and one of 
$1,000 for each additional vehicle. The drivers of vehicles 
licensed under the measure are not to carry in their vehicles 
any passengers in excess of the designed seating capacity. 

The police commissioners of Kansas City have rejected 
the proposal of the Kansas City Jitney Association that 
one of their members be made a special officer to help 
regulate traffic at the downtown jitney station. Twelfth 
Street and Grand Avenue. The starter of the association 
said he had been assisting in traffic regulations, and 
that if he had a commission he could work more effec- 
tively. The police board was averse to granting any special 
interest in transportation any authority over traffic, and 
the conclusion was that the police would continue to be the 
official regulators of traffic. 

The City Commissioners of Austin, Tex., have passed 
an ordinance regulating the jitneys, the principal features 
of which are provision for a license fee of $50 for five-pas- 
senger cars, $75 for six-passenger cars and $100 for seven- 
passenger cars; a bond of $2,500 for the injury of one per- 
son in accidents and a bond of $5,000 for the maximum 
damages which can be demanded by several persons who 
may be injured in a single accident. School children must 
be carried for not more than 3 cents when going to or from 
school. The ordinance prohibits the jitneys from operating 
on Congress Avenue between Fifth and Ninth Streets. 

A jitney ordinance will go into eff'ect at Newport, R. I., on 
July 5, 1915. The ordinance requires the operator to procure 
a special annual license from the Board of Aldermen. Six 
months' residence preceding the date of application is re- 
quired. The license is fixed at $2 per seat at the manufac- 
turer's rating, with a maximum fee of $50 per bus. The 
specification of stands is well covered in the ordinance. 
No license is to be issued until there is filed with the board 
an amount computed at the rate of $250 per seat, with ap- 
proved surety, conditioned in substance to pay all damages 
sustained in the conduct of the business. Violation of the 
ordinance is punishable by a fine not exceeding $50. 

On June 30 City Councils of Philadelphia, Pa., passed an 
ordinance establishing a 5-cent fare zone which the jitneys 
must traverse, extending on the north to Olney Avenue and 
on the south to League Island, with Thirty-third and 
Diamond Streets as an alternative northern terminus. On 
baseball days the jitneys may operate to Shibe Park. A 
license fee of $50 must be paid for each machine and each 
driver must be bonded in the sum of $2,500. The provision 
of the ordinance requiring cars to traverse the entire zone 
system caused a storm of protests from the jitney operators, 
and it is said that they will petition the mayor to veto the 
ordinance. On the same day that the regulatory ordinance 
was passed by Councils the June Grand Jury made its final 
presentment to Judge Patterson in the Court of Quarter 
Sessions. The jury recommended fixed regulation of jitneys 
and held it to be to the city's interest to protect the earnings 
of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, inasmuch as 
the municipality is interested financially in that corporation. 
Dr. Ziegler of the Department of Public Health and Charities 
of the city has recommended that the drivers be forced to 
pass a rigid examination before being permitted to run 
automobiles. He reports that from April 1 to June 12 there 

were 112 jitney accidents, causing injury to twenty-nine 
pedestrians and two deaths. 


Judge Edward R. Meek of the United States Court for 
the Northern District of Texas, at Dallas, Tex., on June 
19, dismissed the bill in the cause of the Forth Worth 
Auto Association vs. the City of Fort Worth. The judge 
held that he had no jurisdiction in the matter as there was 
no federal question involved. From this decision it follows 
that, in the opinion of Judge Meek, the original jitney ordi- 
nance was not a contract and the passage of the amended 
ordinance, which made the first ordinance inoperative, did 
not result in confiscation of property and did not violate the 
fourteenth amendment of the federal constitution. 

Before the hearing Judge Meek said that he had grave 
doubts as to his jurisdiction in the matter, but in order that 
partiality might not be shown he decided to listen to the 
argument of the counsel. City Attorney Altman argued 
that the first ordinance was not a contract but a franchise 
and that the city had the right absolutely to terminate any 
license granted under the ordinance and should be per- 
mitted to make additional terms under which the jitneys 
should operate. He denied that any discrimination had 
been shown or that the men would be unable to make the 
bond as claimed. At the conclusion of the arguments, 
Judge Meek requested that the ordinance, which was to 
have gone into eff'ect on June 17, be suspended until he 
had time to determine whether a federal question were 
involved. This suspension was granted by Mayor Tyra. 
On June 19, Mays & Mays, attorneys for the jitney union, 
received a brief letter from Judge Meek in which he stated: 
"After careful consideration I have reached the conclu- 
sion that the United States District Court is without juris- 
diction to entertain the application for the injunction." 

When informed of the decision. Police Commissioner 
Hurdleston said: 

"The ordinance is now in eff'ect and the police will pro- 
ceed to enforce it without further instructions." 

The jitney attorneys announced that an appeal would be 
made to the Supreme Court of the United States. 

No decision has as yet been handed down by the Fifth 
Court of Civil Appeals on the hearing of the application 
for an injunction sought by the jitney union to restrain 
the enforcement of the jitney ordinance by the city of 
Dallas, Tex. The case was taken under advisement on 
June 12. The Court of Appeals remains in session until 
July 3, and it is expected that a decision will be rendered 
on June 26. In any case the ordinance, by agreement, will 
not go into eff'ect until July 15. 

Judge Marvin Brown of the Sixty-Seventh District Court 
at Fort Worth, Tex., declined to release I. W. Sullivan, the 
jitney driver, on his application for habeas corpus which 
was heard June 14. Sullivan was found guilty in the 
County Court of violating the first jitney ordinance and 
the decision was affirmed by the Court of Criminal Appeals. 
When the mandate of the Appellate Court was received by 
the County Court, attorneys for the defendant applied for a 
writ of habeas corpus on the grounds that the second ordi- 
nance had repealed the first and that the defendant should 
not be punished for violation of an ordinance which no long- 
er existed. After hearing the case Judge Brown decided 
against the contention of the defendant. The case was 
promptly appealed to the Court of Criminal Appeals. 

A temporary injunction restraining the enforcement of 
the Fort Worth jitney ordinance has been granted by Judge 
Marvin H. Brown of the Sixty-seventh District Court on an 
application filed by the Auto Transit Company, a private 
corporation chartered for fifty years. Members of the jit- 
ney union who have off"ered resistance to the ordinance in 
the courts without eff'ect, joined as intervenors with the 
Auto Transit Company after the injunction suit was filed. 
The petition holds that both the original ordinance and the 
amended one are unreasonable, discriminatory, and void 
and in violation of the Constitution of the United States 
and of the State of Texas. It is argued that the Northern 
Texas Traction Company is operating street cars for hire 
and is not required to pay any license fee or occupation 
tax, nor is it required to execute any sort of bond. A bond 
of $500 was required by the court of the plaintiff. 

July 3, 1915] 




According to A. L. Kempster, general manager of the 
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash., the company will engage in the jitney business in 
that city. In discussing the plans of the company, Mr. 
Kempster said: 

"Experience is showing us that the public demands faster 
service. The time for romance and platonic consideration 
of conditions is past. We will fight fire with fire. If the 
public demands that we give fast service in small units, 
with correspondingly few stops, we shall do so. Not only 
does the jitney cost us less to operate but it gives us a 
certain amount of freedom from franchise and public 
service regulation. How soon the new plan will go into 
effect is problematical, but we are ready to protect our 
property by giving the public exactly what it wants. As a 
matter of fact, the saving in our rail upkeep and in the 
care of overhead wire and in carhouse costs will pay the 
cost of upkeep and repairs, and go a long way toward the 
primary cost of such machines as we may be compelled 
to purchase. 

"The problem of whether the public wants motor service 
is answered by decreased receipts. The company feels 
that it can go further toward giving reliable service to the 
public through the jitney bus as a medium than can any 
individual. It goes without saying that we are responsi- 
ble. That is a big feature. There cannot be speed without 
an occasional smash-up. If we are willing to let our claim 
department settle with real cash for any accident directly 
attributable to our service, we are doing the riding public a 
service. Under the present bonding system, a month, two 
months, three months may elapse before a claim is settled. 
With us, the presentation of proofs that we are blame- 
worthy is sufficient basis on which to establish negotiations 
for a cash settlement. 

"Great, big motor-propelled cars will never be run by 
the Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company as 
mediums of transportation. The minute this is done the 
automobile is put into the class of the street car, with as 
many stops and consequent loss of time. Neither will the 
heavy freight business pass to the automobiles. The pack- 
age-carrying business was dropped by us many months 
ago, and nothing is left now but the heavy freight and the 
straight passenger-carrying business. Conditions at pres- 
ent are unusual, 'unordinary,' or remarkable, according to 
the viewpoint, but the fact remains that if the public de- 
mands the automobile, we shall furnish it and it will be a 
service no citizen need be ashamed to patronize." 

At present the electric railway pays Seattle 2 per cent of 
its gross earnings, but this will not be required of the sub- 
sidiary jitney company. The present revenue of $70,000 
a year to the city from this source will be reduced mate- 
rially, and other obligations, including that of building and 
maintaining street paving, will be removed in a large meas- 
ure. It is stated that the company's receipts have fallen 
off about $2,000 a month on account of the jitney, which 
pays only a vehicle license to the city. The new jitney serv- 
ice of the company will cover only short runs, as it is unnec- 
essary to enter long-haul traffic, which is unprofitable to the 
street cars and to the jitneys. It is even intimated that 
the suburban service of the company will be curtailed on 
account of its unprofitable character. 


An important decision has just been handed down by the 
Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia upholding the 
rights of cities of that State to regulate the jitney. The 
city of Huntington had passed an ordinance on the jitney 
bus with the usual restrictive provisions, requiring among 
other things from owners of jitneys the filing of a $5,000 
bond and a statement from the applicant as to the terminals 
and routes over which the cars were to operate and the 
hours of their operation. The case was brought to the Su- 
preme Court on a writ of habeas corpus charging illegality 
of the ordinance for a violation of which the relator was held 
in restraint of his liberty. 

In its opinion denying this writ the court showed at length 
that every city in West Virginia had the power to limit and 
regulate the use of vehicles kept for hire and that it might 
classify them for purposes of regulation, and an ordinance 

dealing with one class of such vehicles, as determined by 
the nature of their business and the prices they charge, is 
not discriminative because of its lack of provision for the 
regulation of other distinct classes of vehicles kept for hire. 
The case was entitled No. 2906 ex parte M. T. Dickey, and it 
is said to be the first decision by the highest court of any 
State on the legality of jitney regulation in cities. 


Abstract of Decision Rendered by Circuit Court Judge Hold- 
ing the State Law Unconstitutional 

In a decision holding the Tennessee jitney law to be un- 
constitutional rendered by Judge A. B. Pittman of the 
Third Division of the Circuit Court at Memphis and re- 
ferred to briefly in the Electric Railway Journal of June 
26, page 1225, the court said in part: 

"It is not open to debate or doubt that the Legislature 
may define and declare what constitutes a common carrier; 
that it may define and declare privileges; that it may 
classify different privileges for purposes of taxation, and 
also for other purposes; that municipalities may regulate 
the use of its streets and impose such reasonable terms 
and conditions upon the users as it may deem wise. The 
only restriction under the constitution is that the classifi- 
cations must be natural and reasonable and not arbitrary 
and discriminatory. 

"The act under examination in this case declares the 
jitney bus to be a common carrier, and provides among 
other things that such common carrier shall give a bond 
conditioned that such carrier will pay any damage that 
may be adjudged finally against such carrier as compensa- 
tion for loss of life or injury to person or property in- 
flicted by such carrier or caused by his negligence. 

"Passing the question of the right to classify the jitney 
so as to compel it to protect its passengers, what possible 
justification is there for classifying it so as to compel it to 
afford protection to the street-using public in general, 
when no such burden is placed upon owners of private 
automobiles? Whatever might be said of the Legislature's 
power to regulate the jitney as a carrier of passengers 
and to require bond for the protection of such passengers 
the law leaves no room for doubt that the Legislature may 
not impose upon the jitney a burden as to street using pure 
and simple not imposed on others using the streets in iden- 
tically the same manner. 

"I hold the act in question (being chapter 60 of the acts 
of 1915) unconstitutional, and void, in that it is class legis- 
lation of the most glaring character, is arbitrary and 
discriminatory, and violative of the constitution of Ten- 
nessee. The relator herein will be discharged and the costs 
of this proceeding taxed against the city of Memphis." 


The Board of Street Railway Commissioners of Detroit, 
Mich., has sent an ultimatum to the Detroit United Railway 
to the effect that unless the company accepts the terms of a 
purchase contract by July 6 all negotiations for the purchase 
of the lines of the company within the one-fare zone will be 
called off. For several weeks attorneys representing the city 
and the company have been holding conferences with a view 
to drafting an agreement to provide for submitting the pur- 
chase proposition to the electors, the understanding being 
that the price of the property was to be fixed by the Circuit 
Court of Wayne County. The Street Railway Commission 
has issued a statement to the effect that the company has 
sought to get language into the agreement which would tie 
the hands of the court and be prejudicial to the interests of 
the city, and in its ultimatum it gives notice that the com- 
pany must accept the contract as the city wants it or the 
commission will "proceed immediately to acquire a railway 
by other ways and means." The ultimatum came as a sur- 
prise, inasmuch as frequent statements have been forthcom- 
ing from the commission indicating that the differences be- 
tween the attorneys were largely with respect to details. 
The company has not indicated what course it will pursue in 
dealing with the latest phase of the purchase negotiations, 
but it is highly improbable that the company will accept any 
agreement which it does not believe protects its interests 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

Wages Restored. — The Gulfport & Mississippi Coast 
Traction Company, Gulfport, Miss., which reduced the 
wages of its employees last October, has restored them to 
the former scale. 

One-Man Cars in San Antonio. — The City Commission- 
ers of San Antonio, Tex., have granted permission to the 
San Antonio Traction Company to use one employee on 
the cars of several of its local lines. 

Toilet Facilities Ordered. — The Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of Kansas has ordered the Joplin & Pittsburg Railway 
to provide toilet facilities on all of its cars. The order is 
based upon an act of the Legislature of 191.5. 

Accident in Brooklyn. — Slippery rails, due to a storm, 
caused a rear-end collision on the night of June 27 between 
a Vanderbilt Avenue surface car and a Culver line train, at 
Neptune Avenue near Van Siclen station. Coney Island, in 
which fourteen persons were injured. 

Fare Increase Suspensions. — The Public Service Commis- 
sion of Massachusetts has suspended until Aug. 1 the pro- 
posed increase in passenger fares and fare limits on the 
Norfolk & Bristol Street Railway, and proposed increase 
in fares on the New Bedford & Onset Street Railway. 

Traffic Interchange in Illinois. — An interchange of freight 
has been arranged between the Illinois Traction System, 
Peoria, and the Kankakee & Urbana Traction Company, 
Urbana, 111., intrastate tariffs being effective on June 12 
and interstate rates effective on July 10. All shipments 
are routed via Urbana, 111. 

Traction Lines to Feature the Liberty Bell. — The Fort 
Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company and other 
interurban lines entering Fort Wayne, Ind., will run excur- 
sions into that city on July 6, when the Liberty Bell, en 
route to the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, 
will be exhibited in Fort Wayne. 

High Speed Camden-Newark Service. — Fast through 
service to New York every hour has been inaugurated by 
the Public Service Railway from Camden, opposite Phila- 
delphia, by way of Trenton and New Brunswick, to Newark, 
where connection is made with the Hudson & Manhattan 
Railroad. The running time is five hours, and the fare is 
$1.45 for one way, and $2.(50 for the round trip. 

Seattle Service Case. — Federal Judge Neterer at Seattle, 
Wash., has signed an order allowing the Puget Sound Trac- 
tion, Light & Power Company to perfect an appeal to the 
United States Supreme Court on the order of the State 
Public Service Commission requiring the company to fur- 
nish a seat for every passenger, as well as to run its Alki 
Point, Fauntleroy Park, and Ballard Beach lines beyond 
the downtown termini provided by the company's charter. 

The Memphis Fare Case. — The case involving the efforts 
of the city of Memphis, Tenn., to compel the Memphis 
Street Railway to issue transfers on tickets sold at the 
rate of eleven for 50 cents, has been argued before the 
State Supreme Court sitting at Jackson. A writ of man- 
damus issued by the lower court was taken to the Appel- 
late Court by the railway and went in favor of the com- 
pany. The city is aggressor in the present review of the 
case in the highest court of the State. 

The St. Louis Skip-Stop Hearing. — Additional testimony 
was taken before the Public Service Commission of Mis- 
souri in St. Louis on Jan. 26 in regard to the petition of 
the United Railways for permission to eliminate 770 stops 
in the city. Application has been made to the commission 
by the company for a rehearing in regard to the order of 
the commission requiring the company to construct certain 
extensions and install loops. The requirements of the com- 
mission with respect to extensions and loops was referred 
to in the decision of the commission abstracted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of May 15, page 961. 

The Free Transportation Menace. — A tentative clause 
in a franchise for the construction of an extension in Los 
Angeles, Cal., has resulted in a statement from the Los 
Angeles Railway Corporation with respect to free trans- 
portation. The clause in question sought to extend the 
courtesy of free transportation on all lines of the company 
to all nurses of the health department. The company ob- 
jected to this. S. M. Haskins of counsel for the company 

said: "The history of free transportation in Los Angeles is 
written in the ordinances of the city. It began with the 
Mayor and members of the fire department, and it has been 
increased gradually until the amount of free transportation 
furnished by the Los Angeles Railway to the city of Los 
Angeles amounts to more than $200,000 annually." 

Operating Trailers in Washington. — As a result of ob- 
servations made of the operation of trains of two small 
open cars of the Capital Traction Company, Washington, 
D. C, and of records kept by the commission and the com- 
pany of accidents occurring on these cars, the Public Utili- 
ties Commission of the District of Columbia is of the opin- 
ion that the operation of the small single truck open cars 
in trains of two cars each with a single conductor in charge 
of the train is not a menace to public safety. It has there- 
fore ordered that Section 13 of Order No. 21 of the com- 
mission be amended to read as follows: "No trailer car 
shall be operated for the purpose of carrying passengers 
unless there be a separate conductor or employee acting 
as such for each car of the train; provided, that trains of 
small single-truck open cars not exceeding two cars each 
may be operated with a single conductor in charge of the 

The Albany Service Case. — A conference was held at 
Albany, N. Y., on June 2.3 between officers of the United 
Traction Company of that city and the members of the 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York with respect to the order of the commission calling 
for the purchase of forty cars, each with a minimum seat- 
ing capacity of forty passengers. Chairman Van Sant- 
voord said that the commission felt that conditions were 
correctly set forth in the data the commission already had, 
and that the order of the commission must be complied with 
or the company, in accordance with the decision of the 
Appelate Division of the Supreme Court, must show that 
it cannot comply with it. It was finally agreed that the 
company should submit to the commission not later than 
July 6 an alternative plan for improving the equipment. 
This plan may involve either the purchase of new cars 
or the rebuilding of the old ones, provided this can be done 
in a satisfactory manner. 

The Shore Line Wage Agreement. — As stated in the 
Electpic Railway Journal of June 26, page 1226, the Shore 
Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn., has agreed with its 
trainmen to an advance of wages from a minimum of 22 
cents and a maximum of 28% cents an hour to a minimum 
of 23 cents and a maximum of 29 cents an hour. While it is 
a fact that the company has increased its wage rates prac- 
tically one-half cent in each grade, it has at the same time 
eliminated the overtime payment of 10 cents an hour and the 
lunch checks. The original purpose of the lunch checks was 
to protect the men who were detained from their homes or 
regular eating places, and as a consequence were put to an 
expense. Under the former agreement the men twice a year 
elected whether they would take box lunches or 25 cents. For 
the past year the company has not been asked for a lunch 
box, and the management felt that it would be fairer to all 
the men if the money represented by the lunch boxes was 
distributed among all the men rather than to a favored few. 
The change in the rate of pay, as frankly stated to the men, 
will not add materially to the cost of operation of the co«i- 
pany, as the increase is very largely offset by the saving 
which results from the changes previously mentioned. 

The Value of Action. — A preachment to railway men 
that carries a valuable lesson was contained, no doubt un- 
consciously but none the less effectively, in an item pub- 
lished recently in Louisville. Around it could be woven a 
second "Message to Garcia." It illustrates strikingly the 
value of independent action. On account of the lesson 
which it contains the Louisville (Ky.) Railway is calling 
the attention of its trainmen to the item, which follows: 
". . . On Main Street, between Fifth and Sixth Streets (a 
busy section of the street, traversed by cars of five impor- 
tant lines, three of which loop there), a wheel came off a 
wagon and blocked the line. In a very few minutes several 
cars were tied up by the blockade. One man called the 
wreck car and then they all stood around trying to talk 
that wheel back on the wagon. Then something happened 
— a man came along who could see things. He asked the 

July 3, 1915] 



driver to take out the wagon tongue, which they used as a 
pry pole, chocked the wheels with a trick, and raised the 
axle slightly and put the rim of the wheel under it; got a 
new bight, raised it again, and put the hub under it, then 
with another effort the wheel was on and the blockade re- 
lieved in just two minutes after the 'live wire' got there. 
The wreck car found a clear track." 

Question of Authority in Canada. — The First Appellate 
Court at Toronto, Ont., has granted the petition of the Ham- 
ilton, Grimsby & Beamsville Electric Railway, Hamilton, 
Ont., for an appeal against the decision of the Ontario Rail- 
way Board made some time ago to compel the company 
to place certain conveniences in the cars and stations, also 
on the question as to whether the Dominion of Canada, once 
having declared a railway for the general advantage of 
Canada, can subsequently withdraw that declaration. The 
company claimed that it was outside the jurisdiction of the 
Ontario Board to require the company to install the conve- 
niences, and that under a section of the railway act of 1888 
the railway was placed under the Dominion Railway Board, 
which alone could exercise authority over it. Counsel for 
the company pointed out that the dominion by the railway 
act of 1888 declared all railways crossed by the Grand 
Trunk and the Canadian Pacific Railways to be works for 
the general advantage of Canada. By an enactment of 1903, 
which counsel for the compny challenges as ultra vires, the 
dominion purported to limit this declaration to the crossings 
only. For twenty years his clients had considered them- 
selves under the Dominican Railway Board, and still did so. 
The question will be argued later on appeal. 

Lexington Arbitration Award. — The board of arbitration 
which has been handling the case of Motorman Robert E. 
Walker, discharged last summer by the Kentucky Traction 
& Terminal Company, Lexington, Ky., has reported, rein- 
stating the motorman and awarding him $200 of back pay. 
The proposition was referred to the board as a means of 
compromising the strike which followed Walker's discharge. 
The union men in the company's employ contended that 
Walker was dismissed through discrimination against the 
union. The company urged that the dismissal was purely 
for carelessness, which resulted in the wreck of an inter- 
urban car. C. C. Bagby, a Danville attorney, was named 
umpire, the union chose its president, Robert Goss, and the 
company its own superintendent, George McLeod. The de- 
cision was a majority finding, holding that the company 
acted in part from "unconscious prejudice" and that the 
case did not merit such severe treatment. Supplemental 
charges that the company discriminated against union em- 
ployees were dismissed by the board of arbitration as not 
sustained by the evidence. The minority report, by Mr. 
McLeod, pointed out that Walker had been dismissed in 
good faith, "the opinion of the umpire to the contrary not- 
withstanding," and that he would be reinstated in equally 
good faith. 

Peninsula Railway Fare Case. — F. E. Chapin, general 
manager of the Peninsula Railway, San Jose, Cal., has 
issued a statement in regard to the recent fare decision of 
the Railroad Commission of California, referred to in the 
Electric Railway Journal of May 8 on page 911. Mr. 
Chapin said in part: "The published reports in relation to 
the decision of the State Railroad Commission as to the 
complaint of Palo Alto and Mayfield complaining of dis- 
crimination in favor of San Jose, have been in error and 
have led to much confusion in the minds of our patrons. 
Briefly, the decision of the commission is, first, that night 
excursion rates, which have been so lightly availed of by 
the traveling public, can be withdrawn by the Peninsular 
Railway; second, that the Sunday excursion rate from May- 
field and Palo Alto to Congress Springs cannot be raised 
without discrimination in favor of San Jose, as it is now; 
third, that after allowing for the influence of 5-cent street 
railway fares which ordinarily should not influence inter- 
urban fares, but which sometimes cannot be avoided, dis- 
crimination in favor of San Jose against Palo Alto and 
sometimes in favor of Los Gatos as against Palo Alto, is 
found, and exists to an extent that demands the revision 
of existing ra'tes. The present tariffs, which have developed 
just as the road has grown are being revised accordingly, 
but it should be apparent to all that the decision does not 
in itself direct reduction in rates." 

Personal Mention 

Mr. K. H. Smith, formerly engineer of the Ogden, Logan 
& Idaho Railway, Ogden, Utah, has been appointed man- 
ager of the Goldsboro (N. C.) Electric Railway. 

Mr. John H. Adams, formerly chief engineer of the 
Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation, Augusta, 
Ga., has been appointed general manager of the Blue Ridge 
Light & Power Company, Staunton, Va. 

Mr. Timothy E. Byrnes, formerly vice-president of the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, has estab- 
lished himself in Boston in his former business as legal 
adviser concerning railroad rates and transportation. 

Mr. John W. Wagner president of the German-American 
Bank, Kansas City, Mo., and not Mr. John W. Brown, as 
previously reported, has been reappointed as a member of 
the board of the Kansas City Railways to represent the 

Mr. R. B. Stichter, vice-president of the Southern Trac- 
tion Company, Dallas, Tex., has been granted a six months' 
leave of absence. Mr. Stichter will leave at once for Colo- 
rado and expects to spend the greater part of his vacation 
in the mountain resorts of that State. 

Mr. R. F. Blanchard has resigned as chief engineer of 
the power station of the Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway to 
become associated with Mr. William Butler, formerly con- 
struction engineer of the Economy Fuel Company, Mat- 
teawan, N. Y., in the firm of Blanchard & Butler, Boston, 
Mass., dealers in engineers' supplies. The employees of 
the Holyoke Street Railway presented Mr. Blanchard with 
a traveling bag and toilet set as a token of esteem. He has 
been connected with the company for more than five years. 

Mr. John J. Dempsey, who was elected president of the 
New York Electric Railway Association at the meeting at 
Manhattan Beach on June 29 and 30, is superintendent of 

transportation of the New 
York Consolidated Railroad 
(Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
System). Mr. Dempsey 
started his railroad career 
as a boy with the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad. In 1894 
he severed his connection 
as telegraph operator with 
that company to take a po- 
sition as telegraph operator 
with the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Union Elevated Railroad. He 
remained with this company 
until June, 1897, when he 
resigned to return to the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad as 
telegraph operator, from 
J. J. DEMPSEY from which position he was 

promoted to yardmaster. In 
1900 he left the Lehigh Valley Road and re-entered the 
employ of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company as assistant 
dispatcher, from which position he was successively ad- 
vanced to dispatcher, trainmaster, chief dispatcher, assist- 
ant superintendent and finally superintendent of transporta- 

Mr. W. S. Stanton, the newly-elected secretary-treasurer 
of the New York Electric Railway Association, is excep- 
tionally well qualified for the responsibilities of his office, 
as during the past few years he has been secretary to two 
of the presidents of the association, Messrs. Peck and Ham- 
ilton. Mr. Stanton was born in 1882, and his railway expe- 
rience began eleven years ago when he entered the service 
of the Schenectady Railway. He has remained with that 
system without interruption since that time, being engaged 
in various positions in the clerical department of the com- 
pany. For the past eight years he has held the title of sec- 
retary to the general manager, Schenectady Railv/ay, and 
he will retain that position in addition to his secretaryship 
of the New York associations, as his central location and fa- 
miliarity with association affairs will enable him readily to 
combine the duties of both. 


Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 


New Britain, Conn. — The Connecticut Company has 
asked the Council for a franchise to extend its lines from 
Main Street to Myrtle Street, Grove Street, Broad Street, 
Washington Street, Farmington Avenue, and Common- 
wealth Avenue to a point 100 ft. beyond Farmington Ave- 
nue, New Britain. 

*Lakeland, Fla. — Application is being made to the Coun- 
cil for a franchise to construct a line in Lakeland in con- 
nection with a railway to extend to and through surround- 
ing towns, providing a similar franchise is obtained 
through and along the principal business and residence 
thoroughfares. A committee of the Chamber of Commerce 
is working out the details and has been assured of the 
necessary capital as soon as the franchises and rights-of- 
way have been secured. Among those interested are G. C. 
Rogan, M. F. Hetherington, Dr. S. F. Smith, W. F. Sneed, 
and A. J. Holworthy. 

Newport, Ky. — Bids will be received until Aug. 2 by the 
City Commissioner of Newport for an electric railway 
franchise. August Helmbold, Mayor. 

Springfield, Mass. — The Springfield Street Railway has 
asked the Council for a franchise to construct a line along 
Page Boulevard to East Street in Chicopee. 

Woburn, Mass. — The Bay State Street Railway has asked 
the Council for a franchise to alter and relocate its tracks 
on Washington Street, Woburn. 

Farrell, Pa. — The Farrell & Mercer Railway has re- 
ceived a franchise from the Council to construct an elec- 
tric line in Mercer. This is part of a plan to build an 
electric railway from Farrell to Mercer and New Castle. 

Lynchburg, Va. — The Lynchburg Traction & Light Com- 
pany has received from the Council a franchise to extend 
its line from the Fair Grounds to Fort Hill. Work will be 
begun at once on the extension. 


Fresno (Cal.) Interurban Railway. — Construction of the 
overhead work has been begun by this company on its 
line on Belmont Avenue from Fresno Avenue to Valeria 
Avenue, extending on Valeria .A.venue to Merced Avenue 
and thence to J Street. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Plans for 
the construction of four viaducts to span Macy Street, 
First Street, Fourth Street and Seventh Street to elimi- 
nate the dangerous grade crossings are being prepared by 
the Board of Public Utilities for presentation to the Coun- 
cil. The plans tentatively worked out by the Board of 
Public Utilities provide that the cost shall be borne one- 
half by the steam roads and one-half by the city, the 
county and the Pacific Electric Railway. The total cost of 
the four viaducts will be $3,500,000. 

San Diego. Cal. — Lewis R. Kirby reports that, owing to 
the failure of the El Centro trustees to concede a satisfactory 
route and conditions of operation for the proposed electric 
railway between El Centro and Imperial, and because of 
general business conditions, the plan of constructing the rail- 
way has been abandoned, at least temporarily. [May 2, '14.] 

Municipal Railways, San Francisco, Cal. — The Mission 
Promotion Association has asked the Board of Supervisors 
to extend some of its lines in San Francisco. The line 
which the association urges most strongly is the extension 
of the Potrero Avenue branch from Tenth Street and 
Potrero Avenue along Division Street and thence to the 
Southern Pacific station at Third Street and Townsend 
Street. From this point the extension would continue to 
the Pacific Mail docks and to the waterfront. 

Mount Carmel Railway, Hamden, Conn. — Willis M. Cook 
advises that the project to build an electric line from the 
terminal of the Connecticut Company's line to the top of 
Mount Carmel has been abandoned. [Oct. 4, '13.] 

*Pocatello, Idaho. — Plans are being considered to build 
an electric railway from Arbon, Oneida County, to Poca- 
tello. George Williams, Mayor of Pocatello, is interested. 

Peoria, III. — The immediate construction of the interurban 
line between Chillicothe and Peoria, which has been in the 
course of negotiation for some time, was assured at a 
meeting of the stockholders held in Chillicothe on June 15, 
at which the engineers who have been making the pre- 
liminary survey were present. From the end of the tracks 
of the Peoria Railway at Riverview Park to the Santa Fe 
station in North Chillicothe will require the construction of 
15.26 miles of track, which, together with the necessary 
poles, wires, power house and stations, will cost approxi- 
mately $500,000. E. F. Hunter, Peoria, is interested. [Dec. 
25, '14.] 

St. Joseph Valley Traction Company, Elkhart, Ind. — 

In connection with the paving of East Jackson Street this 
company plans to replace its present tracks, turnouts and 
switches with new material. The track will be relaid with 
new open-hearth steel rails not less than 60 ft. long and 
weighing not less than 90 lb. to the yard. The ties will 
be 6 in. X 8 in. and 7 ft. long. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Terre Haute, Ind. — Citizens of Newcastle have filed a peti- 
tion with this company asking that the company extend its 
city lines in Newcastle. 

Southwestern Interurban Railway, Coffeyville, Kan. — 

Plans are being considered by this company to extend its 
line from Winfield to the Albright Gardens near Oxford, 
extending north through Mulvane to Wichita, where it will 
connect with other interurban lines. It is proposed to con- 
struct a line from Wellington to Mulvane to connect with 
the main line. 

Bangor (Me.) Railway & Electric Company. — Work has 
been begun by this company double-tracking its lines on 
Harlow Street, Central Street and State Street, Bangor. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — Work will 
soon be begun by this company extending its double tracks 
from the corner of Hampshire Street and High Street to 
Railroad Square, Lawrence. 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway. — Extensive repairs 
have been begun by this company in Springfield. The 
company will retie the entire stretch of track on Walnut 
Street from King Street to Hancock Street. The track will 
also be repaired at Memorial Triangle and in the Winches- 
ter Park section of State Street from Catharine Street to 
the New England crossing. The present rails will be re- 
placed on Main Street on the west side of the north-end 
green. The company is also at work on Elm Street be- 
tween Park Street and Westfield Street, West Springfield, 
where 60-lb. rails will be replaced by 80-lb. rails and the 
same procedure will be followed at Tubb's Hill on West- 
field Street. The 7-in. rails on the Sumner Avenue line 
between the carhouse and the crossing will be removed and 
replaced by heavier rails. 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway. — Work 

has been begun by this company laying new rails on West 
Boylston Street, Worcester, between Chadwick Square and 
the fair grounds. 

Gulfport & Mississippi Coast Traction Company, Gulf- 
port, Miss. — Among the improvements being made by this 
company is the rebuilding of all bridges on its line from 
Biloxi and Pass Christian and the replacement of all defect- 
ive poles. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — Plans 
are about completed for the single-deck viaduct and bridge 
to replace the Central Avenue double-deck structure over 
the Kaw River. At present the elevated structure of the 
Metropolitan Street Railway connects with the second deck 
of the Central Avenue bridge. The roadway on the lower 
deck extends on the ground level several hundred feet and 
connects with a viaduct that reaches the higher street level 
at the bluffs of Riverview. The new viaduct will be a single 
deck and will be about the present level of the upper deck. 
There will be viaduct approaches connecting with the road- 
way viaduct and approaches to the lower level roadway of 
the east side of the Kaw River. The total cost of the 
bridge and viaduct will be $450,000. 

July 3, 1915] 



United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — This company has re- 
ceived permission from the Board of Public Service to lay 
double tracks across the new Jefferson Avenue Viaduct, St. 

Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company. — This company has 
received permission from the Council to tear up its N 
Street line and relay the track on K Street, Lincoln. The 
company will begin work on the K Street line at once, 
and will maintain service on N Street until the new line is 
ready to carry traffic. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company. — Bids are de- 
sired by the Public Service Commission for the First District 
of New York for furnishing approximately 37,800 tons of 
open-hearth track rails and about 2400 tons of open-hearth 
guard rails for equipping the new lines of the dual system. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company.— The Public 
Service Commission for the First District of New York 
will open bids on July 20 for the construction of Section 
No. 1 of Route No. 49, a part of the Culver line. This a 
three-track elevated railroad, which will connect the Fourth 
Avenue subway through Thirty-eighth Street and Graves- 
end Avenue with Coney Island. Section No. 1 extends 
from a point in Thirty-seventh Street 246 ft. southeast of 
Tenth Avenue under private property and intersecting 
streets to Gravesend Avenue and over Gravesend Avenue 
to a point about 525 ft. south of Bay Parkway (Twenty- 
second Avenue). 

International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. — This company is 
rebuilding its Niagara Street line from Forest Avenue to 
Hertel Avenue with a concrete roadbed and heavier rails. 
The East Utica Street line is also being rebuilt on Ken- 
sington Avenue from the Erie tracks to Bailey Avenue. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. 
— This company has received permission from the War 
Department to construct a bridge over the Bronx River at 
Westchester Avenue. The bridge will carry the tracks of 
the Pelham Bay Park branch of the Lexington Avenue sub- 
way, which at this point runs on an elevated structure. A 
permanent bridge will be built with a clearance of 61 ft. 
above mean high water. 

Poughkeepsie City & Wappingers Falls Electric Railway, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. — This company plans to spend about 
$150,000 for improvements, including the reconstruction of 
track and extension of double track. 

New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y. — This com- 
pany has been asked to double track its line on North 
Street, Rochester. 

Western Ohio Railroad, Lima, Ohio. — Plans are being 
considered by this company to extend its line from St. 
Mary's south to Covington, via Minster and Fort Laramie. 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction Company, 
Toledo, Ohio. — Plans are being considered by this company 
to extend its line from Findlay to Kenton. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission has completed surveys for the construction of the 
proposed railway from Toronto to Montreal and Ottawa. 
Plans have also been prepared for the construction of a 
radial railway to extend 60 miles north and west of Lon- 
don, Ontario. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — It is re- 
ported that this company will begin work in the fall on a 
new route through Center Valley on its Philadelphia divi- 
sion. It is proposed to remove the tracks to private right- 
of-way for about 2 miles. 

Easton & Washington Traction Company, Easton, Pa. — 
This company plans to construct a line between Washing- 
ton and Hackettstown, N. J., extending along Lake Hopat- 
cong, 19 miles. 

McConnellsburg & Fort Loudon Railway, McConnells- 
burg, Pa. — Bennett & Randall, contractors, plan to begin 
work at once on this company's line from McConnellsburg 
to Fort Loudon, 10 miles. [May 8, '15.] 

Scranton & Binghamton Traction Company, Scranton, 
Pa. — During the year this company plans to spend about 
$1,000,000 in building a 20-mile extension of its line, and 
3000 tons of rail will soon be delivered for use in the con- 
struction of the line. 

Nashville, Springfield & Northern Railroad, Nashville, 
Tenn. — Surveys will soon be begun by this company on its 
proposed line between Nashville, Springfield, Clarksville, 
Tenn., and Franklin, Ky. | June 19, '15.] 

Virginia Railway. & Power Company, Norfolk, Va. — This 
company reports that it has made about $25,000 worth of 
improvements at Ocean View in the way of new amuse- 
ment devices and remodeling the hotel. An entirely new 
bulkhead has also been constructed. 

'"Wheeling, W. Va. — Plans are being contemplated to 
construct an electric railway from Wheeling, W. Va., to 
Baltimore, Md., via Fairmont and Grafton. Preliminary 
surveys will be made at once. The Pennsylvania Electric 
& Lighting Company, Valley Falls, is interested. 


Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, Wichita, Kan. — 

This company has purchased a site 66 ft. x 66 ft. at 111 
Second Avenue East, Hutchinson, where its new terminal 
station will be erected. It is planned to construct a wye 
into the station off Second Avenue. The cost of the prop- 
erty was $6,850. 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street Railway, Lewis- 
ton, Me. — This company has completed its freight station 
at Lincoln Street, Lewiston. 

New York Municipal Railway Corporation, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — Contracts for the construction of eight elevated 
railroad stations in connection with the third-tracking of 
the Broadway elevated railroad in Brooklyn, submitted by 
the New York Municipal Railway Corporation, have been 
approved by the Public Service Commission for the First 
District of New York. The proposed stations are at Hewes 
Street, Lorimer Street, Flushing Avenue, Myrtle Avenue 
and Broadway, Kosciusko Street, Gates Avenue, Halsey 
Street and Chauncey Street. 

Salt Lake & Ogden Railway, Salt Lake City, Utah. — 
Pending the construction of a new terminal station, the 
depot offices of this company, with the exception of the 
freight department, have been removed to the temporary 
terminal at Third South Street and First West Street, Salt 
Lake City, which will be used jointly with the Salt Lake & 
Utah Railroad. Passenger train service was inaugurated 
on June 19. 


Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — This 
company has ordered one 3000-kw., 575-volt d. c, six-phase, 
twenty-five-cycle, 250-r.p.m. compound-wound commutating 
pole rotary converter; three 1000-kva., single-phase, twenty- 
five-cycle, 6600-volt high-tension to rotary voltage low- 
tension air-blast transformers; one blower outfit for the 
above transformers and three-panel switchboard for the 
control of same. The contract for this apparatus has been 
placed with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 

Ephrata & Lebanon Traction Company, Mauch Chunk, 

Pa. — This company reports that it has completed and placed 
in operation its two substations at lona and Clay in con- 
nection with its change from storage battery to overhead 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Railway, Ogden, Utah. — Two sub- 
stations will be built by this company, one at the Utah 
Hot Springs and the other at Deweyville, to care for the 
distribution of power for the entire system between Ogden 
and Preston. Each station will cost about $35,000, includ- 
ing equipment. 

Kanawha Traction & Electric Company, Parkersburg, 
W. Va. — Preliminary work has been begun by this com- 
pany for the construction of a power plant at Parkersburg, 
140 ft. X 90 ft. The structure will be of brick and concrete. 
The condensers will be placed in a pit and the turbines will 
be installed on the floor immediately above. The cost is 
estimated at $500,000. Sanderson & Porter, engineers. 

Wheeling (W. Va.) Traction Company. — This company 
will discontinue the operation of its power plant at Ben- 
wood, but will hold the plant in readiness for emergency 
service. The new main power plant located at Forty-second 
Street, Wheeling, has been completed. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 1 

Manufactures and Supplies 


New York & Queens County Railway, New York, N. Y., 

expects to order immediately six double-truck end-entrance 

Carolina, Greeneville & Northern Railway, Greeneville, 
Tenn., a new line, is preparing specifications for rolling 
stock. F. A. H. Kelley, Greeneville, is chief engineer. 

Isthmian Canal Commission, Major F. C. Boggs, general 
purchasing officer, will receive sealed proposals until Aug. 
16 for twelve electric towing locomotives for canal locks. 

Hutchinson (Kan.) Interurban Railway has purchased a 
Westinghouse 323-A motor equiprnent for one new steel 
semi-convertible passenger car mounted on Dupont single- 

Corpus Christi Railway & Light Company, Corpus Christi, 
Tex., has ordered, through A. W. Burke, Wilmington, Del., 
eight steel single-track one-man cars from the Southern 
Car Company. 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Railway, Ogden, Utah, reported in 
the Electric Railway Journal of June 2(i as having or- 
dered six trailers, has awarded this contract to the American 
Car & Foundry Company. The cars are all-steel and 65 ft. 
in length. 

Eastern Pennsylvania Railways, Pottsville, Pa., is having 
built by The J. G. Brill Company one all-steel car to be 
equipped with GE-90 four-motor equipments. The car is 
designed for experimental operation in both city and inter- 
urban service. 


Frank R. Farnham has joined the staff of Walter B. 
Snow, publicity engineer and advertising agent, Boston, 
Mass. Mr. Farnham was at one time with the McGraw 
Publishing Company. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has received an order for one 6-kw. combi- 
nation trolley and storage battery gathering locomotive 
equipped with two No. 904 motors and Nonclad Exide bat- 

Curtain Supply Companj, Chicago, 111., has received or- 
ders for Ring No. 48 fixtures and Rex rollers for the ten 
cars recently ordered by the Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Rail- 
way, Hazleton, Pa., the ten cars ordered by the Lehigh Trac- 
tion Company, Hazleton, Pa., and also from the Long Island 
Railroad and Miami (Fla.) Traction Company. 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

has been awarded a gold medal by the international jury 
of award, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, for its 
exhibit of a complete line of electric wires, cables and cable 
accessories. This is the seventh award of this degree which 
has been received by this company in as many different 

Western Electric Company. New York, N. Y., has been 
awarded the following medals by the international jury of 
award of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition: The 
Grand Prix for the exhibit as a w'hole; gold medals, one 
for telephone switchboards and equipment, another for 
telephone train dispatching and control apparatus, and a 
third for insulated wires and cables. 

Esterline Company, Indianapolis, Ind., manufacturer of 
"Golden Glow" headlights, reports a change in the terri- 
tory of its Southeastern representation. The Walker-Smith 
Company of Baltimore will now handle the sale of "Golden 
Glow" headlights in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and Dis- 
trict of Columbia only. New representatives will be ap- 
pointed for the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Alabama, Georgia and Florida. 

Dayton Fare Recorder Company, Dayton, Ohio, received 
orders from the Louisville & Interurban Railroad, Louis- 
ville, Ky., and the Cleveland & Eastern Traction Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, for large installments of its new inter- 
urban fare recorders, following sixty-day trials of the re- 
corders in service. This manufacturing company has also 
recently secured contracts for recorder equipments from 

the Pearson Engineering Corporation for one of its South 
American customers; the Erie Railroad, New York & Long 
Island Traction Company, Pittsburgh Railways, and United 
Traction Company, Albany, N. Y. The Dayton company is 
now arranging to install recorders for trial for the Minne- 
apolis & St. Paul Suburban Railroad and the Jamestown, 
Westfield & Northwestern Railroad, Jamestown, N. Y. 


Dayton Fare Recorder Company, Dayton, Ohio, has issued 

a folder describing its various types of fare boxes. Inclosed 
with the folder is a photographic reproduction of a record 
card produced on this company's fare box recorder. 

Railway & Industrial Engineering Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., has issued a catalog showing the application of Burke 
horn gap apparatus in connection with a few of its sta- 
tionary designs of outdoor substations. Views and diagrams 
in the catalog show these installations as applied to the 
Wheeling Electric Company, Virginia-Western Power Com- 
pany, Ohio Electric Railway, Steubenville & East Liverpool 
Railway & Light Company, Wilmington & Philadelphia 
Traction Company, Georgia Railway & Power Company, 
Central Illinois Public Utilities Company. 

National Tube Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has just issued 
a de luxe catalog of the material manufactured at the 
Kewanee works of the company. It is entitled "Catalog J" 
and contains 450 pages, printed in two, and in some places 
three, colors. An idea of the completeness of the book may 
be derived from the fact that the index embraces approxi- 
mately 1800 entries. This material includes "National" 
pipe for steam, gas, water, and air; cast-iron, malleable- 
iron, and brass fittings; "Kewanee" unions and "Kewanee" 
specialties; brass and iron body valves, cocks, etc. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has is- 
sued Bulletin No. 47,050, describing this company's line of 
small plant switchboards made up of standard units in 
various combinations. The line provides for a great 
variety of conditions in small plants where panels of sim- 
ple and inexpensive design are required. They are designed 
for 125-volt and 250-volt, d. c, two-wire service, for gen- 
eral power and lighting purposes. These units are de- 
scribed and illustrated in detail, various combinations are 
illustrated, dimensions are given, and panels designated by 
catalog numbers. The publication contains wiring dia- 
grams and a list of accessories. 

United States Steel Corporation, New York, N. Y., has is- 
sued in pamphlet form an extended description of its exhibit 
and those of its subsidiary companies at the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition at San Trancisco. The pamphlet contains a 
number of illustrations showing the most interesting ap- 
paratus shown. Among the exhibits which will attract par- 
ticular interest of electric railway men are rail sections, 
special work and electrically-welded joints of the Lorain 
Steel Company, rolled steel and forged steel wheels, heat- 
treated axles and steel ties of the Carnegie Steel Company, 
trolley poles and other tubing and pipes of the National 
Tube Company, and rail bonds, insulated wire and fencing 
of the American Steel & Wire Company. Some interesting 
statistics of the history, output and organization of the 
United States Steel Corporation are also given in the 


Shall the Government Own and Operate the Railroads, Tele- 
graph and Telephone Systems? The Negative Side, 
published by the National Civic Federation, 1 Madison 
Avenue, New York. Paper, 119 pages; price, 50 cents. 
In this pamphlet are contained the papers presented on 
the negative side of municipal and government ownership 
of public utilities at the meeting of the National Civic 
Federation in New York, Dec. 4, 1914. The authors are 
Prof. Jeremiah W. Jenks, Ex-Senator Jonathan Bourne, Jr., 
F. G. R. Gordon, and James W. Sullivan. A report of this 
meeting and abstracts of the papers were published in the 
Electric Railway Journal at the time, but the complete 
papers should be helpful to all who are interested in this 
very live subject. The extended experience of all the 
authors enables them to speak with authority and to 
marshal facts which are convincing. 

Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric R ailway REViEyw \ 

Vol. XL VI 


No. 2 

LOSING On many large railroad systems it 

TIME IN ig often most difficult for a com- 

TERMINALS pany to avoid losing time in ter- 

minal approaches, on account of the magnitude of 
traffic, with its great diversity of origin concentrated 
upon a limited trackage. In interurban electric railw^ay 
practice, street traffic often reduces schedule speed un- 
duly in the last stages of a journey, but this also can- 
not be helped in a good many instances. What can be 
helped, however, is unnecessary delay in entering ter- 
minals in smaller places where ample room in the streets 
is available, or where the trackage conditions are favor- 
able to good service. Sometimes the construction of 
a short section of double track in a terminal city of 
moderate size is of great value in enabling in-bound 
and out-bound interurban cars to make fast time with- 
out waiting to pass slow-moving locals, whether the 
latter are on or off schedule. Again, by avoiding stops 
considerably in advance of the destination to read reg- 
isters, adjust running boards or other details which 
may better be handled at the end of the route, time may 
be clipped off the total run, with the resulting improve- 
ment in the schedule. 

JUDGING HUMAN In a paper at the Pacific Claim 
NATURE IN LEGAL Agents' Association, reported in 
DEPARTMENT +u i 4. n 

the last issue, C. F. Young, ad- 
juster Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, 
emphasized the necessity on the part of the claim inves- 
tigator of ability to combine tact with firmness. The 
same principle applies very appropriately to another field 
of the legal department, that of the attorney engaged in 
hastening the vacating by owners of property legally 
condemned for a new right-of-way. The necessity for 
handling different types of people in totally different 
manners was shown recently by a certain lawyer's per- 
sonal experience in such work in an important Eastern 
city. With some owners a polite explanation of the situ- 
ation which legalized the condemnation of property was 
sufficient to carry conviction of the railway company's 
authority to take possession and honesty of intention 
to settle fairly, but with the more ignorant landowners 
it was found that a tone of politeness was often mis- 
taken for suavity as a veil for unscrupulous motives. 
Continued politeness only served to excite their sus- 
picions, and cause them to classify the attorney and 
his company among the members of the Jack Sheppard 
Club. Experience taught that an answer of unmistaka- 
ble sternness to such resentful utterances had the effect 
of immediately quieting both the objections and sus- 
picions of the property owners. Severity and firmness 
in this case encouraged respect and thus saved much 

time that otherwise would have b'eeTT'^^^asted in unneces- 
sary wrangling. The firm grasp took the sting out of 
the nettle. 


The report on clasp brakes made 
by a Master Car Builders' com- 
mittee some weeks ago at Atlantic 
City constituted a very satisfactory indorsement of the 
device on the basis of experience obtained to date. 
There was, however, one feature of the report that 
serves also as an excellent argument for the use of the 
semicircular brass, at least by electric railways, in 
preference to the clasp brake as a means for eliminat- 
ing the hot boxes due to journals that shift out from 
beneath their brasses under emergency applications. 
This was the establishment by the committee of a min- 
imum car weight for clasp brakes, it being recom- 
mended only that cars weighing more than 96,000 lb. 
should be provided with them, and as there are very 
few electric railway cars whose weights even approach 
this figure the average interurban car, on the M.C.B. 
basis, would seem to be exempt from the necessity for 
clasp brakes. Undoubtedly, the establishment of this 
minimum weight was on the grounds of expense, the 
limit of 12,000 lb. per wheel being set bv the prohib- 
itive pressures per shoe involved with scandard rig- 
ging for the higher wheel loads rather than by any 
doubt in the value of the clasp brake for lighter cars. 
Of course, it has been demonstrated that the shifting 
of journals depends upon the percentage of braking 
pressure and not upon the actual weight on the wheel, 
and if clasp brakes are going to be considered too ex- 
pensive for ordinary cars the only apparent alternative 
is the use of the semicircular brass if the journals are 
to be kept in place. 

RIVETING An objection to steel pressings as 

WITH STEEL opposed to castings has recently 

PRESSINGS been raised on the ground of the 

necessity for riveting on lugs, fixtures and the like 
instead of having them cast integral with the original 
piece. Apparently the major part of the complaint is 
based on experience with riveted joints that have worked 
loose, and it cannot be denied that this has been far 
from uncommon in electric railway work in the past. 
It is also true, however, that much of the riveting work 
that is done in electric railway repair shops is by no 
means up to the best standards, and it is hardly proper 
to condemn the process in general because of failures 
that could undoubtedly have been avoided by proper 
care in fabrication. Riveting, when properly done, is 
infinitely superior to any other method of making up 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

a joint, and so far as reliability in attaching lugs is 
concerned it gives results quite as good as those ob- 
tained by pouring the projections solid on a steel cast- 
ing and better than those obtained when cast iron is 
used. As compared with welding the riveted joint is 
distinctly preferable because it can be separated and 
remade at the expense only of cutting off the rivet heads 
and redriving them as desired, yet when once in place 
the strength of the construction is definitely known 
and does not depend, as does the weld, upon a compli- 
cated metallurgical process and a granular structure of 
the affected metal that is absolutely hidden from sight. 
All that is required is that the riveted pieces shall be 
firmly clamped together and that the rivet holes shall 
be rough-reamed before the rivet is driven. A high 
grade of rivet steel and the use of pressure riveters 
are largely incidental. Years of experience with loco- 
motive boilers have shown this beyond a doubt, because 
there the riveted attachments never give the slightest 
trouble notwithstanding the continuous vibration and 
extraordinary strains set up by the wide temperature 

LIBERALITY It is a pleasure to commend the 

WITH American Institute of Electrical 

COST DATA Engineers and the railroads which 

co-operated for their respective enterprise and liberality 
which made possible the publication of data of costs of 
construction and operation of different types of contact 
systems. This was a unique feature of the Deer Park 
convention, one which was the cause of surprise as well 
as congratulation. Even assuming the necessary will- 
ingness on the part of the possessors of the valuable 
data, the reduction of the information to form for com- 
parison was no light task. One writer of a paper based 
his conclusions on entries filling 250 foolscap pages, the 
figures being drawn direct from the railroad company's 
job records and requiring an analysis of these. Another 
element in the success of the program laid out by the 
railway committee of the institute was its definiteness. 
The study was confined to one part of the field, contact 
systems. In this restricted region attention was fo- 
cused upon the particular things likely to interest and 
prove of value to railway men. The result speaks for 
itself. The lesson in it all seems to be that the old pol- 
icy of hoarding cost data by railroads is on the wane. 
Electric railways are committed to the policy of pub- 
licity and, like charity, this should begin at home. They 
must serve each other as well as the public, and one 
effective way to do this is through the interchange of 
information which will lead to more economical construc- 
tion and maintenance. The pocket notebook of many a 
master mechanic and engineer contains information 
whose value would be enhanced by circulation, for such 
circulation would stimulate others to like liberality. An 
example of the kind of information which is of great 
value to operating men was printed in the issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal for June 26, page 1214. 
By giving these figures the Los Angeles Railway Cor- 
poration shows a real willingness to serve. By the dis- 

semination of such data the industry benefits, and the 
giver is in no wise impoverished. 

A group of papers presented at the recent A. I. E. E. 
convention dealt with the very important matter of the 
construction of tower lines. One may at the present 
time say that the steel tower on about 500-ft. or 600-ft. 
spacing has become the standard construction for high- 
voltage transmission lines. At first towers were very 
crude in design and generally erred either on the side of 
insufficient strength or of being made abnormally heavy 
in the attempt at improvement. As things stand to-day 
there are available steel towers which have been really 
designed for the purposes for which they are to be 
used, and the old difficulties have for the most part dis- 
appeared. Yet it is perfectly certain from the per- 
formance of tower lines that there is a good deal to 
be learned yet about economical design and construc- 
tion. The convention papers to which we have refer- 
ence deal in the main with one important and rather 
neglected consideration, that is, the foundations of the 
towers. Whether the tower itself is designed to be a 
rigid structure or to have a considerable degree of 
flexibility, as in some of the A-frame structures, the 
working strains come ultimately upon the foundation. 

It is not difficult to design beforehand a tower suffi- 
ciently strong to stand the maximum stresses imposed 
upon it without buckling. This does not, however, in- 
sure it against tipping over or against being forced 
into a position where the added load may cause actual 
failure. The tower is meant to do its work when stand- 
ing erect and in its normal position, and if pulled out 
of it through lack of foundations it may absolutely tip 
over or be twisted out of shape. The foundation work 
consists essentially in bolting the base of the tower to 
anchors of one sort or another sufficiently embedded in 
the ground to resist the turning moment of the base. 
In the papers before us two forms of foundation are 
chiefly considered: Steel anchors, usually of tripod 
form, so embedded that they will not pull out, and con- 
crete masses of the general form of an inverted mush- 
room with embedded bolts or angle irons to which the 
steel structure is secured. As between these two types 
the choice seems to be chiefly based on the local condi- 
tions. Either can be made adequately strong to hold 
up the tower under all practical conditions. It has been 
actually shown that in some cases one form is cheaper 
and in other cases the other, each in its own situation 
being adequately strong. On the lines of the Pennsyl- 
vania Water & Power Company it was found that the 
mushroom concrete foundation could be installed more 
rapidly and at lower cost than the steel used on the 
first tower line of the company. On lines elsewhere the 
reverse situation has occurred. 

The moral of the discussion seems to be that with 
any given tower the best form of foundation must be 
determined for the situation in which the tower is to 
be used, irrespective of experience elsewhere. The 
nature of the ground, the cost of labor, the cost of 

July 10, 1915] 



concrete, and transportation all play their part, and 
the indications are that it is wise before settling so 
important a question actually to try out the towers to 
be used under the stresses for which they are designed 
and with several types of foundation. The cost of 
such experimentation is small compared with the dif- 
ference in final expenditure which can thus be deter- 
mined. There seems to be no advantage in pushing 
such tests to the limit of breaking down the tower. It 
may be theoretically interesting to know whether with 
a given foundation the foundation itself will break or 
lift or the tower crumple under extraordinary stresses. 
The practical demand is merely whether the foundation 
is fully adequate to endure the stresses incurred when 
the tower is loaded to the designed point, with due 
regard to a proper factor of safety. 


Mr. Bang's institute paper on the operation of the 
transmission lines from the great plant on the Susque- 
hanna into Baltimore, originally presented in Baltimore 
and brought up for discussion at the convention last 
week, brings to the front the ever-present insulation 
problem. The three circuits of aluminum cable which 
form this transmission system have apparently condi- 
tions not unfavorable to continuity of service. They 
are carried on steel towers provided with grounded 
cables for protection against lightning, are worked at a 
voltage which cannot be considered exceptionally high, 
and are supported on suspension insulators having a 
large factor of safety, much larger than is found on 
similar circuits using pin-type insulators. Nevertheless 
the partial or complete interruptions of service have 
averaged more than a score per year, and of this num- 
ber the vast majority have been due to lightning, al- 
though the lines are protected not only by the ground 
wires but by electrolytic arresters which, on the whole, 
are perhaps the most satisfactory form of arresters yet 
produced. Lightning is, of course, a contingency to be 
treated as always dangerous, especially when a direct 
stroke falls upon the line. Generally the arresters at 
the ends of the line are sufficient to keep the discharge 
from doing damage in the station, although now and 
then there are failures. 

The damage on the line, however, is a different matter 
for it is strictly local. Hence the presence of arresters 
somewhere else on the circuit makes very little differ- 
ence so far as damage to insulators is concerned. The 
situation seems to have been, on the circuits which Mr. 
Bang studied, that a powerful lightning discharge fre- 
quently flashed up alongside the string of insulators to 
the tower and broke down insulation, sometimes shat- 
tering the insulator disks in a startling fashion. The 
following arc did the rest. With all the insulators in 
first-class shape the power of the series to resist the 
lightning flash ought to have been considerable enough 
to avert damage, but it frequently failed to do so. A 
direct lightning stroke falling upon the line has so 
enormous a potential that a flash-over is not at all unex- 
pected. In the case of this line, however, it may be 

questioned whether some of the destructive strokes were 
not due to gradually lessening strength of the insu- 
lators, caused by continued use and mechanical and 
electrical strains. Mr. Bang's investigation of the insu- 
lators by periodical resistance tests shows a somewhat 
disquieting state of affairs. Normally they were in 
first-class condition, but about one disk in seven or 
eight, after several years' service, showed a very great 
falling off of the resistance, practically rendering the 
injured disk useless. This was traced to two different 
causes, first superficial cracks, usually on the head of 
the disk, apparently developed from mechanical strains 
internal or external, and, second, failure of insulation, 
again usually at the head of the disk, not through 
cracking, but through a slight porosity of the porcelain, 
the effects of which seem to be cumulative with long 
exposure to moisture. 

The moral appears to be that in the present state 
of affairs it is wise to make megohm tests of insulators 
from time to time to see whether any of them have be- 
come unreliable. Whether a similar condition holds 
for the pin-type insulators, more frequently used than 
the suspension insulators for the comparatively mod- 
erate voltages of railway transmission, remains to be 
seen. The situation as regards strains is quite different 
in the two forms, and at the commoner voltages also 
comes in the difference between glass and porcelain with 
respect to this particular kind of deterioration. Most 
lines use porcelain insulators, but in a great many cases 
glass is an effective substitute, and the relative relia- 
bility of the two materials as respects the progressive 
decrease in insulation deserves attention. 

The most suggestive portion of Mr. Bang's paper 
deals with preventive measures to avert the damage 
following the lightning stroke. The real mischief is 
done by the arc which follows a breakdown of the insu- 
lation, and two devices tried seem to have proved effec- 
tive in putting this arc out of business before the insu- 
lation was permanently destroyed. Both are described 
as in use here, and they have seemed to give promise 
of filling a very important function in line protection. 
One is a relay device for shunting the arc with a fuse 
as soon as it is established, thereby killing it, and then 
clearing the line by the destruction of the fuse. The 
other drops the excitation of the machines until the 
arc gives out and then re-establishes the field. The 
former can be made to act very quickly so that there is 
little risk of either damage to lines or of losing syn- 
chronous load. The latter operates more slowly but 
appears from Mr. Bang's results to be somewhat more 
certain in its operation. A combination of the two as 
worked out on the lines under discussion seems to have 
been very useful in lessening the trouble from lightning 
since these protective devices were installed. At all 
events it is clear that the insulators on a high-voltage 
line do require more watching than mere attention to 
physical breaks, and that protective apparatus properly 
installed is of material value in preventing interrup- 
tions of service even though the lightning may start 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

Shop Notes from Hampton, Va. 

An Account Is Given of the Practices in Economical Management and Good Housekeeping at the Hampton 

Shops — Some Novel Features Are Described 

In a recent visit to the Hampton shops of the New- 
port News & Hampton Railway, Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, the following practices in economical management 
and good housekeeping were observed: 

Painter's Storage Rack of Adjustable Type 

The painter's storage rack shown in an accompanying 
half-tone is not an absolute novelty, but its principle 
deserves to be more widely known than it is. So far 
as the horizontal placing of panels is concerned, the 
rack does not differ from that seen in most paint shops. 
However, with the aid of ordinary door latches, the ver- 
tical partitions may be moved to accommodate any width 
of panel. The latches are mounted vertically at the top 
and bottom of each partition and their tongues are 
merely drawn out of pockets in the top and bottom of 
the rack to permit the shifting of the partitions to any 
desired stops to the right or left. 

Vertical Armature Racks 

Where room is scarce vertical armature racks deserve 
wider use. In the accompanying illustration may be 
seen one for motor armatures and another for com- 
pressor armatures. The armatures are quickly handled 
by means of a jib crane which is attached to a corner 
post, a crane being used because the shop is too small 
to require an overhead track. Formerly the armatures 
were stored on a table under canvas. This led to trouble 
because careless workmen would throw heavy tools on 
the canvas, thereby damaging commutator bars which 
previously had been passed as perfect. 

Fire Pail Suspension 

It is customary in many shops to carry the egg-bot- 
tomed fire pails through holes made for them in a solid 
wooden shelf. This shelf offers the shopmen a tempting 
place for so many odds and ends that eventually the 
pails themselves are lost to sight. Following a sugges- 
tion from the safety committee, all fire pails hereafter 

will be carried from metal brackets so that the space 
between and on the pails will not be cluttered up so 
easily. The two illustrations on the next page show one 
of the old wooden shelves and the other the new metal 

Reclaiming Two-Point Resistors 

The company has already reclaimed some fifteen sets 
of Westinghouse two-point resistors which had been 
rendered useless by the corrosion of the two-screw brass 

hampton shops — vertical armature racks with jib 


lugs or contacts. After brightening the contact sur- 
faces of the grids the old lugs were replaced by copper 
washers of the type used on the latest Westinghouse 

ELECTRIC Arc Welder 

Out of five old resistors, the abandoned rheostat of a 
substation voltage regulator and a circuit breaker the 



July 10, 1915] 


shopmen constructed the electric arc welder illustrated. 
This equipment is mounted on a truck for convenience 
in working outside as well as inside the shops. The 
welding material is mild steel in the form of 5-16-in. 
diameter rods, and the flux is a cheap borax compound. 
The welding rods are held in a plug of metal bored for 
the purpose. The welder's metal hood has the usual 
combination of ruby and green lenses. The novel fea- 
ture of the hood is that its weight is comfortably car- 
ried by building it around a cap made up of an ancient, 
rimless derby. The cap has a leather band to which 
brackets from the hood are attached. 

One of the first jobs to which this welder was applied 
was the building up of No. 27-G truck side-frame brack- 
ets. It has also been used for patching gear cases and 
filling keyways and it will shortly be tried for building 
up trackwork. 

Change of Gear Ratio 

The gear ratio of many equipments was 24:58, which 
corresponded to a maximum speed of 35 m.p.h. A 
careful study of running conditions showed that the 



schedule could be maintained even if the maximum speed 
was cut to 28 m.p.h. The standard ratio is now 17:67. 
The saving in energy consumption has not been calcu- 
lated, but there has been a very perceptible decrease in 
the number of baked armatures and fields. The com- 
pany has also changed from bolted gears to the Cincin- 
nati Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Company's solid gear. 


Until the property was taken over in January, 1912, 
by Allen & Peck, Inc., with J. N. Shannahan as general 






[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

manager, no records of equipment life were kept, nor 
were the cars inspected and overhauled on a mileage 
basis. At present they are inspected every six days, 
which is approximately on a 1000-mile basis. Begin- 
ning March 15 all cars were put on an actual 1000-mile 
inspection basis. Mileage records are now kept show- 
ing actual service obtained from brakeshoes, wheels, 
trolley wheels, harps, lubricant costs, etc. 

A keen desire to keep down the lubrication costs has 
been created by showing the men just how the cost of 
each item varies from month to month and how this 
affects the total cost. To secure this publicity a wooden 
frame was constructed to hold a record sheet which is 
ruled vertically for months and horizontally for cents 
per 1000 car-miles. This sheet is subdivided to show 
the costs of motor oil, compressor oil, gear grease, and 
also of these three items combined. As shopmen are 
not accustomed to reading graphs the points which 
would serve to draw each curve are represented by plugs 
of wood. When a year's record has been made in this 
way the curves will be drawn and the plugs used again 
to show the monthly records for the current year. 

The cost of car lubrication has already been cut down 
from 42 cents in 1912-1913 to 24 cents per 1000 car- 
miles, exclusive of packing, but it is expected that dur- 
ing the present year the cost will be brought down to 
the Galena contract figure of 20 cents per 1000 car- 
miles. It will be difficult to drop below that figure so 
long as 25 per cent of the mileage is performed with 
such motors as the Nos. 49 and 12a. These older motors 
must be lubricated every day and their felt-pad lubri- 
cation through Perfection packing, while satisfactory 
for service, is uneconomical because of stand-by leakage. 
In fact, with these motors the oil consumption is almost 
as great when the cars are standing as when the cars 
are moving. 

Milwaukee Fare Case Decided 

Supreme Court of the United States Says That the City 
Under Existing Statutes Had No Power to Make 
a Contract Covering Rates 
A short note was published on page 1226 of the issue 
of this paper for June 26 in regard to the decision of 
the Supreme Court of the United States in the Mil- 
waukee fare case. The principal question involved in 
the decision was whether the city of Milwaukee had 
power to make a contract with the railway company 
covering a term of years for a specified rate of fare. 
The opinion, which was handed down on June 14, up- 
holds the Wisconsin Supreme Court in denying this 

The opinion first recites the history of this case, which 
was briefly as follows: On Jan. 2, 1900, there was 
granted by the city to The Milwaukee Electric Railway 
& Light Company the right to operate over certain 
streets. By the same ordinance all franchises expiring 
prior to Dec. 31, 1934, were extended to that date and 
all franchises which would otherwise expire subse- 
quently to that date were made to terminate at that 
time. The ordinance permitted the company to charge 
a 5-cent fare when paid in cash but required it to sell 
twenty-five tickets for $1 or six tickets for 25 cents good 
at certain hours up to Jan. 1, 1905, and thereafter good 
at any time. Subsequently, at the request of the city, 
the Railroad Commission held hearings to determine 
whether the rates were too high and finally ordered the 
company to sell thirteen tickets for 50 cents. The com- 
pany claimed that this order took its property without 
due process of law. The case was first tried in the State 
courts and the order was sustained by the Supreme 
Court of Wisconsin. It was then taken hy the company 

to the United States Supreme Court as being a violation 
of Sec. 10 of Art. I of the Constitution of the United 
States and of the fourteenth amendment thereto. 

In its decision the federal Supreme Court upholds the 
Wisconsin Supreme Court in its decision that the city 
had no authority to make such a contract and that the 
authority to establish fares remained with the State. 
As a basis for this conclusion it quoted Sec. 1862 of the 
revised statutes of Wisconsin of 1860 which reads in 
part as follows : "Any municipal corporation or county 
may grant to any such [street railway] corporation 

■•■ the right to construct, maintain and operate street 
railways, the use, upon certain terms as the proper au- 
thorities shall determine, of any street, parkway or 
bridges * * Every such road shall be * * * subject to 
such reasonable regular rules * * * as the proper munic- 
ipal authorities may by ordinance from time to time 

The opinion then says : "The fixing of rates which may 
be charged by public service corporations of the char- 
acter here involved is a legislative function of the State, 
and while the right to make contracts which shall pre- 
vent the State during a given period from exercising 
this important power has been recognized and approved 
by judicial decisions, it has been uniformly held in this 
court that the renunciation of a sovereign right of this 
character must be evidenced by terms so clear and un- 
equivocal as to permit of no doubt as to their proper 
construction." The principle involved is well stated, 
according to the court, in Home Telephone Company vs. 
Los Angeles, 211 U. S. 265, 273. 

Continuing, the court says that the Supreme Court of 
Wisconsin held that Sec. 1862 quoted above gave no 
distinct authority to the city to contract away the leg- 
islative authority of the State to fix tolls and fares by 
lowering them if found to be excessive; that while the 
term "grant" was used, the grant was to be upon terms 
such as the municipal authorities might determine, and 
that this language was more appropriate to the exercise 
of power by the municipality than to the making of a 
contract between parties. The Supreme Court of the 
United States adds : "The language of the section cer- 
tainly lends itself to this construction, and there is 
nothing in specific terms conferring the right to contract 
by agreement between parties, much less to make such 
contract during its existence exclusive of any further 
right of the State to act upon the subject in the exer- 
cise of its legislative authority. It authorizes the grant 
of the use of the streets upon such terms as the proper 
authorities shall determine, not upon such terms as the 
parties in interest shall agree to." 

The Supreme Court says that the plaintiff relied upon 
Detroit vs. Detroit Citizens' Street Railway Company, 
184 U. S. 368; Cleveland vs. Cleveland Street Railway 
Company, 194 U. S. 517, and Minneapolis vs. Minneap- 
olis Street Railway Company, 215 U. S. 417, but it finds 
a material difference in circumstances concerned in this 
case and in the cases in question. 

The opinion continues: "It is true that this court has 
repeatedly held that the discharge of the duty imposed 
upon it by the Constitution to make effectual the pro- 
vision that no State shall pass any law impairing the 
obligation of a contract, requires this court to determine 
for itself whether there is a contract, and the extent of 
its binding obligation, and parties are not concluded in 
these respects by the determination and decisions of the 
courts of the States. While this is so, it has been fre- 
quently held that where a statute of a State is alleged to 
create or authorize a contract inviolable by subsequent 
legislation of the State, in determining its meaning much 
consideration is given to the decisions of the highest 
court of the State. Among other cases which have as- 
serted this principle are: Freeport Water Company vs. 

July lO, 1915] 



Freeport, 180 U. S. 587, and Vicksburg vs. Vicksburg 
Water Company, 206 U. S. 496, 509." 

The court then discusses the Wisconsin decisions on 
this point quoted by both sides, particularly Linden Land 
Company vs. The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company, 107 Wisconsin 493, and Manitowoc vs. Manito- 
woc & N. T. Company, 145 Wisconsin 13, and agrees with 
the Wisconsin Supreme Court in holding the latter to 
be controlling and that Sec. 1862 denies authority to 
municipal corporations to make contracts preventing the 
State from its further exercise of its power to fix the 
rates which may be charged by public service corpora- 

As stated in the issue of this paper for June 26 The 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company now pro- 
poses to take the matter up with the lower courts, and 
possibly also with the Railroad Commission, on the 
question of the reasonableness of the original order, and 
hopes to win its case. 

Cost of Highway Bridges* 

Apportionment Between Street Railways and Cities — Four 
Conclusions Upon Which the Determination of the 
Proper Settlement Should Be Based 


The fact that trolley cars are so much heavier than 
other road vehicles puts street railway companies under 
different obligations than other users of highway 
bridges and makes it seem fair to assess upon them the 
extra expense required to provide for traffic of this 
character. The assessment of street railways to pay 
for the cost of new bridges in Massachusetts has been 
established by legislative enactment and has varied 
from a minimum of 10 per cent to a maximum of 25 
per cent, the cost being determined by hearings before 
a commission appointed by the court. 

If the structure is to be of a monumental type, it 
would seem that the scale of the towers, carving and 
other ornamental features may be a function of the 
width of the bridge, and if increased width is necessary 
to provide for street car traffic, additional expense for 
this purpose may legitimately be incurred. 

Whether any material increase in width is necessary 
to provide' for street car traffic depends upon the total 
density of the traffic. If the car service is infrequent, 
there would seem to be no reason for increasing the 
width of the bridge to provide for street cars other than 
by the slight amount necessary to provide safe clear- 
ance for crowded cars. Ordinary traffic can readily run 
on the portion of the bridge occupied by the track with 
little or no delay, and space for extra lines of traffic 
need not be provided. An example illustrating such a 
case is the Meridian Street Bridge of Boston, where it 
was agreed that the proper distance center to center of 
trusses would be increased only 2 ft. 6 in. by the pres- 
ence of street cars, although it carries two lines of 

Another example illustrating the same case is the 
Chelsea North Bridge of Boston. Provision for four 
lines of traffic was evidently necessary on this bridge, 
but it was agreed by both sides before presentation to 
the Apportionment Commission, that a roadway 40 ft. 
wide between curbs, with trusses 44 ft. center to cen- 
ter, was required whether street cars were operated or 
not, this space providing for four traffic lines. In con- 
sequence, no charge was made to the railroad for addi- 
tional width. 

To measure the capacity of a bridge or street in re- 

Trade Vehicles 

One-horse (fast) 3 

One-horse (slow) 7 

Two-horse (fast) 4 

Two-horse (slow) 10 

Motoi- (fast) 2 

Motor (slow) 5 

Barrows 6 

♦Abstract of paper presented before W^estern Society of Engi- 
neers, Chicago, on May 10, 1915. 

lation to traffic, it is evidently necessary to consider 
the character of the vehicles and their speed as well 
as their number. For this purpose the London Board 
of Trade sets up as a unit a motor cab or carriage, and 
.assigns the following numbers to other classes of ve- 
hicles, using the unit as one. 

Passenger Vehicles 

Electric trams 10 

Omnibuses (horse) 5 

Omnibuses (motor) 3 

Cabs (horse) 2 

Cabs (motor) 1 

Carriages (horse) 2 

(^^arriages (motor) 1 

Cycles Yi 

The board lays down the following definitions: "Traf- 
fic volume" is the average aggregate number of traffic 
units attributable to vehicles which pass a given point 
per minute during the twelve hours from 8 a. m. to 
8 p. m. "Average traffic density" is the aggregate num- 
ber of traffic units attributable to vehicles which pass 
the point during the twelve hours, per minute, per 10 
ft. of available carriageway. "Greatest traffic den- 
sity" is the average density per minute, per 10 ft. of 
available carriageway, during the busiest hour, ex- 
pressed in traffic units. With the above units and 
definitions in mind, the following comparison of traffic 
on London bridges is clear: 

g<U "TO) "MIU ^ <V . V 

iitj) Sm .^iui ,Swi SiiB 
oj-a -M-a "'O STD fe-a 

(l>— cj— rt— ^--^ 

?M ^CQ PQfq hJM EhM 

Trafnc volume 91.4 60.5 105.9 89.2 84.7 

Average traffic density.... 20.3 22 14 4 24 1 24 2 

Hour of greatest density .. 6 to 7 5 to 6 6 to 7 11 to 12 11 to 12 

Density of that hour 23.8 22.5 15.3 27.4 27 9 

Average vehicles 4.2 3.9 5.0 4.0 6.0 

In connection with the width of bridges it should be 
remembered that the capacity of a bridge in vehicles 
per hour is considerably greater than that of the or- 
dinary city street due to the freedom from interruption 
by traffic on intersecting streets and by vehicles stop- 
ping at the curb to discharge and receive freight or 
passengers. It is evident that the width of bridges on 
curves may have to be increased greatly to provide 
proper clearance for street cars. 

The increase in strength necessary to provide for 
street cars is most marked in the floor systems. It is 
less noticeable in trusses and girders, and least of all 
in foundations. The allowance for impact and future 
increase of street car loads must be carefully consid- 
ered in determining the additional strength of the 
structure, but so far as the foundations are concerned, 
it is doubtful if any allowance for impact need be made. 

The best plan to pursue in determining the difference 
in cost of bridges with and without street cars seems 
to the writer to be that of comparing the necessary 
sizes of main members in the two designs. Allowance 
for the weight of the details of the second structure 
may be made by considering the details of each indi- 
vidual member to vary in weight in proportion to the 
variation in the cross-section of the main member. If 
the structure has been completed, the weight of details 
may be established by the gross shipping weights re- 
duced by the computed weight of the main sections. 

In the case of a reinforced concrete barrel arch 
bridge, it would seem as if the additional cost would 
ordinarily be dependent entirely upon the increased 
width. The cost of engineering, insurance, etc., may be 
assumed to vary directly with the cost of construction. 

The fact that the cost of maintenance and operation 
of a highway bridge would ordinarily be borne by the 
municipality should be considered in apportioning the 
cost to the street railway. This would be particularly 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

pertinent in the case of swing bridges, where it would 
seem as if a fair arrangement would be for the railway 
to furnish the current necessary to open and close the 
bridge, and for the municipality to maintain the draw 
tenders and other attendants. In general, it would ap- 
pear that the street railway might reasonably be 
charged, as its portion of the capitalized cost of main- 
tenance, a share proportionate to its contribution to the 
cost of construction. 

All of the above discussion should be considered with 
due regard to the fact that the railway is ordinarily 
subject to heavy taxes, and in consequence should be 
entitled to operate without charge across the bridge 
with vehicles of weight equal to that of the heaviest 
motor trucks. The only equity in charging the railway 
more than the ordinary transportation company is be- 
cause of the heavy loads which it operates. 

The conclusions which the writer has drawn from his 
experience in apportionment cases of this character are 
as follows: 

1. Additional width to provide for street cars is or- 
dinarily necessary only in the case of bridges with nar- 
row roadways, providing for no more than two lines of 

2. The extra expense involved in strengthening heavy 
city bridges of permanent type to provide for 50-ton 
trolley cars would not ordinarily be greater than 10 
per cent of the total cost, and may be as low as 6 per 
cent. This percentage will be greater for light country 
highway bridges without paved floors, but if such 
bridges are designed for heavy motor-truck traffic, as 
they should be, the additional expense will not be ex- 

3. To apportion the cost equitably and with credit to 
the engineering profession, the engineers on the two 
sides should try to agree upon the additional cost of 
provision for street cars before the case is presented 
to an apportionment commission. 

4. It is doubtful if the railway should ordinarily be 
charged for additional convenience due to the recon- 
structed bridge. This, however, is a matter the settle- 
ment of which hardly comes into the province of the 

Jitney Statistics at Fort Worth 

Even on the Best-Truvelcd Route, Over Which Jitneys 
Were Operated Seventeen Hours a Day, Very 
Unfavorable Conditions Are Shown 

On March 25 the Northern Texas Traction Company 
made a detailed check of the jitney business on a day 
of heavy travel. From the figures so obtained tables 
and a series of corresponding graphs were reproduced. 

An assembly of data covering the jitney operation on 
all Fort Worth lines, hour by hour from 6 a. m. to 12 
midnight, showed that the average passengers per trip 
on the nine divisions ranged from 1.9 to 2.54. The total 
number of trips made was 7498, the- number of pas- 
sengers carried, 16,661, the average passengers per 
trip 2.22 and the gross income of 217 cars $833.70. 

The travel in opposite directions during any given 
hour showed marked differences, empty trips being 
numerous. One line, however, was somewhat excep- 
tional in having a fairly even traffic both ways during 
business hours. The noon-hour traffic was about half 
that of the peaks on most of the lines. 

Among the individual cars on a typical line, which 
although the longest in the city is also the best-traveled, 
the highest gross earnings shown were $8.30. But in 
order to take in this amount the car was operated for 
seventeen hours, and this necessarily implies the em- 
ployment of two drivers sooner or later. The gross 

earnings per mile ranged from 2.5 cents to 3.7 cents. 
The earnings per hour ranged from 26 cents to 51 cents. 
The schedule speed averaged about 12 m.p.h., this ex- 
ceeding the Fort Worth cars by about 50 per cent, but 
one car made only 7.8 m.p.h. and another 9 m.p.h. The 
maximum schedule speed was 14.8 m.p.h. 

It may be added that in the case of the line in ques- 
tion the maximum run of the jitney is only 3.7 miles 
long. Even this distance is in excess of the usual jitney 
ride in other cities, and this is reflected in the condition 
that the recorded earnings per hour are also somewhat 
less than usual. 

The set of graphs shown in the accompanying cut re- 
lates to this line also. In these a comparison is made 
of jitney versus street railway traffic, also on an hourly 
basis. The trips per hour made by the street cars are 
not shown. They amount to four trips each way, dur- 
ing normal hours and from eight to twelve each way 
during rush hours. The seating capacity of a car on. 
this line is forty, or ten times that of the average 

One unusual feature of jitney operation at Fort 
Worth is that it was inaugurated by a company which 
began operation on Jan. 11 with thirty cars. This com- 
pany has endeavored to keep to certain routes, but modi- 



c 120 
I 140 
I 100 





— i— 



1 1 

1 — 



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— 1 















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— u 






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rs f 



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et C 





lour in Jitneys 



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nad'c bjj ''Jitnc 








' of|"Jitneis" 




Electric Ry. 





flcations have been made from time to time because of 
inroads from free-lance jitneys. A check of all the 
cars operated by this company as made on a given date 
showed that the maximum gross earnings of any one 
car were $9.50. This must have included the wages 
of two men as the car was operated sixteen hours and 
forty-five minutes. The earnings per mile of this car 
were only 4 cents. The best figure for any car, 4.2 
cents, was made by one which ran for twelve hours and 
thirty minutes, therefore omitting the leanest traffic 
hours. The average gross for all cars was but 3.37 
cents, barely enough to cover depreciation, fuel and 
maintenance, let alone wages. 

The Texas Power & Light Company on July 1 began 
to serve power to all Texas Traction Company lines. 
In the past the railway operated its own power plants, 
but recently a company was organized to take over the- 
light and pcwer plants. 

July 10, 1915] 



Electric Railway Session at A. I. E. E. 


At .ne Deer Park Convention One Session Was Devoted to Heavy Electric Traction Contact Systems- 
Abstracts of the Papers Presented and the Resulting Discussion Are Given 

The Thursday morning session of the thirty-second 
annual convention of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, which was held at Deer Park, Md., from 
June 29 to July 2, was devoted to a discussion of the 
construction and operation of overhead and third-rail 
contact systems with particular reference to costs. In 
these papers the practice of some of the most important 
electrified roads was described and the writers very 
frankly told of the difficulties which had been met and 
overcome. The salient features of these papers and 
of the resulting discussion are covered in the follow- 
ing abstracts. 


Charles H. Jones, assistant electrical engineer Met- 
ropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad of Chicago, 
discussed the various factors which enter into the con- 
struction, operation and maintenance of top-contact 
unprotected rail upon which the gravity type of col- 
lecting device was used. He took up the subject under 
the following subdivisions : weight of rail, quality of rail, 
insulating and supporting, bonding and jointing, anchor- 
ing, special work required, method of connecting at 
crossings and cost of installation and maintenance. 

For rails weighing less than 80 lb. per yard, there 
is nothing to be gained by the use of high-conductivity 
rail, which is more expensive and is more difficult to 
handle than the hard rail, being softer and therefore 
more easily kinked during installation. There is no 
appreciable difference in the rate of wear between 
low-carbon and ordinary steel in the class of service 
covered in the paper. With light rail it is better to 
get increased conductance by using a larger cross- 
section rather than a softer steel. With heavier rail, 
if by the use of higher conductivity the expense of a 
paralleling feeder system can be avoided, the high- 
conductivity rail should be used. On the other hand 
there is a certain amount of intangible gain to be 
secured by having a paralleling feeder system, espe- 
cially with the narrow working margin that is assumed 
when the dilference in conductivity would decide the 
question of whether or not a paralleling feeder system 
would be required. 

Insulation of a contact rail for a 600-volt system is 
more mechanical than electrical. Wherever there is 
any vibration, porcelain and reconstructed granite, or 
insulators having castings bolted together have not 
been satisfactory. Mr. Jones stated that a type of 
insulator consisting of a circular socket base with 
flange for bolting to the tie, a cylinder of impregnated 



Referring to the tendency to use heavier contact 
rail, he stated that the advantage to be gained by the 
use of heavy rail lies in the fact that a large conduct- 
ance can be secured for about the same amount of labor 
charge as that required to install lighter rails which 
can serve as contact members only. If a paralleling 
feeder system is required a medium weight of rail, say 
from 80 lb. to 100 lb., will give more satisfactory re- 
sults. With heavy rails, the advisability of using a 
special section should be considered for the purpose of 
throwing more metal into the contact surface and 
thereby increasing the life. For weights of rail up to 
and including 80 lb., the standard A. S. C. E. section 
is satisfactory. As far as the wear is concerned, Mr. 
Jones gave data to show that contact rail will last 
twenty years or more. 

wood set in the socket, and a circular top casting with a 
slot on the top to accommodate the base of the rail, 
a petticoat to shed moisture and a pair of clamps to 
keep the rail from jumping out of the slot without 
binding it had proved very satisfactory. The base 
casting is the same for all weights of rail. The life 
of an insulator is from ten to twelve years under ordi- 
nary conditions, although impregnated-wood insulators 
have been known to last from fifteen to twenty years. 

The third-rail is cut up into sections of from 1000 ft. 
to 1200 ft. for anchoring purposes and these are an- 
chored at the center. On surface track not provided 
with a wooden guard rail the conductor rail may be 
anchored by attaching several strain insulators in mul- 
tiple to an iron plate which extends over, and is bolted 
to several ties, the other end of the insulators being 



[Vol. XL VI, No. 2 

fastened to the base of the contact rail. If wooden 
guard rail is used, an anchor block consisting of a 
piece of 6-in. x 8-in. oak 2 ft. long, impregnated with 
preservative, can be attached to the guard rail, and 
the contact rail in turn can be bolted to the block. 
Porcelain insulators may be placed between this block 
and the guard rail. The best method of providing an 
expansion gap in the conductor rail is to end a run of 
rail with an incline leaving a 3-ft. space between 
stretches. A continuous expansion joint is shown on the 
preceding page. 

Mr. Jones gave the cost of third-rail construction, 
using 80-lb. T-rail in 60-ft. lengths, as $3,662 per mile 
for labor and material, of which the labor is some- 
what less than 10 per cent. An additional 10 per cent 
is allowed for engineering and supervision, making a 
total of $4,028 per mile. For a 50-lb. rail, in 30-ft. 
lengths, the cost is $3,284 per mile. At an average cost 
of $80 per mile per year the contact rail can be kept in 
first-class condition and the insulation changed every 
twelve years. This, however, does not include complete 
renewal of rails, plates and bonds, such as will occur 
when the rail is completely worn out. 


Under the above title E. J. Amberg, engineer Mc- 
Henry & Murray, New Haven, Conn., and F. Zogbaum, 
engineer of maintenance New York, Westchester & 
Boston Railway, summarized the experiences of the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the 
New York, Westchester & Boston Railway in so far as 
they related to the construction and maintenance of 
the overhead system. 

On the New Haven system three types of catenary 
construction are used; double, compound and single. The 
first-named was originally considered necessary to pro- 
vide rigidity, but as first installed it was found not 
adapted to high-speed service. It was made flexible by 
the addition of a steel contact wire supported by clips 
from the copper conductor. The double catenary pro- 

use. Steel trolley wire rusts considerably and the rust 
is washed off by rain and drips upon coaches and loco- 
motives, making them unsightly and necessitating fre- 
quent painting. If there is not sufficient traffic to keep 
the under side of the wire bright the rust causes in- 
creased sparking and burning of pantograph shoes. On 
the subject of insulators he stated that the temperature 
strains in porcelain insulators should be given careful 
consideration, especially in the dead-end type. Failures 
have been caused by steam train operation in the elec- 
trified zone, breakdowns being most frequent where 
clearances between the locomotive stack and the insu- 
lator are restricted or where steam engines stop under 
or near insulators. Where clearances are restricted 
insulators should be located off the center line of the 
track or two insulators in parallel should be used. In 
tunnels two insulators in series are advisable. 

On the New Haven electrification between Woodlawn 
and Stamford the bridges were designed so that all over- 
turning moments were taken at the base, requiring large 
foundations. In later construction the bridges were 
designed so that the corner connection between the post 
and truss takes the moment acting across the track. 
The foundations need then only resist the overturning 
moment and the shear along the track and can thus be 
made much lighter. Cross-span construction is adapted 
for use over a large number of tracks equipped with 
single catenary, both on main line and in yards. 

Mr. Amberg described a flexible wood section break 
for use in catenary construction, as shown in an accom- 
panying illustration. It is designed to eliminate the 
hard spot produced by the rigid break. The break 
proper is connected in the line between two movable 
sheet-iron approaches. To prevent a train being stalled 
on the break, flexible wings of heavy steel wire, placed 
as shown, insure continuity of pantograph contact. 
These breaks are not necessary in yard construction on 
account of the slow movement of trains. On the New 
Haven line, air sectionalization is used wherever pos- 
sible but there are a number of places where wood sec- 
tion breaks must be used. 

Mr. Amberg gave also some curves and tables of 

fingof %Stee(Wire 

b o QOl a I 

-Wood Section Break i 


vided insurance against messenger-wire breakage but it 
involved several disadvantages. As two live messenger 
wires were carried over the bridges power had to be 
cut off to permit work to be done on the trusses. Light- 
ning trouble was experienced with the insulated mes- 
senger wire even with electrolytic lightning arresters. 
The compound catenary provides a grounded messenger 
wire over each track, removing live parts from the 
trusses, eliminating lightning trouble and at the same 
time keeping the trolley wires nearly over the center 
of a track without the use of pull-off poles except on 
curves. On curves above 2 deg. the temperature has an 
influence on the alignment of the contact wire, requir- 
ing the use of pull-off spans between bridges. Single 
catenary is used for both main line and yards. In the 
latter the copper conductor can be omitted. 

Mr. Amberg predicted that steel contact wire will 
be used less in future although its first cost favors its 

costs somewhat similar to those given by W. S. Murray 
in his Philadelphia paper abstracted in the issue of 
this paper for Jan. 30, 1913, page 229. 

Mr. Zogbaum gave the results of operating experience 
on the New York, Westchester & Boston Railway. He 
stated that it has not been found advisable to stagger 
the contact wire to secure uniform wear on pantograph 
shoes, but called attention to the necessity for allowing 
for swaying movement of locomotives and cars in locat- 
ing the contact wire, especially on curves. Trains run- 
ning at high speed on curves sharper than 1 deg. swing 
the pantographs toward the outside of the curve. More 
than 30 per cent of the 54i/4 miles of contact wire on 
this system is over curved track, requiring slight adjust- 
ment from time to time. 

In addition to the contact wire this system includes 
181 miles of transmission line of which 109 miles are 

July 10, 1915] 



for traction power only, and the balance includes signal 
feeders and control lines. In the catenary system are 
six sectionalizing bridges and seventy-seven high-ten- 
sion oil circuit breakers used for sectionalizing the high- 
tension power. In maintaining this system a force 
consisting of an engineer of maintenance, a general 
electrical foreman, one day foreman, one night foreman, 
five linemen and one assistant lineman is required. The 
force is able also to do the necessary construction work. 
It uses a work train consisting of a gasoline-electric 
locomotive and a work car, the locomotive containing an 
overhead platform. On the work car is a searchlight for 
use in making inspections and repairs. 

Very satisfactory operating efficiency has been se- 
cured, there having been in 1913 27,927 car-miles oper- 
ated per pantograph failure; in 1914 55,503 car-miles, 
and in the three months ending March, 1915, 64,799 
car-miles. The causes of pantograph breaks were : wire 
off center, low joints on running rails on curves, over- 
head frog on deflector out of adjustment, and loose 
sleeves on contact wire. In 1913 practically 880,000 
train-miles were made with 210 delays of a total dura- 
tion of 2170 min. from power trouble, and seventeen 
delays with a total duration of 129 min. from panto- 
graph and contact-wire trouble. In 1914, with practi- 
cally the same mileage, power trouble produced but 
ninety-seven delays of 2256 min. duration, while panto- 
graph and contact-wire trouble produced fifteen delays 
of 117 min. duration. In the first three months of the 
current year, with proportional mileage, there was no 
power trouble, and but one delay of 2 min. duration 
from the other source. Details of the causes of the 
various delays were given, and train-minutes delays by 
months were charted. The road has an excellent insu- 
lator-failure record, troubles from this source being 
practically negligible. 

The wear on the under side of the grooved-steel con- 
tact wire has produced a Vs-in. flat surface, and this has 
been uniform over the line, no difference being noted 
between high wire and low wire, tangent track and 
curves. From present indications the steel wire will 
have a total life of from six to seven years. Panto- 
graph mileage varies from 1000 to 1300 miles in the 
winter up to considerably more than 2000 miles in the 
summer. The higher mortality in winter is due to the 
necessary increase in tension on account of the contrac- 
tion in the contact wire. The total maintenance cost 
per car-mile for July, 1914, is given as 1.56 cents and 
for December, 1914, as 1.42 cents, including supervision 
of transmission and contact system, miscellaneous elec- 
tric line expenses, work train, etc. Details of the actual 
expenditures for selected months are included in the 
paper. It also contains a digest of the operating rules 
and regulations of the organization. 

13,200-volt high-tension line being carried on the same 
poles on parts of the system. Standard pole spacing 


Paul Lebenbaum, electrical engineer Portland, Eu- 
gene & Eastern Railway, described the overhead con- 
struction of the electrified lines of the Southern Pacific 
Company between Portland and Whiteson, this being 
the first electrification in Oregon of the Southern 
Pacific System. The electrification involved 104 miles 
of single track with approximately 16 miles of second 
track and siding. With the exception of 3 miles of 
600-volt trolley in Portland, the operating voltage is 
1550. Electric operation was begun on this system in 
January, 1914. 

In general, side-bracket catenary construction of the 
type shown in an accompanying illustration is used, the 

3'o'--i>|*-r6|j><- " 





•-2Vf\ , J l- FILLER BLOCK C, I 
& washer; M I. 






on tangents is 150 ft., but the average rate of distri- 
bution of poles is fifty-four to the mile, there being 
25 per cent of the main line mileage in curved track. 
The standard pole length for catenary construction is 
35 ft. and for transmission and catenary 40 ft. These 
poles cost at the hole as follows: 35 ft., $6.90; 40 ft., 
$7.50; 45 ft, $8.25; 50 ft., $8.85, and 55 ft., $9.60, 
the lengths greater than standard being used for tele- 
phone and telegraph line crossings, etc. All poles 
were given two brush treatments with carbolineum 
avenarius from a point 18 in. above the ground to 
within 3 ft. of the butt. The preservative was applied 
by means of burlap fastened to the ends of long mop 
handles, and it was kept hot by steam coils placed at 
the bottom of the shallow tank over which the poles 
were rolled. Approximately 1 gal. of preservative, in- 
cluding losses, was used per pole. 

The catenary hanger used was of the loop type. As 
roller pantographs were used, great flexibility of the 
contact system was necessary, especially on curves. On 
the latter a pull-off construction like that shown in an 
accompanying illustration was used. 

Basing the annual cost of maintenance on the experi- 
ence from Oct. 1, 1914, to March 31, 1915, when the 
contact system was almost new, the values are: For 
material, $804; for labor, $7,320, a total of $8,124, or 
$78.11 per mile per year. The maintenance crew con- 
sisted of one foreman, three linemen and four ground- 
men. In addition to maintaining the contact system 
this crew handled all repairs to the 13,200-volt trans- 
mission lines and 2^2 miles of 60,000-volt transmis- 
sion lines. Gasoline section motor-cars, equipped with 
towers are used for maintenance. On the electrified 
section the average train-miles per day are 1460, motor- 
car-miles per day, 3041, and trail-car-miles per day, 560. 
The weight of the motor-car is 53 tons, that of the 
trail car 35 tons and the schedule speed is 20 m.p.h. 
The average running current per motor-car is 200 amp. 
The cost of maintaining the roller collectors, which 
are now equipped with roller bearings, is about 40 
cents per 1000 motor-car-miles. The collectors are 
made of 5-in. steel tubing and they are operated at a 
pressure of from 30 to 35 lb. against the wire. The 
mileage per collector has been about 9700, but this 


record was lower than it should have been because a 
defective quality of tubing was originally furnished. 
The v/ear on the trolley to date has been inappreciable. 


J. V. B. Duer, assistant engineer Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Altoona, Pa., gave construction and operating 
data regarding this property in addition to those already 
available. The system has a total of 131.7 miles of 
third-rail track and nearly 20 miles of trolley track, 
about a mile of the latter overlapping the third-rail. 
Substations are 10 miles apart and no third-rail feeders 
are used. The substation bus voltage is 700. Trains 
of from two to seven cars are operated between Camden 
and Atlantic City. 

The third-rail insulators are of reconstructed granite 
or porcelain and are held in position by a metal cen- 
tering cup which is secured to the ties by means of 
lag screws. The rail rests upon the insulator and is 
not clamped thereto. The insulators are placed on 


ties 9 ft. 4 in. long, spaced approximately 8 ft. apart. 
This type of insulator, shown in an accompanying illus- 
tration, has been adopted on account of a change in the 
method of supporting the top protection board. 

Originally the third-rail was equipped with protec- 
tion only at stations, 75 ft. on either side of road 
crossings, and in terminal yards. This protection con- 
sisted of side and top boards carried from castings 
attached to the rails by hook bolts. Maple posts were 
attached to the bottom castings by bolts and supported 
top castings carrying the top protection boards. Dur- 
ing the early part of 1912 top protection was added to 
all unprotected rails using the plan already mentioned. 
The boards were treated with two coats of hot creo- 
sote, and contiguous boards were joined by means of 
wrought-iron plates. 

The original cost of construction of this line was as 
follows: For the 131.73 miles of third-rail, including 
the rail, bonding, insulators, protection, etc., $557,636, 
or $4,235 per mile; for the 19.56 miles of trolley, in- 
cluding wires, poles, line material, lightning arresters, 
etc., $80,500, or $4,120 per mile. The track bonding 
of 151.29 miles cost $102,659, or $678.50 per mile. 

Shortly after the third-rail was placed in service it 
began to creep in the direction of traffic, with constant 


July 10, 1915] 



damage to insulators. To overcome the difficulty the 
third-rail was anchored to the ties at intervals of 
from 1000 ft. to 1500 ft. and the practice of periodically 
loosening the splice bars and oiling the joints was 

Although sleet-cutting shoes were used on the cars 
during certain seasons, with a provision for applying 
extra tension of from 90 lb. to 100 lb. to the shoes, con- 
siderable delay was occasioned by sleet. This has been 
n^inimized by the use of calcium chloride supplied from 
t9,nks and distributed hot on the rail. These tanks 
were hauled over the road by steam locomotives when 
sleet began to form, with good results. The addition 
of the top protection to the rail prevented sleet forma- 
tion except when a driving wind accompanied the sleet- 
forming weather, in which event the chloride cars were 
used as formerly. 

During seven years past the average maintenance 
cost per single-track mile per year has been $490.25 
for the trolley, $81.74 for the third-rail, and $25.84 
for the track bonding, which amounts are respectively 
11.9, 1.9 and 3.8 per cent of the corresponding 

During the year 1912 the car-miles per minute of 
detention from various causes chargeable to the con- 
tact system were as follows: Third-rail short-circuits, 
56,673; third-rail out of place, 1,161,809; third-rail 
protection out of place, 232,362; sleet on third-rail, 
11,885, and trolley-wire trouble, 17,085. 


In an elaborate paper J. B. Cox, railway engineering 
department General Electric Company, described many 
of the special problems of the design of the rollers and 
overhead construction for this electrification. Overhead 
construction was used because approximately 60 per cent 
of the electrified tracks consist of yard trackage and 
sidings with numerous switches and street crossings. 

The roller used consisted of a Shelby steel tube 5 in. 
in diameter, 24 in. long and Vs in. thick when turned. 
Removable bearing housings of aluminum metal were 
fitted into each end of the tube, each carrying two 
bronze sleeve bearings. The complete roller revolved 
about a %-in. steel shaft fixed at each end by clamps to 
the pantograph frame. The complete roller weighed 
about 31 lb. As this weight was much greater than 
that of the contact element of a sliding pantograph, 
it was decided not to attempt to make the contact device 
respond to inequalities due to hard or uneven spots in 
the trolley wire but to remove such spots. After ex- 
perience with the operation of this roller it was modi- 
fied by installing Hyatt roller bearings, which have 
proved very satisfactory. Early troubles in keeping 
the roller on the trolley wire have been overcome by the 
installation of improved wearing or guide plates. 

In producing a flexible trolley wire a new hanger was 
devised. It was made up of %-in. x Vs-in. flat strap, 
with a malleable-iron ear secured by a V2-in. x iy2-in- 
carriage bolt. The upper end was looped over the mes- 
senger wire, giving a flexible support. The jaws were 
designed to permit the operation of a trolley wheel 
should such be desired. A special pull-off was also de- 
signed by means of which the messenger and trolley 
wires were held in position by separate clamps, from 
each of which ran an individual pull-off wire with a 
strut between the two, maintaining the pull parallel to 
the horizontal plane of the trolley wire and allowing a 
free vertical movement independent of the messenger. 
The single pull-off of the type described was found 
superior to a double pull-off or a rigid pull-off, although 
these were used in some cases. It was found unneces- 

i, r ■ 1., 


sary to use deflectors such as are generally required with 
pantographs. Instead, the trolley and messenger wires 
which were intended to follow a switching track were 
started several feet ahead of the switch from a point 
convenient for dead ending, and several inches above 
the horizontal plane of the through wires, and gradually 
brought down to that plane a short distance ahead of 
the switching point where they were gradually carried 
away following over the switching track. Air-section 
insulation was used where practicable, the ends of the 
wires of each section being made to overlap the length 
of a pole spacing, the two sets of wires being carried 
in approximately the same horizontal plane and about 
12 in. apart for a few feet in the middle of the span, 
from which point the dead ends of the trolley wire were 
gradually carried above the path of the collector to the 

At street railway crossings two wooden section insu- 
lators were connected in the 2400-volt line about 75 ft. 
apart with a protecting zone between. The railroad 
tracks cross street railway tracks at six points, four 
of which are at street level in Butte. Two in Anaconda 
are not at street crossings and here the street railway 
company coasts its cars over the crossings. At two 
crossings in Butte watchmen employed to operate gates 
manipulate the switches which are interlocked with the 
gates. Special commutating switches were provided to 
overcome arcing difficulties. 

The total cost of the trolley and feeder system, inclu- 
sive of bonding and all changes made necessary in the 
way of clearance for poles, bonding, etc., up to June 30, 
1914, was slightly more than $500,000, or for the over- 
head system, including feeders and bonding, $5,514.15 
per track-mile or $13,381 per route-mile. All of the 
construction was done while the road was under full 
operation and under many conditions which tended to 
increase the cost above normal. Among these were: the 
large percentage of curves and special work, the high 
price of all labor, interference of foreign wires, changes 




[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

in location of tracks, walkways, platforms, buildings, 
trestles, bridges, etc., extra-heavy foreign traffic on the 
main line, strike of electrical wiremen, cold weather, 
variation of ground condition, number of street railway 
crossings, etc. Seldom would there be found more com- 
plications than in this case. 

Repair work on the 2400-volt trolley line is done from 
an ordinary wooden work car without special insulation 
with full voltage on the line and there have been no 
serious cases of shock to linemen. 

The cost of maintaining the distribution system from 
October, 1913, to March, 1915, inclusive, has been 
slightly under $15,000. This is at the rate of $9,930.46 
per year or $109.13 per mile per year. The paper gives 
full details of maintenance costs. Measurements have 
been recently made to determine the rate of wear of 
the trolley wire, the original diameter of which was 
supposed to average about 0.482 in. With due allow- 
ance for the change in the form of the wire as it wears, 
and from the fact that the measurements show an 
average of 3041 pantograph passages per 0.001 in. wear, 
the wire can be expected to last twenty-two years. 

The difficulties with 
the contact roller have ■ . , 


sticking in the bearings occurred due to imperfect align- 
ment of clamping jaws, loosening of the caps in the bear- 
ing head, collection of ice between the roller and the sup- 
port, etc. These were overcome by simple expedients, 
including the adoption of roller bearings already men- 
tioned. From results so far obtained the average mile- 
age per tube is about 11,030. The average mileage with 
roller bearings is about 16,000, an increase of 35 per 
cent. The average cost of maintaining the original 
pantographs with three bearings was about $185 per 
month, or $3.20 per thousand locomotive-miles. The 
present corresponding cost is about $35 per month, or 
$0.62 per thousand locomotive-miles. At first a wooden 
lining was pressed inside the roller, but this was found 
unnecessary and is now omitted. 

Measurements made to ascertain voltage drop and 
energy consumption show the maximum voltage drop 
to be 14.5 per cent, the average being 5.6 per cent. In 
the Smelter Hill service, with an average train weight 
of 1633 tons and a schedule speed of 15^2 m.p.h., at an 
average voltage of 2293, the average power consump- 
tion was 1398 kw., and the current 767 amp., while 
the unit energy consumption was 55 watt-hours per ton- 
mile. From Rocker to East Anaconda, with a schedule 
speed of 20.1 m.p.h., the average was 13.73 watt-hours 
per ton-mile. 


The problem of current collection as a whole and the 
essential factors in successful operation were discussed 
by C. J. Hixson, railway engineering department Geri- 
eral Electric Company. He called attention to the fact 
that the A. I. E. E., when defining standards for elec- 
tric railways, subdivides distributing systems into two 
classes — contact rails and trolley wires. He followed 
the same subdivision in contact devices, namely, contact 
rail collectors and trolley wire collectors. Similarly, 








/>> ^ 


irt of Run 
M) Amp. Rur 
tal Contact 

:)iBm. 0.486 
. 20 Lbs. 



at Start '1.4 
Run, 20 Lbs 

b.'. In. 
. Pressure 


Diam Bt 

Start 4fc5 

In, 1000 A 

Tip, Run, 30 


Total Co 

tact Preisure 

50000 100000 150000 200000 



rail collectors were subdivided into: third-rail shoes, 
overhead shoes, center shoes, and underground shoes. 
Trolley-wire collectors were classified as wheel trolleys, 
roller trolleys, and slider trolleys. The frames sup- 
porting the collecting mechanism may be pole, bow, 
or pantograph. The term "pantograph trolley" is not 
definite, since it designates a form of frame common to 
all three types of trolley wire collectors. 

Contact-rail systems possess great reliability and 
involve low maintenance cost. They are particularly 
adapted for elevated and subway work, especially where 
it is necessary to change quickly from one to the other. 
High collecting capacity and space considerations are 
also in their favor. The high initial cost, danger to 
life, difficulties from sleet and snow, and complications 
in yards have been among the factors preventing their 
wide application to interurban and steam road service. 
Inverting the rail and using an underrunning shoe 
have overcome sleet and snow difficulties with some in- 
crease in cost. A 2400-volt third-rail is operative and 
its use permissible under some conditions. 

Contact-wire systems are of two types, direct sus- 
pension and messenger or catenary suspension. The 


July 10, 1915] 



direct suspension is suitable for low speeds and mod- 
erate amounts of power and, with the contact wire in- 
sulated by suspensions of molded insulation or other 
suitable material, gives good service. Giant strain in- 
sulators are in many cases connected in the span wires. 
The wood pole is undoubtedly responsible for much of 
the success of direct suspension. The use of wood for 
poles and insulators is gradually decreasing and por- 
celain is being adopted for strain and suspension in- 
sulators. Direct suspension is cheap and has performed 
useful service in keeping down initial investments, but 
with increasing speed and capacity requirements a more 
flexible form of construction is needed. 

With messenger suspension the effect of the mes- 
senger wire is of great assistance in increasing the 

Point 0^ Messenger- Support. 

6 7 

a 9 :0 II ^ 
Faint of Mes'^tiy^crSuppirt' 


height of the wave produced by the passage of the col- 
lector. The crest of this wave is over the collector and 
the height depends upon the elasticity at that point. 
If the hanger is designed to permit a free further up- 
ward movement of the trolley additional flexibility is 

Mr. Hixson gave the results of measurements made 
to determine the upward deflection of the trolley wire 
under different conditions of support and pressure. 
Typical results are shown in the accompanying dia- 
grams. He also gave a pair of characteristic panto- 
graph curves showing the relation of roller pressure 
to roller position, and other curves of importance in 
current collection under heavy traction conditions. He 
concluded by listing the following as topics worthy 
of discussion in this connection: 

The use of deflectors or other devices at sidings. 

The best method of section insulation. 

Convenient means for taking up slack at anchorage 
vs. automatic take-up devices in conjunction with the 
introduction, artificially, of elasticity into the line. 

Elimination of splicing sleeves, particularly of the 
soldered type. 

The necessity for staggering the trolley wire and fre- 

quency of steady braces against action of the wind. 

Construction at tunnels and bridges both as regards 
insulation and collection. 

The necessity for uniformity in the safety factors 
allowed in different parts of the country. 

The best method of arranging "ticklers" for warning 
the brakeman of approaching bridges or tunnels upon 
electrified lines. 

In regard to the problems which might be discussed in 
connection with trolleys might be mentioned : 

The desirability of the air-locked vs. the air-raised 

Height of the trolley wire. 
Width of contact strips. 
Shape of horn. 

Clearance allowances between trolley and permanent 

faint of Messenger SuppOf 

fbmt of Messenger Suppori. 



In the discussion of the topics covered in the papers 
and in connection with the presentation of the papers 
by the authors many valuable additional points were 
brought out. Mr. Duer said that on the West Jersey 
& Seashore Railroad reconstructed granite insulators 
are being used to replace worn-out porcelain ones. One 
reason for the selection of the same rail section for 
the contact rail as for the main rail was to give facility 
in making track repairs. He called attention to the 
independence of the new protection which he described 
from the contact rail, insuring non-interference with 
creepage, expansion, and' contraction. Insulated an- 
chors had been tried in an endeavor to prevent creep- 
age, but they were the source of fires, and their use was 
abandoned in favor of oiling the angle plates. Stranded 
bonds have been substituted for ribbon bonds to give 
increased flexibility, although Mr. Duer thought that 
the latter might be satisfactory with very well bal- 
lasted track. The bond testing is done in a prelimi- 
nary way by men equipped with contact points in their 
shoes connected to an indicating instrument. These 
men mark bad bonds for further and more accurate 
test. In reply to questions regarding the chloride treat- 
ment of steel he said that the specific gravity of the 
solution is 1.2 and that the solution is spread by means 
of special shoes. An overrunning conductor rail should 
be wide and low for stability, but raised on high in- 
sulators to protect the latter from stray ballast. Care- 
ful attention should be given to side and end ap- 
proaches, as the shoes on high-speed cars are apt to be 
thrown against the protection boards at these points. 
On the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad end protection 
boards have to be renewed annually on account of the 
wear due to contact shoes. Metal sheathed side ap- 
proaches were used on the Pennsylvania Railroad New 
York terminal. 

Mr. Cox stated that on the Butte, Anaconda & Pa- 
cific electrification the safety of people who could not 
be kept away from the tracks was an important factor 
in the choice of an overhead contact system. In the 
paper no detention records were given because deten- 
tions had been negligible. While the dispatcher notes 
detentions on his record sheet they have not been im- 
portant enough to warrant tabulation. Most of the 
troubles with the rollers at first were due to their not 

Mr. Hixson said that he had felt the necessity of 
obtaining a comprehensive grasp of the whole subject 
of contact systems, and the purpose of his paper was 
to summarize the situation. The measurements de- 
scribed were the result of an effort systematically to 
improve operating conditions. He emphasized the im- 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

portance of the flexibility of the messenger wire in 
absorbing waves as indicated by the hanger loop, which 
is lifted less at the center of the span than at the 
points of support. The pull-off presents the most diffi- 
cult problems in overhead design and in choosing a 
method of support the designer must decide as to the 
influence to be allowed special construction, such as 
that on curves, in determining the plan to be followed. 

G. H. Hill, engineer railway engineering depart- 
ment, summarized briefly a contribution to be pub- 
lished later in the proceedings. He stated that the 
costs of third-rail and trolley construction are about 
equal. The former is necessary with low-voltage heavy 
traction, but the general tendency is toward overhead 
construction. The lubrication of overhead pantograph 
shoes is a very important matter and can be accom- 
plished readily, one plan being to use an inverted 
pressed-steel pan, shod with copper strips and with a 
central groove for storage of lubricant. The lubricant 
consists of graphite grease. This forms a film on the 
contact wire and incidentally prevents sleet accumula- 
tion. Adding lubricant does not interfere with current 
collection for the contact electrical resistance is actually 
lowered. Taking up the important subject of inductive 
voltage rises in overhead wires and in third-rail, Mr. 
Hill stated that there is a considerable rise and that 
this is about the same in the two. While the inductance 
of the rail is greater this produces a time lag which 
keeps down the voltage. The energy discharge is, of 
course, much greater from the rail. The peak voltage 
may be double the operating voltage. 

H. M. Hobart, consulting engineer General Electric 
Company, described a novel form of third-rail construc- 
tion being installed on the 1200-volt electrification in 
England between Manchester and Bury. This will be 
open for traffic in a few months. The rail is of the 
side-bearing type of channel section, protected all 
around with the exception of a top slot to admit the 
flat, hinged collector shoe. The rail with its protecting 
boards rests loosely in a slot on the top of the insulator 
and the protecting boards are held in place by means 
of steel spring clips and wooden wedges. Additional 
details of this installation will be given in an early 
issue of the Electric Railway Journal. The rail is 
the invention of J. A. F. Aspinall, general manager 
Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. Mr. Aspinall is 
essentially a .steam railroad man who appreciates the 
possibilities of electricity as a motive power. The in- 
stallation is attracting much attention in Great Britain. 

In reply to a query Mr. Zogbaum stated that wood in- 
sulators are generally used between tracks on the New 
Haven system with good results. They are thoroughly 
cleaned every three years. Prof. D. D. Ewing wanted 
to know if the maintenance cost of running rails is in- 
creased by the presence of the third-rail, and Mr. Duer 
said he would furnish data on that subject. 

Prof. D. C. Jackson, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, chairman of the railway committee in charge 
of the program of the railway session, closed the dis- 
cussion by referring to some research work which Dr. 
A. E. Kennelly, Harvard University, and he had under 
way relating to skin effect in rail conductors. This 
promises interesting results which will bear upon the 
subject of inductive effects in third-rail. 

The session closed with an expression of its unique 
character and of the great value of the cost data con- 
tributed, such data being as a rule almost inaccessible. 

A recent disastrous wreck in England was caused by 
the entry of an express train into a block where a local 
train was standing, an improper clear signal having 
been given by the manual-block operator. 

A. S. T. M. Specifications for Trolley Wire 

Committee on Copper Wire Outlines Reasons for Failure to 
Agree with American Electric Railway 
Engineering Association 

At the eighteenth annual meeting of the American 
Society for Testing Materials, held in Atlantic City on 
June 22-26, the report of most importance to electric 
railways was that on copper wire specifications. In 
this the differences between the A. S. T. M. committee 
and the committee on power distribution of the Amer- 
ican Electrical Railway Engineering Association were 
outlined as follows, the A. S. T. M. committee being re- 
ferred to as Committee B-1 and the A. E. R. E. A. com- 
mittee as the Power Committee: 

"In the last two reports of the committee, reference 
has been made to work undertaken in conjunction with 
a sub-committee of the Power Committee of the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Engineering Association, with a 
view to the formulation of specifications for trolley 
wire, which might be adopted as the standard by both 
societies. Specifications were tentatively proposed by 
the A. E. R. E. A. sub-committee, which were reluc- 
tantly accepted by the sub-committee of Committee B-1. 
But Committee B-1 could not agree to these specifica- 
tions, which in some important respects were different 
from our standard specifications, and radically at vari- 
ance with definitely expressed opinions of the commit- 
tee. Therefore, in 1914, Committee B-1 reported post- 
ponement of final action on these proposed specifica- 
tions, and began to collect data and opinions from a 
number of large electric railways using trolley wire, 
on their practice with respect to specifications, and the 
necessary requirements for such wire. This canvass 
showed that a considerable majority of those roads buy- 
ing under specifications had already adopted substan- 
tially the requirements of the standard specifications of 
this society. Many large purchasers were using no 
specifications, while others were buying a high-strength 
alloy wire instead of copper. In the meantime the 
Power Committee had presented to the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association at its annual meet- 
ing, the proposed specifications which have been adopted. 

"Finally at a meeting of Committee B-1, with nine 
of the eleven members present, it was unanimously 
voted that Committee B-1 recommend no change in the 
present standard specifications for hard-drawn copper 
wire in so far as they apply to trolley wire. 

"For the information of the society, the committee 
makes this brief statement of the two points of differ- 
ence between themselves and the Power Committee of 
the A. E. R. E. A.: (1) The Power Committee was of 
the opinion that trolley wire should not be hard drawn 
but should, in eflfect, be somewhat less than hard drawn, 
that is, more nearly what is defined as medium hard 
drawn ; yet the values for strength proposed were, for 
minimum values, substantially those of our standard 
specifications for hard-drawn copper wire. (2) The 
Power Committee, after long consideration and after 
many tests had been made, appeared to agree that the 
twist test, upon the inclusion of which it was insistent, 
could only safely be applied qualitatively; yet the com- 
mittee insisted upon specifying a definite minimum 
number of twists. 

"To neither of these points could Committee B-1 
agree. The first was considered inconsistent. The sec- 
ond the committee felt was adequately covered in the 
specifications as offered for amendment later in this re- 
port, namely, by the requirement that the wire shall be 
free from imperfections not consistent with best com- 
mercial practice. In the opinion of Committee B-1, 

July 10, 1915] 



other tests than the twist test may be preferred for the 
inspection of wire, and the committee sees no reason to 
make arbitrary choice among them." 

The report went on to say also that as a result of 
the canvass of the practice of electric railways, Com- 
mittee B-1 was convinced of the desirability of offering 
specifications for high-strength alloy trolley wire, and 
tentative specifications for this material were appended 
to the report. These provided for bronze wire of 40 
per cent conductivity and approximately 70,000-lb. ten- 
sile strength and from 2.25 per cent to 3 per cent elonga- 
tion in 10 in. ; also for bronze wire of 65 per cent con- 
ductivity, about 60,000-lb. tensile strength and the same 
elongation, which depended on the size of the wire. 

Tentative specifications for bare concentric-lay cop- 
per cable, hard, medium-hard or soft, were also sub- 
mitted and both of these were ordered printed in the 
association's year book. Minor changes in the previous- 
ly-mentioned specifications for hard-drawn copper wire 
were referred to letter ballot. 

Mandatory Rules * 


The railroad workman of to-day is no longer an 
automaton. He has developed into a reasoning being. 
This has created new economic conditions and demands 
progressive methods. 

The rules by which we are governed in our railroad 
work have been amended and amplified from time to 
time, as our business has increased, and have become 
more progressive and complex. To-day they are the 
product of the minds of our ablest and most experienced 
railway operators, formulated after much study and dis- 
cussion and presented as the acme of good practice. 
The standard transportation rules are largely manda- 
tory. They tell men what they must or should do. But 
by the frequent and continued infraction of these rules, 
despite disciplinary action, railroad managers now real- 
ize that education and persuasion must substitute coer- 
cion and compulsion, as is illustrated by their vast an- 
nual expenditures for increased supervision. 

My belief is that mandatory rules do not materially 
prevent accidents but that organized effort and the 
persuasive use of safety devices and methods are the 
means which should be substituted. 

Transportation by Fadgl Auto -Train at 
San Francisco Exposition 

The Fadgl Auto Train, Inc., has been carrying ap- 
proximately one-fourth of all Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion visitors in eighteen three-car trains of sixty-six 
seating capacity or 105 total capacity per train. The 
longest run one way is 11/2 miles and the shortest is 
% mile. The initial fare is either 5 or 10 cents, ac- 
cording to the character of the run. Zone-fare addi- 
tions of 5 cents each are charged when passengers make 
partial or complete circuits. 

On Feb. 20, the opening day, fifteen two-car trains 
and one one-car train carried $3,246.95 of business. 
Up to June 1 about 1,250,000 passengers were carried, 
but it is expected that heavy summer business will 
bring the total for the year in excess of 4,000,000. The 
number of fares during four days of June averaged 
15,150 a day. 

All fare collections during this period were handled 
with Rooke registers. 

Medical and Claim Departments * 


The relationship existing between the medical depart- 
ments and the claim departments of rail transportation 
companies varies to such an extent that there is no gen- 
eral uniformity of co-operation. Some companies do 
not maintain a salaried medical staff but secure the 
services of outside surgeons when necessary. Others, 
particularly street railway companies, designate resi- 
dent surgeons to examine the injuries in their several 
districts and report on a fee basis to the salaried chief 
surgeon of the company. These district surgeons also 
render emergency treatment. Many steam railroads and 
interurban and suburban electric railways adopt a sim- 
ilar plan on account of the convenience of having a sur- 
geon representing the company promptly at the scene 
of the accident. 

Some companies maintain a salaried medical staff, 
which, if possible, renders immediate and continuous 
surgical and medical attention at the sole expense of 
the company and without respect to the question of 
liability. Still others employ a salaried emergency sur- 
geon who is always on duty, ready to make an imme- 
diate examination of personal injury cases and treat 
such cases, if necessary. 

It is the practice of the United Railroads of San 
Francisco to request an early examination of all in- 
jured persons by one of its salaried medical staff, re- 
gardless of whether a claim has been filed or such action 
is intended. Medical attention and hospital accommo- 
dations are offered only in cases where the company's 
liability is clearly established. Emergency treatment is 
usually rendered by the city emergency hospital sur- 
geons or surgeons residing or having their office near 
the scene of the accident. A fee of $10 is allowed by 
the company to practising surgeons whose services are 
sought in an emergency by an employee. 

Wherever feasible (local conditions always govern- 
ing) the services of the medical department are more 
effective if it is composed of surgeons who are on the 
payroll and devote almost all of their time to company 
business. It is true that surgeons who are occasionally 
employed on a fee basis are not so likely to have their 
testimony attacked as prejudiced and biased, but un- 
scrupulous attorneys often attack the reliability of 
such witnesses, particularly if they have testified on 
several occasions in behalf of the defendant corpora- 

The surgeon whose time is devoted almost exclusively 
to the company becomes a specialist in personal injury 
cases. He is aware of the dependence placed upon him 
by the claim agent in reporting as accurately as pos- 
sible the extent and length of disability, and he is alive 
to the advantage of employing simple and unsuspected 
tests of the claimant's veracity and physical ability. 
He is able to judge the monetary value of a claim and 
the reasonableness of charges for surgical services. If 
he is tactful and considerate in his behavior toward a 
claimant, he can influence him to deal directly with the 
company. It is highly important, however, that he should 
not make an intentional misstatement of the extent of 
the injury to an injured person with a view of minim- 
izing the injuries and so enabling the claim agent to 
effect an unjust settlement. Neither should he resort 
to any similar deception, for the courts have held that 
a release secured through such fraudulent methods is 
voidable. An error in diagnosis is excusable in the eyes 
of the law. 

'Abstract of paper presented at annual meeting of Pacific Claim 
Agents Association, San Francisco, June 24-26. 

♦Abstract of paper- presented at annual meeting of Pacific 
Claim Agents' Association, San Francisco, June 24-26. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 


Flange- Bearing Special Work 

Metropolitan Street Railway Company 

Kansas City, Mo., June 25, 1915. 

To the Editors: 

Concerning the question of flange-bearing special 
work, the following is my experience in Kansas City: 
In order to avoid noisy special work and the hard blows 
incident to the use of very abrupt rises in the flangeway, 
the writer adopted flange-bearing work with long ap- 
proaches about four years ago. Experience with this 
type of work since that time has fully justified the 

The principal problem to solve in connection with the 
flange bearings was the lengths of the inclined ap- 
proaches to the intersections. It was impossible to get 
the desired results with the small manganese inserts 
that were in use a few years ago. Moreover, the best 
results cannot be obtained with the largest practicable 
plates used to-day except in those in very acute angle 
intersections. If it is practicable, the length of the ap- 
proach from the point where the flange begins to take 
a bearing to where it is raised to its greatest height 
should not be less than 18 in. In order to secure ap- 
proaches of this length we built some special work of 
carbon rails bolted together with the manganese fillers 
forming the flangeway floors. Similar construction 
with a Ijar of manganese inserted in a rolled filler in 
the bottom of the flangeway was adopted, and both types 
of work have given most excellent service. Later, cross- 
ings were assembled as bolted work, using high carbon 
rail in the bottom of the flangeways. This has given 
results as good as, if not better than, were obtained 
from that with the manganese in the bottom of the 

In all of these types of work, when the flangeway is 
worn down so that the wheels have a tread bearing, it is 
practicable to grind down the head of the rail and there- 
by secure a true flange bearing again. Our later work, 
some of which has been ordered in the solid manganese 
steel, provides for a flange bearing with 18-in. ap- 
proaches. A feature found undesirable in our first 
flange-bearing crossings was the raising and lowering 
of the wheels over each flangeway intersection. To 
avoid this, it has been our practice, and it has proved 
entirely satisfactory, to raise our wheels upon the 
flange as they approach the first intersecting flange- 
way and continue the shallow depth through the cross- 
ing. This has been done in right-angle crossings and 
the wheels are carried upon their flanges entirely 
through the crossing or series of crossings as the case 
may be. 

The only argument that the writer has ever encoun- 
tered in recommending shallow flangeways has been that 
they might be the cause of chipped or broken wheel 
flanges. Curiously, these arguments have never been 
advanced by men connected with the mechanical de- 
partments or by the manufacturers furnishing wheels 
under contract. In fact, discussions with them of the 
eflfect of this practice has indicated that the adoption 
of the full flange bearing makes an easier riding car, 
reduces the shock to the equipment and causes less dam- 
age to flanges than the non-flange-bearing intersection, 
or one with a shallow groove only at the intersecting 
flangeways. Some manufacturers of cast-iron wheels 
have advocated a change in the contour of wheel flanges 
to give a wider bearing on the bottom of the flangeway 
than that given by the standard wheels. This change 
was only presented as a theory and has never been tried 

As noted in some of the other communications, the 

flange-bearing idea is an old one; in fact, it is so old 
that testimony in regard to the matter twenty years ago 
indicated that it was an obsolete practice. On the other 
hand, no doubt, the adoption of long approaches, giving 
a slight angle of impact at the point where the wheel 
flanges strike the bottom of the flangeway, has again 
made this practice useful and satisfactory. In con- 
clusion I will say that there have been installed in Kan- 
sas City some thirty or forty crossings, built with 
flange bearings, and also a large number of frogs of 
various angles, and our experience with all of this work 
has fully justified our continuing its use. 

A. E. Harvey, Chief Engineer. 

The Jitney and the Small Car 

The Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association 
Dallas, Tex., June 29, 1915. 

To the Editors : 

I have been very much interested in the communica- 
tion on "Jitneys vs. Light Cars" by Mr. Wilson of 
Mobile, Ala., in your issue of June 26. 

Mr. Wilson is absolutely right in the first portion of 
his communication with regard to the profitable advan- 
tage of more frequent operation of cars or, to put it 
in another form, of more rapid service. The writer 
has proved this fact in times past in several small cities 
where the business section was only a comparatively 
few blocks from the residence section. He has taken 
non-paying properties and made them pay, largely by 
giving a more frequent, more rapid and a perfectly 
regular and dependable service, and the frequency of 
the service has been the main point of success. The 
instance which Mr. Wilson gives of the city where the 
revenue of the street car company had been reduced 
$1,000 per day by something over 350 jitneys, gives a 
case in point. In the five months during which the 
jitney has been in active operation, the revenue of this 
company has been reduced $150,000. Even allowing 
33 1 3 per cent of this due to the hard times, the re- 
mainder, $100,000, if applied to the purchase or hire 
of small cars and their operation on a much shorter 
schedule on the lines peculiarly afllicted by the jitney, 
would have saved them a considerable portion of this 
loss, would have discouraged the jitney, would have 
had a strong moral efl'ect on the public and, I fully 
believe, the balance sheet at the end of the year, under 
the above suggested operation, would have shown a 
profit instead of a loss. 

One of the lessons that the street railways, and in 
some instances the shorter interurbans, must take to 
heart from the jitney experience is the desire of the 
public to "get there" in the shortest possible time and to 
keep moving while it is getting there. While the public 
does not like overcrowded cars and prefers sitting down 
to hanging to a strap, it will, as between the two 
evils, accept the discomfort rather than the delay, in 
nine cases out of ten. This applies particularly to the 
rush hours. The intermediate light traffic hours of 
shopping, visiting and pleasure automatically provide 
seats and prevent overcrowding, by reason of the 
lessened traffic, and at such times a slightly longer wait 
for the car is not liable to cause complaint or lessen 
traffic to any great extent. But during rush hours, 
especially during the business rush hours at morning, 
noon and night, the ability to get to business or to get 
home with a minimum of waiting time is the overpow- 
ering desire of a majority of those who travel in public 

In large cities the "skip stop" has been introduced 
with success, simply to accomplish the end of a more 
frequent service, and enormously expensive terminals 

July 10, 1915] 



and loops in city centers have been built, not especially 
for the end of greater convenience, comfort and safety 
in handling the traffic, but that the final end of greater 
dispatch in the vital matter of getting the passenger 
to his destination without unnecessary delay might be 

It is true that the abandonment of the large cars 
may mean a tremendous loss to a great many railway 
properties, necessitating as it will the virtual scrapping 
of cars and equipment, the purchase of smaller and 
lighter cars and the employment of more trainmen, but 
the handwriting is on the wall that the public will have 
more frequent service, even if it has to patronize the 
jitney or its equivalent and put up with its discomfort, 
inconvenience and danger. When the street railways 
make it more convenient and more pleasant to ride than 
to wait or walk, then and then only will street railways 
obtain all the traffic that is possible, and at that time 
only will they put themselves in a position where they 
will not be open to some character of destructive com- 
petition such as the jitney. 

Outside of this is the matter of public policy which 
affects the street railways not only directly in their 
car receipts but indirectly in unfavorable and onerous 
franchises and taxes and in inequitable accident damage 
verdicts. As I have said in a previous article, the best 
three assets of a public utility are "satisfied customers, 
a pleased public and contented employees." Satisfied 
customers tend to make a pleased public, and a pleased 
public helps to make and maintain contented employees. 
There are yet some few public utilities who argue that 
it is impossible to "satisfy the public," and where there 
is this opinion in a public utility there is always a 
manifestation of it in the service which that utility 
gives. The jitney has awakened the public to the fact 
that it needs — and can have if necessary — a more fre- 
quent service, which means a lessened wait for the con- 
veyance and, as a rule, a higher rate of speed, or, at 
any rate, a lessened interval between the starting point 
and the terminus of the desired trip. If the street car 
company is wise it will imitate this feature of the jitney 
as fully as is possible. It may not be able to give as 
frequent a service as does the crowded line of jitneys; 
this the public will not ask, for the reason that this 
effect of the jitney carries the compensating disadvan- 
tages of irregularity of schedule and service and also 
a limited zone of service. 

There is one point, however, in Mr. Wilson's com- 
munication to which little attention seems to have been 
paid and which is a basic weakness of the jitney, 
whether in small or large size. Events within the last 
few years have proved that no unit vehicle generating 
its own power can compare in efficiency of operation 
and maintenance with the central-station-fed vehicle. 
One of the claims of the jitney as against the street 
car has been that the jitney was an independent, self- 
contained and self-operating, trackless vehicle and that 
therefore the failure of one jitney did not cause the 
stoppage or delay of other jitneys nor was it possible 
for any physical cause connected with the vehicles to 
compel the total cessation of operation of all the jitneys 
in any one community. It was emphasized that the 
break-down of a street car greatly delayed the handling 
of the cars following, that the break-down of trolley 
lines stopped the operation of all cars on those lines, 
and that a break-down at the central point of power 
supply stopped the operation of every street car in the 
community. This is true to a certain extent, but proper 
inspection and maintenance of the whole system will 
reduce this, as it has reduced it in many electric rail- 
way systems, to a negligible minimum, and this favor- 
able claim of the jitney is true only to the extent that 

the negligence of the electric railway company allows 
it to happen. 

Any vehicle which generates and uses its own power 
does so in small and therefore inefficient units, and in 
order to do this it must have a myriad chain of intri- 
cate and delicate parts, which not only increase greatly 
its first cost but also increases its maintenance costs 
and its probability of break-down or of an increase of 

The machinery which actuates the central-station-fed 
vehicle is, so far as the vehicle itself is concerned, the 
acme of simplicity and is built so as to give the mini- 
mum of maintenance. In nearly every case the ma- 
chinery on central-station-fed vehicles, such as the street 
car, is in duplicate all the way through and while a 
failure of any one part of its propelling machinery may 
possibly cause a delay, it does not often cause a total 
cessation of operation, such as happens when the single 
vital part of a self-contained vehicle breaks down. 

The initial economy and efficiency of generation in 
large units, the present economical method of supply 
from central station to vehicle and the present efficient 
pi'opelling apparatus on the ordinary electric car all 
combine to give such a total economy and efficiency 
as is impossible with any present vehicle that generates 
its own power. It must be remembered that in the 
matter of efficiency "what is sauce for the goose is 
also sauce for the gander." Any efficient method of 
generating power in small units on self-contained ve- 
hicles can be applied even more efficiently in larger 
units in a central station, and the average or relative 
efficiency of large and small generating units has 
been proved to be such as more than to cover the costs 
of distribution from the large generating plant to the 
vehicle that it supplies. 

This is the fundamental weakness of the jitney, 
whether as a small car or as a large bus, and this will 
be the fundamental weakness of Mr. Wilson's proposi- 
tion as to self-power-generating vehicles to be used on 
tracks. When the interurbans first began to parallel 
steam roads, the gasoline and the gasoline-electric motor 
cars were pushed forward as being a means by which 
the steam roads could maintain themselves against the 
inroads of the electric interurban. With very few ex- 
ceptions, this type of self-generating vehicle has gone 
to the scrap heap, has been relegated to little, non- 
paying branch lines, to locations where there are pecu- 
liar local conditions favorable to its use, or has been 
used for other purposes than comfortable, convenient 
and rapid transit such as is given by the electric trolley 
car. On the other hand, not only have the terminals 
of the larger steam roads done away with the self- 
power-generating locomotive of all types and kinds, but 
on their main lines, far away from cities, they are 
using central-station-fed traction vehicles over long 
distances, and the main reason for their doing this is 
economy and efficiency in the operating of the vehicle 
or tractor. If any further proof were needed on this 
point, it would be in the enormous increase in the use, 
in cities, of what is virtually a station-fed vehicle, viz., 
the storage-battery vehicle, which, as a rule, has proved 
its economy and efficiency for heavy work over the unit 
self-generating vehicle, and this notwithstanding the fact 
that it has an intermediate loss — the battery — to which 
the direct station-fed vehicle is not subject. 

The final failure of the jitney as a competitor of the 
street car will occur through inefficiency and lack of 
economy alone, but that final failure might have been 
hastened tremendously if the electric railway companies 
had been prompt to take to heart the lesson of the jit- 
ney, viz., more frequent and faster service to the 
public. H. S. Cooper, Secretary. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

Equipment and Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical 
Practices in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

(Contributions from llir Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will lie Paid for at Special Kates.) 

A Convenient Electric Soldering Iron 


The electric soldering iron illustrated in the accom- 
panying drawing has been in use in the shops of the 
Rockford & Interurban Railway for the past year. It 
can be used on a 550-volt circuit and, when connected 
in series with an ordinary arc-headlight resistance, very 
good results are obtained in soldering the leads into 
commutators. It utilizes the heat of the electric arc in 
keeping the soldering tip at high temperature. 

The body of the iron is made from a piece of 2y2-iYi. 
round bar copper, turned to the form shown in the sec- 
tion. The point is planed down to in- x 1 in. and is 
tinned like any ordinai*y soldering iron. 


The handle is made of Vi-in. round iron fitted in a 
groove turned in the body of the copper and bent in the 
form shown. At the upper end is a grip of wood or 
rubber used to protect the operator from electric shocks. 
An arc-light carbon, not less than ^ 2 in. in diameter, is 
supported, as shown, from the handle by means of an 
adjustable clamp made of two pieces of flat iron held to- 
gether by a small screw and nut. The clamp is in- 
sulated from the handle with sheet asbestos. It is ad- 
justed so that it slides with sufficient ease to permit 
regulation of the arc length. 

The lead wires are attached as indicated, one to the 
clamp by means of the screw and the other to the handle 
inside the grip. To protect the operator's eyes a washer 

of transite is slipped over the carbon and rests on the 
copper. The heating of the copper can be regulated by 
adjusting the length of the arc. 

Preventing Kinking in Handling Wire 
from Coils 


A recent experience with conduit wiring has im- 
pressed upon the writer the importance of careful 
handling of wire in conduit work. The general prin- 
ciples of conduit wiring are well understood, but this ex- 
perience may be of interest. 

The wiring in question was installed about sixteen 
months ago in a large new carshop, and all wires were 
in conduit with suitable condulet outlets for lamps and 
switches. Recently the new wiring began to give 


trouble, indicated by the blowing of fuses. The substi- 
tution of larger fuses did not cure the trouble and a 
few days ago, when an accidental ground occurred on 
the trolley wire inside the carshop, some of the circuits 
were burned out. On removing the damaged circuits 
several kinks with broken insulation were found, indi- 
cating careless work on the part of the wireman in 
drawing in the wires. 

The writer's experience has shown him that very few 
wiremen know how to uncoil wire by hand, that is with- 
out some mechanical device. The following simple 
method permits the uncoiling of wire without kinks : 

Referring to the illustrations, the first one shows the 
ordinary method of taking off loop after loop from one 
side of the coil with the resulting kinks as shown. In 
the second illustration the wireman is taking off loops 
without the least tendency to kink and it will be noted 
that he has the coil on his right arm. He unloops two 
loops of wire in this position, then shifts the coil to his 

JULY 10, 1915] 



left arm and pays out two more, alternating in this way 
until the entire coil is paid out. By this process his 
wire gets slight twists alternately backward and for- 
ward, the twists neutralizing each other. 

Hand-Brake Pressures 


It will probably be admitted generally that too little 
attention has been given in the past to the design and 
installation of hand-brake rigging. Many cars even 
now are equipped with hand-brake rigging that does 
not assure uniform pressure distribution among the 
brakeshoes. The brake rigging of some double-truck 
cars is so arranged as even to afford no assurance that 
the brakes will be applied on more than one truck under 
all conditions. 

The condition of unequal pressure is readily under- 
stood by reference to Figs. 1 and 2. The arrangement 
of hand-brake rigging shown in Fig. 1 assures the ap- 
plication of pressure to both front and rear trucks, as 
it does not embody a fixed fulcrum, the lever simply 
being hung in a slotted guide. Considering the brake 
pressure to be delivered to the forward truck, let P rep- 
resent the brake pressure required in the front-truck 
top rod, the lower one in the figure, and A' the brake 
pressure necessary to be exerted at the hand-brake rod 
at the top in the figure. Then the formula is 
X = P^cj/h. 

The pressure delivered to the rear truck is, of course, 
greater, the formula being 

X = P^[{g + h)/h}. 

It will be noted that the lever arm g for the forward 
truck becomes g -\- h when the pressure is transmitted 
to the rear truck. 

The method of calculating the forces transmitted by 
the lever system shown in Fig. 1 is sometimes puzzling. 
A simple diagram, however, will show the manner in 
which the different fulcrums are obtained. Consider 
that the hand-brake pull rod has moved the lever so that 
the brakeshoes have been brought up rigidly against 
the wheels of the rear truck. The truck-rod connection 
to the lever then becomes fixed and the lever rotates 
around it as a fulcrum, applying the brakes on the for- 
ward truck. The leverage then obtained is g/h. Con- 
sidering the rear truck, it follows that when the brake- 
shoes on the forward truck have been brought up rig- 
idly against the wheels its brake-rod connection to the 
lever becomes a fulcrum. The lever then rotates about 
this fulcrum, applying the brakes on the rear truck, 
and thus is obtained the leverage (g-\-h}/h. 

On single-truck cars the brake rigging shown in Fig. 
2 is almost universally used. This also produces un- 
equal pressures, having the same fault as the rigging 
shown in Fig. 1. The pressures on the forward and 
rear wheels are found respectively from formulas 
X = P~a/b and X = P^ (a+b)/b. 

Fig. 3 shows a most dangerous type of brake rigging 
sometimes used on electric railway cars. With this 
type of rigging, provided the shoe clearance and slack 
are not exactly the same on both trucks, the brakes are 
applied only on the truck having the least travel or slack. 
With this system of leverage a fixed fulcrum is used 
and, in applying the brakes, if one truck rod becomes 
rigid before the other, the lever has two fixed points 
and cannot rotate any farther. Consequently the brakes 
will not be applied on the other truck. The formula for 
computing the leverage developed by means of this 
rigging is 

X = 2P-^ [{g + h)/h]. 

In comparing the formulas corresponding to Figs. 3 
and 1 it is sometimes puzzling to understand why twice 


This result is at variance with the correct theory of 
car retardation. A perfect arrangement of brake rig- 
ging should always provide a slightly higher pressure 
on the forward truck, because the car tends to overturn 
or rotate about the axis of the forward truck. This 
tendency is due to the centrifugal force exerted during 
retardation, which transfers part of its proportion of 
weight from the rear truck. 

the force must be exerted in the hand-brake rod to give 
the same truck-rod pull as is obtained by the lever ar- 
rangement shown in Fig. 1. This is explained by con- 
sidering the travel of the lever. It is well known that 
power and distance traveled are directly comparable. 
In Fig. 3 the brakes on both trucks are pulled up at 
once. Therefore each truck receives only half the force 
developed, and the travel of the lever is only that of 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

H/iNo 6/?AKE Rod 


the travel of one truck rod. In Fig. 1 each truck rod 
obtains the full pressure by means of a continued pull. 
In other words, one truck receives the full pressure and 
then the lever continues to travel until the other truck 
has also received the full pressure. The travel of the 
lever, therefore, is the total travel of the rear truck rod 
plus the total travel of the forward truck rod, or twice 
the travel of the lever shown in Fig. 3. 

For cars not equipped with air brakes the system of 
hand-brake rigging shown in Fig. 4 produces exact 
equalization of pressures between trucks and absolute 
provision for applying the brakes on both trucks re- 
gardless of unequal travel and slack conditions. The 
formula for calculating the required brake pressure at 
the hand-brake rod for the rear-truck top rod is 


and for the forward- a-uc'.; tcp red 13 


An arrangement of sheaves (Fig. 5) can also be used, 
which comprises the same type of rigging shown as Fig. 
3, except that it has the advantage of affording exact 

Hand B/pa^e Rod 

^O^-A Ol£ »£'A y£ 

equalization of pressures and the application of brake 
pressure to both trucks under all conditions. 

When hand brakes are applied to air-brake cars it has 
generally been the practice to provide levers for multi- 
plying the hand-brake power and a chain for operating 
the brake-cylinder piston, thereby applying the brakes 
to the trucks through the air-brake live and dead levers. 
By this method exact equalization of hand-brake pres- 
sure is obtained through the air-brake levers. However, 
some master mechanics favor a separate and independ- 
ent brake rigging right to the truck levers. Their pref- 
erence is based on good, sound judgment, as it not only 
provides against a failure of the air, but against the 
breakage of any of the air-brake pull rods. The prac- 
tice of operating through the air-brake rigging, how- 
ever, has the advantage of extreme compactness, and 
an additional safety measure has been provided by 
means of the stop device recommended by the Westing- 
house Traction Brake Company. This device limits the 
travel of the live and dead levers in such a way that, 
should one of the top rods break, the lever can fulcrum 
against the stop, assuring a brake on at least one truck. 

In designing hand-brake equipment and rigging for 
a car of known weight, it is desirable to obtain the 
maximum force possible in the hand-brake pull rod. Ef- 
ficient hand-brake devices can be made very compact 
and can develop high power without the space required 
for the swing of long brake levers. For this reason 
the best proportion can generally be obtained by having 
the multiplying ratio transmitted through the car-body 
levers as low as possible, which results in short travel 
of the levers, the travel being directly comparable with 
the multiplying ratio. Economy of valuable space under 
the car is also thereby effected, allowing room for the 
many devices now being added to modern car equipment. 

Effect of Gear Ratio on Operating 

In the sixth annual report of the Board of Supervis- 
ing Engineers, Chicago Traction, the results of a study 
of a change in gear ratio are given. These results are 
shown in the accompanying curves. The study was 
made on a change in ratio from 69:17 to 71:15 on the 
standard 1908 Pullman car of the Chicago Railways, 
weighing 30 tons. Fig. 1 shows the characteristic mo- 
tor curves for the two gear ratios, the efficiency being' 
practically the same. On the assumption of an acceler- 
ating rate of 1.65 m.p.h.p.s. and different periods of 
coasting, the operating results obtained with th'^ " "v 


isoo ^ 


JULY 10, 1915] 




5 10 15 20 25 

Stops per Mile. 


gear ratio are shown in Fig. 2, the speeds given being 
running speeds with no allowance for stops. Assuming 
ten-second stops at intervals of 528 ft., or ten stops per 
mile, as typical of the service on heavy streets, the fol- 
lowing results were indicated by the study: 

1. With no coasting, a schedule speed of about 9 
m.p.h. cannot be exceeded without increasing the ac- 
celeration rates assumed. 2. The maximum or crest 
speed of 20 m.p.h. is necessary to reach this average 
speed. 3. With part coasting and part braking, the re- 
lation between maximum and average speed is in gen- 
eral of the same character, i.e., with a given maximum 
of crest speed the schedule speed is limited and cannot 
be raised without increasing acceleration rates. Con- 

Srtops per Mile. 


sidering the present average schedule speed of Chicago 
cars, i.e., 9 m.p.h., it appears from the average curve 
of Fig. 2 that a crest speed of fully 18 m.p.h. must be 
reached and stops limited to five per mile or their 
equivalent as an average, if the rated capacity of the 
equipment is not to be exceeded. 

In general, from the results of the study, it appears 
that the new gear ratio is better adapted for the heavy 
Chicago traffic under the assumed conditions for the 
following reasons: 1. The maximum crest speed of the 
cars is reduced by about 13 per cent. 2. A mean power 
saving of 6.6 per cent may be realized within the usual 
range of stops. This can be seen in Fig. 3, where the 
ratio of power consumption between new and old gear- 
ing is plotted against stops per mile. 3. The rate of ac- 
celeration on subnormal voltage may be materially in- 
creased without dangerously overloading the motors. 
This is particularly advantageous in the congested dis- 
tricts as a means of increasing schedule speeds. 

The report also calls attention to the effectiveness of 
field control, the principal advantage of which is in 
providing a flexible gear ratio, changeable electrically 

5 10 15 20 25 

Speed , Miles per Hour. 


through the operation of the controller. The gear ratio 
suitable for field control is given as 69:15, or 4.6, as 
compared with 71:15, or 4.73, for the revised rheostatic 
control, and 69:17, or 4.055, with the rheostatic control 
then in use. 

In calculating the schedules on which the above con- 
clusions are based, the board employed the results of 
resistance tests made by the Chicago Railways in 1912, 
using standard passenger cars and the dynamometer or 
drawbar-pull method. These results are shown in Fig. 
4. The tests were made upon a car weighing 26V2 tons 
empty and loaded to 3514 tons, that is, with 120 passen- 
gers. The curves represent the resistance at constant 
speed, it being found that during acceleration the re- 
sistance is considerably higher, especially at low speeds. 
The resistances shown are much lower than are usually 
given for cars of this type. 

The formula representing them is based upon the 
Armstrong train-resistance formula with the constants 
revised to fit the results of these tests. It is as follows : 

where R = car resistance at uniform speed in pounds 
per ton. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

W = weight of car in tons. 
S = speed in miles per hour. 
A = head end area square feet (100 sq. ft.). 

The report calls attention to the fact that there is 
general acceptance of a form of curve starting at zero 
speed with a certain static friction, and increasing more 
rapidly than the speed due to head or wind resistance 
and track friction. But none of the empirical curves 
for free-running train resistance recognize the fact that 
the resistance during acceleration is considerably great- 
er than indicated by the curve of free-running resist- 
ance, and that the curve of total drawbar-pull or re- 
sistance is very high at the start, minimum at a 
moderate speed and again rises at higher speed. Hence 
in the preceding study the resistance during accelera- 
tion was assumed as high as 22^2 lb. per ton, nearly 
double that found in free running. 

Although these data were obtained from actual dyna- 
mometer tests, the great diversity of opinion and re- 
sults among various investigators suggests the neces- 
sity for further analysis, especially differentiating be- 
tween train resistance during acceleration and during 
free running. 

Effect of Car-Wheel Diameter on Motor 

In a recent publication of the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company appears a continuation of 
the discussion of the effects of the size of wheel on 
motor heating begun in a series of articles in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal, to which the writer referred. 
These articles appeared in the issues for Oct. 3, 1914, 
page 622; Oct. 31, 1914, page 1014; Nov. 28, 1914, page 
1203, and Dec. 19, 1914, page 1344. 
After referring to the discussion in 
the Electric Railway Journal the 
writer of the article proceeded as 
follows : 

As an e.xaniple of the effects of dif- 
ferences in wheel diameter, the case 
of a car which has wheels 30 in., 30^2 
in., and 31 in. in diameter, equipped 
with typical 37.5-kw. (50 hp.) motors, 
has been considered and will show the 
dift'erence in the load and heating for 
each of the motors driving the three 
sizes of wheels. 

From the speed curves, Fig. 1, the 
amperes load taken by each of the 
motors for any given speed may be 
easily determined. For example, if 
the car is operating at 15 m.p.h., the 
motor on the 30-in. wheel is drawing 
75 amp., and the motor on the 31-in. 
wheel is drawing 81^2 amp. 

From this difference we have con- 
structed curve No. 2, Fig. 2, which 
shows the per cent difference in the 
loading carried by the two motors 

cut out of circuit, the speed will be approximately 14.5 
m.p.h. Therefore, the load on the motor on the 30-in. 
wheel is 7.3 per cent less than on the motor on the 31-in. 
wheel, and the heating is approximately 12 per cent 
less. It may be seen from the shape of the curve that 
when the motors are heavily loaded the difference in 
heating may be very great. 

Fig. 2 also shows the difference in the load and heat- 
ing between motors on 30-in., 30y2-in. and 31-in. 

These curves were worked up assuming the motors 
had identically the same speed curves, but in commer- 
cial production, due to the variation of materials, ma- 
chining, etc., the speeds of different motors may vary 
as much as 5 per cent. 

If the motor which is mounted on the larger wheel 
rotates at a higher speed for the same amperes than the 
motor on the small wheel, then the difference in loading 
will be greater than shown on these curves. 

If the service is such that the motor is accelerating 
during the greater part of the time, the difference in 
wheel size permissible will not be so great as when it 
is operating in a service which is largely made up of 
running at high speeds with few accelerations. 

It is not the purpose of this article to state what 
wheel-size variation is allowable, because this depends 
entirely on the shape of the speed curve, and particu- 
larly on the service to which the motor is subjected. It 
is evident that when the motors are running compara- 
tively cool a certain difference in heating between two 
motors on a car is not so objectionable as with the 
motors worked to the limit. This means, in general, 
that it is not so necessary to be particular with refer- 
ence to wheel sizes where the motors are running cool, 


Railnay Motor 
60i Vol IS 
Curve No 1=31" When 
Cum No l'30fmeel 
Curve No J--JO' Wheel 





10 — 




10 4 









Curve No Z = Per Cent ditler- 
ence in load ma ola3l"Wt)eel 

-Motor and JO 'meet 
Curve No t- Per Cent differ- 
ence in tieatina 



8 ^ 

Curve No 4 =Per Cent differ- 
ence in toadina ofaJOf'Wfiee 


- flotorandJO meet 

Cun/e No. 3 'Per Cent differ- 
ence in tieatina 

8 ^ 





htes p 

er Hoi 





based on the amperes in the motor 
larger wheel. Due to the difference 
taken by the motors there is naturally 
in the heating resulting therefrom. 

driving the 
in amperes 
a difference 
Curve No. 

1, Fig. 2, shows the per cent difference in the heating 
between the motors driving the 30-in. and the 31-in. 
wheels, based on the heating in the motor driving the 
31-in. wheel. At 25 m.p.h., which is the approximate 
free running speed, this heating will be 5.5 per cent 
less in the motor driving the smaller wheel than in the 
motor driving the larger wheel. 

When the car is accelerating, these motors will draw 
approximately 90 amp., and when the resistance is all 

while with motors running hot it may be best economy 
to keep the wheel sizes very nearly alike. 

The approximate curves showm are given merely as 
an aid in deciding for each individual case the maximum 
difference allowable. 

A recent census of the trainmen of the Louisville 
(Ky.) Railway showed that the men had been in the 
service of the company as follows: Fifteen for more 
than twenty-five years ; forty-one for more than twenty 
years ; forty-seven for more than fifteen years ; eighty- 
four for more than ten years; 385 for more than five 
years; fifty-five for less than one year. 

July 10, 1915] 



A Convertible Car for General Service 

The Burlington (Vt.) Traction Company has recently 
placed in service a type of convertible car that has nu- 
merous features of advantage for general service. The 
design is standard vi'ith the builders, the J. M. Jones" 
Sons Company, Watervliet, N. Y., and it is claimed 
that the car probably constitutes the nearest approach 
to a single universal type for surface operation that has 
yet been attempted. 

The special features, aside from the fact that the 
design provides an open car in summer and a closed 
body in winter, thus eliminating double equipment, con- 
sist in the low window sills, the absence of wall pockets 
that ordinarily collect rubbish, the maximum seat length 
and aisle space, the low platforms, and the inclosed plat- 
forms, preventing accidents to passengers and conduct- 
ors, whether used as a summer car or as a winter car. 

For the Burlington car, the general dimensions are as 
follows : ' 


.r .ft n • WINDOWS 

Length over all 45 ft. m. 

Length over corner posts 32 ft. in. 

lefgM fr^« rail to iroiley 'board: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ii n"io unusually short, seating only two passengers. The idea 
Weight fully equipped 45,000 1b. involved is that, by eliminating the hand straps. 

Seating capacity (exclusive of platforms) ;i.S , , .,, , , , • , , 

standees will move forward to a point where they can 
reach the handholds on the backs of the transverse 

The car body is constructed upon a steel underframe seats, and in this way the ends of the car will be left 
with steel-plate girders at the sides. The side posts are clear for entrance and exit. 

made of ash, but the roof sheathing is of sheet steel. 

The interior finish, in general, is of cherry. The in- 
terior equipment includes AA-DT American sheet glass, 
Globe ventilators, Curtain Supply Company's curtains, 
Heywood Brothers & Wakefield rattan-covered seats, 
solid-bronze polished trimming, folding platform doors 
and steps with Consolidated fixtures. Consolidated buz- 
zers and heater equipment with thermostatic control, 
and International registers. Taylor trucks with 4-ft. 
10-in. wheelbase and 34-in. wheels are installed, and 
with these is a four-motor equipment of Westinghouse 
101-B motors. 

The detailed weights of the various pieces of appa- 
ratus that enter into the construction are shown in the 
following table: 

Car body 17,500 lb. 

Trucks 12,500 1b. 

Motors 10,800 1b. 

Brakes and control 3,000 lb. 

Doors and steps 900 lb. 

Heaters 300 lb. 

Total 45,000 lb. 

It will be noted from one of the accompanying illus- 
trations of the car that there are no hand straps at the 
ends of the car, and that the longitudinal end seats are 

Tank Lifters for Small Oil Switches 

Oil-switch tank lifters are a great convenience, par- 
ticularly in stations where a large number of switches 
are installed, and although a tank with oil for a com- 
paratively small switch is not especially heavy, the char- 
acter of the load makes it somewhat cumbersome for 
one man to manage. The result of this is that often the 
oil-switch contacts are not inspected as regularly as 
they should be to insure the most satisfactory opera- 

The tank-lifting arrangement, which is manufac- 
tured by the General Electric Company and illus- 
trated on page 74, provides a very simple and easy 
means for lifting quickly an oil-switch tank either up 
or down through the entire distance between the switch 
frame and the floor. The lifter is made in two widths, 
one for single and the other for double-throw switches, 
and these widths differ only in the lengths of the three 
rods that join the two pairs of parallel operating arms, 
this being necessary owing to the differences existing in 
the dimensions of the tanks. 

To fasten the tank lifter to the switch frame two 
hooks attached to the inner ends of the longer pair of 




operating arms are placed over the ribs of the switch 
frame, the operating arms are raised and the tank sup- 
ports fitted under the tank. Then the wing nuts that 
secure the tank to the frame are turned to unfasten 
the tank, and the outer ends of the long arms are low- 
ered to the floor. Finally two catches on the cross-rod 
between the inner pair of operating arms are released, 
and these arms are allowed to rise until the tank 
reaches the floor. 

The tank supports are separate from each other and 


attach to the tank by continuations of the two equal 
sides of each strap-iron triangle, which are bent up- 
ward to fit over the rim on the bottom of the tank. Each 
support is removed from a tank by lifting an end of 
the tank a few inches from the floor and sliding the 
support from under. 

To place the tank on the oil switch, the operation as 
described is reversed, the time required for the process 
being practically negligible. 

[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 
All-Steel One-Man Gar 

Some months ago the Marshall (Tex.) Traction Com- 
pany, as noted in the Electric Railway Journal for 
iWarch 27, ordered three all-steel one-man cars from the 
Cincinnati Car Company on a forty-five-day guaranteed 
delivery. The cars left Cincinnati on the date agreed and 
are now in service on the Marshall Traction Company's 
line. They possess a number of unique features, promi- 
nent among which is the all-steel construction notwith- 
standing their small size. 

The side girders are made of Vg-in. steel plates to 
which the side sills of 3-in. x 5-in. x 3/16-in. angles are 
riveted. From the side sills pressed-steel channel cross- 
ings of i,s-in. steel plate are supported and these carry 
the flooring. All body posts are formed from con- 
tinuous steel tee bars IVo in. x 2 in. x 3/16 in., these 
members extending from side sill to side sill and form- 
ing the roof carlines. Vestibule corner posts are made 
of No. 12-gage sheet steel pressed into a box section, 
and the roof is covered with No. 18-gage sheet steel 
riveted direct to the steel carlines. The outside of the 
vestibule below the sash is covered with Vs-in. sheet 
steel pressed at the top to form the window sill, and the 
letterboard for both body and vestibule is also a Vg-in. 
steel plate, both top and bottom being shaped to re- 
ceive respectively the canvas molding from the roof and 
the top sash. 

The floor of the car is formed of two layers of wood 
applied longitudinally with the car body, and the in- 
terior finish, such as sash, doors and molding is made 
of ash. Outside of this, however, the construction is 
of steel throughout. No headlining is installed, the roof 
being covered on the outside with 1-in. thickness of 
compressed cork that is cemented to the steel, the 
cork, in turn being covered with No. 8 canvas secured 
to a wooden molding on the letterboard and bound with 
l^i'-in- beveled edge iron. The wainscoting below the 
window sills also is made from compressed cork 1 in. 
thick and cemented to the steel side plates, and is cov- 
ered with 1 16-in. linoleum. The vestibule between the 
floor and the windows is sheathed in the same manner. 

A prominent feature of the car is the very high 
grade of painting that has been followed throughout, 
this being in accordance with the Cincinnati Car Com- 
pany's standard system. The smooth finish is especially 
noticeable in the white enameled ceiling shown in one 
of the accompanying views. This has eliminated abso- 



9 I' 


■ 1 





July 10, 1915] 



lutely any objection to the absence of headlining on 
the grounds of appearance, as the exposed carlines give 
an impression of panelling that is exceedingly attrac- 
tive. An air space under the steel roof sheathing is, 
of course, made unnecessary by the cork insulation on 
top of the roof. 

The car seats thirty-two passengers and is 33 ft. 5 
in. long over all. However, the weight of the car body, 
complete with all details but exclusive of the car-body 
electrical apparatus and trucks, was guaranteed not to 
exceed 10,000 lb. Single Brill trucks are used, these 
weighing 6800 lb. when equipped with two Westing- 
house 307 motors and double-end control. This gives 
a total weight of 16,800 lb. for the car. 

The following equipment specialties were furnished: 
Consolidated electric heaters. Hale & Kilburn seats. 
Hunter destination signs, Pantasote curtains, Rico sani- 
tary strap covers, and Peacock brake mechanism with 
Cincinnati ratchet and pawl. Combination ventilator 
registers and lamp fixtures, sash locks, weather strip- 
ping, push buttons, and sand boxes were supplied by 
the Cincinnati Car Company. 

The car body is fully inclosed and of the double-end 
type, the car having been designed for one-man opera- 
tion. There are, however, two sets of folding doors and 
a stationery step on each side of the vestibule so that 
the car is suitable for two-man operation in case this 
is desired. The doors are normally under the control 
of the motorman by suitable operating mechanisms, and 
a removable division rail is provided in each vestibule 
to separate the entering from the exit passengers. 

The general dimensions are as follows : 

Length over all 33 ft. 5 in. 

Length over corner posts 21 ft. 6 in. 

Height, rail to trolley board 10 ft. 9 in. 

Extreme width S ft. 2% in. 

Step from rail 15% In. 

Step to platform 13 in. 

Step to car floor 8% in. 

Door opening between posts 3 ft. 11% in. 

Width of seats 37 in. 

Width of aisle 20 in. 

Side post center 30 in. 

Seating capacity 32 

Size of wheel 33 in. 

Wheelbase S ft. fi in. 

Total weight of car 16,S00 1b. 

Effect of Zinc Chloride on Timber Strength 

Some interesting results of a study of zinc chloride 
as a preservative of lumber were presented recently in 
a thesis by Alfred H. Clarke, at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, Boston. The author pointed out 
that the main objection to the use of the cheaper grades 
of pine for structural purposes is the susceptibility of 
such lumber to destruction by dry rot. The seeds of 
the rot fungi are microscopic and may exist unobserved 
in new wood. If they are left unhindered they may, 
under proper atmospheric conditions, develop rapidlv 
and injure the whole structure of the wood and be dis- 
astrous to the building. The usual means of preven- 
tion is by filling the wood with a poison which destroys 
the food of the fungi. Zinc chloride, often used for 
this purpose, is cheap, easy of application, and efficient 
as a rot destroyer. Under ordinary conditions it has 
not been thought harmful, but it has also been argued 
that under the conditions of temperature and humidity 
that favor dry rot, the zinc itself may impair the 
strength of the timber. 

The method followed was to treat small sapwood 
specimens with the desired amount of the salt by im- 
mersion in a bath of weak solution, then to consider 
and observe in fairly large sets the wood so treated for 
strength in various ways, moisture content, etc. Com- 
parisons were also made with untreated wood. A tem- 
perature of 150 deg. Fahr. was maintained for several 

days. The moisture content was found to be about 
the same in treated and untreated woods, but the break- 
ing strength of the treated pieces was only 38 per cent 
of the untreated specimens. The tests indicated the 
desirability of further research along this line. 

Tearing Up Pavement at 500 Ft. per Minute 

Rooting up granite-block pavement between the rails 
at the rate of approximately 500 ft. per minute is the 
startling result obtained by the use of the pavement 
rooter invented by Charles H. Clark, engineer main- 
tenance of way Cleveland Railway Company, and de- 
scribed on page 1346 of the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 13, 1914. The device consists of a heavy steel 


plow casting mounted beneath a substantially built car- 
riage which weighs complete approximately 11 tons. 
In the particular instance shown in the three accom- 
panying illustrations, the total time required to set the 
plow in position for beginning the work, attach it to 
the motor car and plow up 1475 ft. of granite-block 
pavement between the rails was twelve minutes. The 
actual plowing time for this length of track was three 
minutes. Since this rooter accomplishes its work so 


quickly, pictures of it in action have been difficult to 
obtain. For the information of track and roadway en- 
gineers one need not dwell upon the saving in labor 
thus effected, only two men with the plow and the crew 
on the motor car being needed. Immediately after the 
pavement is torn up it is necessary for a small crew 
of men to make the street crossings safe, but this would 
be necessary in any case, hence this gang's time is not 
chargeable to the cost of tearing up the pavement. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

Quickly Detachable Busbar Tap 

The busbar tap shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion is one of the cable-connecting devices made by the 
Fargo Manufacturing Company which were mentioned 
in the Electric Railway Journal of June 26. This is 
reported to'make a material current saving on account 

of its positive con- 
tact, as it makes a 
practically welded 
joint, the tap 
wire being forced 
against the busbar 
with almost any de- 
sired degree of 
pressure. This is 
accomplished mere- 
ly by tightening 
the screw nut 
which holds the 
tap wire firmly 
through the cone- 
shaped grips fit- 
ting inside of it. 

The connection 
naturally has great 
strength and it is very easily installed, eliminating any 
necessity for using solder or bolted clamps. It can be 
disconnected with equal facility so that the work of 
cutting out a transformer, for instance, can be accom- 
plished in a couple of minutes. This ease in handling 
obviously makes the device a great money saver in both 
the central station and the substation. In fact, where- 
ever electrical taps are installed either permanently or 
for temporary woi'k, this form of connection can be 
used with invariable success. 


Track-Trench Excavating Machine 

One operation to complete the track trench ready for 
ties, rail and ballast, is the result obtained by a special 
type of excavating machine that is operated by the Gen- 
eral Engineering & Constructing Company, Rockford, 111. 
This was designed particularly for excavating street rail- 
way track trenches in any width up to 9 ft., and depths up 
to 36 in. may be excavated in one operation. A roadbed 
true to grade is easily regulated, the depth of the trench 
being controlled by the boom operator who varies the 
depth of the cut as shown by an indicator on the ma- 

This indicator points to the true grade which is 


established by a line and stakes set beside the trench. 
During the process of excavation the machine will de- 
posit the spoil on either side of the trench or cast it into 
dump wagons in the street beside the trench. The 
ability of the operator to regulate this machine to cut 
a trench true to line and grade, and at the same time 
leave the trench practically clear of loose material, makes 
unnecessary any leveling of the finished trench. 

In a contract recently completed for the Rockford & 
Interurban Railway, a 20-in. trench, SVo ft. wide, was 
excavated at a rate of approximately 500 ft. a day. The 
material removed was a sandy loam paved with macadam. 
Before beginning the excavation the track was removed 
from the street with jacks, and the trencher followed 
this work so closely and was in turn followed by the 
track-laying gang, that a maximum distance of only 
300 ft. was left between the point, where the old track 
left ofi" and the new track began. 

Experience with various kinds of materials has dem- 
onstrated that the machine will successfully and econom- 
ically excavate any of the usual composite materials 
found in city streets. If the spoil is to be used again for 
ballast it may be cast on one side of the trench, leaving 
the other side clear for traffic and track operations. 
When only a part of the spoil is to be used for future 
work, that which is to be hauled away may be run into 
dump wagons as the work progresses. In case all the 
spoil is to be removed from the street, the waste time 
of teams is minimized as the wagons are loaded rapidly 
and continuously after the teams have been properly 
spaced. The continuous flow of excavated material from 
the machine to the wagon makes it possible to load the 
average dump wagon in about two minutes, and experi- 
ence has shown that it is possible also to obtain about 
% yd. more load per wagon with machine-loaded mate- 
rial than with material loaded by hand. In the two 
accompanying illustrations the excavating machine and 
the interval between the machine and the track-laying 
gang are shown. 


The recent talk by H. C. De Camp, Cincinnati, to two 
groups of trainmen of the Louisville (Ky.) Railway, is 
the first of a series which Mr. De Camp will deliver dur- 
ing the year. No meetings will be held during the hot 
weather. The company will resume the educational work 
in the fall, when Mr. De Camp will discuss the equip- 
ment of the street car. Other speakers will be heard 
from time to time. The meetings will be held at irregu- 
lar intervals, according to the plans which the company 
has announced. 

July 10, 1915] 



News of Electric Railways 


The conference between the franchise committee of the 
City Council of Toledo, Ohio, and Henry L. Doherty and 
other representatives of the Toledo Railways & Light Com- 
pany on July 2 was brief and as a consequence not much 
was accomplished. Another conference was arranged for 
July 7. 

The tentative draft as it stood on July 2 provides that 
the municipal ownership ordinance, passed by a vote of 
the electors on Aug. 4, 1914, shall not be changed, altered 
or affected in any respect by the provisions of the new 
ordinance, nor shall the new ordinance be construed as 
replacing the municipal ownership ordinance. This ordi- 
nance, it is expected, will state that its terms may be exer- 
cised whenever the city is in position to purchase the 

Section 7 of the new ordinance provides that the city 
may buy the company's property under the provision of the 
referendum ordinance, the value to be based upon an ap- 
praisal which shall be determined by arbitration. The city 
must give the company notice twelve months before it 
expects to exercise this privilege and the purchase is to be 
settled by a referendum vote. The right to purchase may 
be exercised within sixty days after a referendum election, 
if the majority of voters favor the purchase. 

It was agreed that when a question arises in regard to 
the fare to be charged, the rate in effect at the time shall 
be continued until the matter is settled by a court of com- 
mon jurisdiction. Attorney Thomas H. Tracy suggested 
that if it is found that the fare was not sufficient to meet 
requirements provided in certain sections of the franchise, 
the loss should be made up to the company. While the 
matter was not definitely settled at the conference on 
July 2, the committee seemed inclined to concede this con- 
tention. Mr. Tracy also insisted that questions of effi- 
ciency in operation should be left to arbitration. 


The Rochester Connecting Railroad has applied to the 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York for a certificate of public convenience and necessity 
for its 2% miles of line in the outskirts of Rochester. The 
company recites in its petition its connection with the Buf- 
falo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, an electric line, which 
is also connected with the proposal to build a new inter- 
national bridge across the Niagara River and to connect it 
with the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway by a new 
line from Niagara Falls to Lockport. The New York Cen- 
tral Railroad has objected to the granting of a certificate 
to the Niagara Falls and Lockport line. The eastern end 
of the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, through the 
proposed Rochester Connecting Railroad, is to be connected 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Erie Railroad at 

It was said at a recent hearing before the commission 
for a certificate for the western connecting link that 
this, with the new bridge, would give the Pennsylvania 
Railroad access not only to the rich territory of the Buffalo, 
Lockport & Rochester Railway, but also would afford a 
connection over the new bridge with the Canadian trans- 
continental lines. The project is backed by men prominent 
in electric railway affairs in western New York, including 
E. G. Connette, president of the International Railway, 
Buffalo, and the petition for the Niagara frontier link of 
the new road is supported by petitions of the local au- 
thorities, boards of trade, and prominent manufacturers. 
The New York Central Railroad in its opposition to the 
propect maintains that the territory is already supplied, if 
not over-supplied with railroad facilities. It says that 
the present railroad bridges into Canada are of a capacity 
sufficient to care for the business of many years' growth, 
and that to allow competition in this territory would be 
ruinous to its own interests as well as to the business of the 
new road. A hearing has been held before the commission 
on the Niagara link and the question of the Rochester con- 
nection will be heard within the next few weeks. 


Employees Complete Presentation of Evidence — Railway 
Begins with Testimony of President Busby 

Day and night session are being held by the arbitrators 
selected to pass upon the differences between the Chicago 
surface and elevated railways and their employees. The em- 
ployees completed the presentation of their case with the 
examination of President Mahon of the Amalgamated asso- 
ciation. The railway opened its case with L. A. Busby, pres- 
ident of the Chicago Surface Lines. 

The hearing of June 30 was largely devoted to taking the 
testimony of employees regarding wages and working condi- 
tions. With each witness counsel for the employees empha- 
sized the point that one year of training was sufficient to 
warrant paying a motorman the maximum wage. One wit- 
ness stated that he knew of no skilled trade where the men 
received the maxinlum wage in one year unless it was the 
hodcarriers. This witness said that hodcarriers worked only 
about eight months of the year and he was not sure that men 
of this trade received more pay than motormen. Joseph 
Riordan, a motorman on a supply car, contended that his 
duties were more difficult than those of a regular motorman. 
For that reason he should receive the same pay and be of the 
same grade as the motormen in the train service. In cross- 
examination, however, Mr. Riordan stated that most men 
who went from the supply-car service to the train service 
did not like the work and quit. According to the witness 
motormen on supply cars would not be credited with senior- 
ity when they entered the train service. 

The examination of motorman Myles Callaghan showed 
that he had a split run, from 6 a. m. to 8 a. m., and then 
from 1.40 p. rn. to 9.30 p. m. He admitted, however, that 
he could have chosen a run with fewer consecutive hours 
which would have paid as much as the one he had selected. 
Practically all the other motormen witnesses had objected 
to smoking on the platform, but Motorman Callaghan ad- 
vised that he had not suffered. It was very easy to venti- 
late the vestibule. The witness admitted that the company 
purchased the uniforms of new men in cases of emergency, 
and that the cost of uniforms had decreased. Ten years ago 
the extra men averaged four days a week. At present they 
average at least five days a week. The men were permit- 
ted to select the system by which runs were picked. 

Maurice Lynch, assistant financial secretary of the union, 
was examined regarding the speed of cars. He stated that 
this was computed from one end of the line to the other, 
and included delays. On a line of fifty runs, each run hav- 
ing ten trips, or a total of 500 trips, a minute taken off each 
trip would save the company 1500 minutes. Also, if one 
hour was required for a round trip on a three-minute head- 
way, and the time was reduced to fifty-seven minutes the 
company would save four men, or $12.80 a day. High 
speeds required greater alertness on the part of the motor- 
men, took cars off the line, and threw men back on the 
seniority list. 

Ordinary common sense, a little clerical ability and hon- 
esty were essential for a man to be a good conductor. Con- 
cerning unemployment in other trades, bricklayers worked 
about 75 per cent of the year, structural iron workers 75 
to 80 per cent, plasterers 75 per cent, lathers the same, and 
steam fitters continuously. Trainmen in the street railway 
service could not work the entire year. 

Lawrence D. Bland, editor of the Union Leader since 1905, 
presented a table of increases in the prices of articles of 
food since 1907. 

On July 2, W. D. Mahon, president of the Amalgamated 
Association, outlined the history of the organization and 
the railway industry. More than 200 locals had contracts 
with the companies. He believed the responsibility of mo- 
tormen and conductors was greater than that of any men 
in any other form of transportation. The financial state- 
ments of companies in the United States showed a steady 
increase in gross income. In 1902 one out of 18,000,000 pas- 
sengers was killed, and in 1907 one out of 13,000,000. In 
the last three years in Chicago, twenty-two trainmen were 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

killed on the surface lines, and eight totally disabled. The 
industry owed the employees a living when they became 
too old for service. Mergers resulted in a reduction of the 
cost of management. In 1892 there were six companies in 
Chicago. Now there was only one. The reduction in the 
expense of supervision should make it possible to take better 
care of the men. The men were not properly provided for 
anywhere in the street railway industry in this country or 
Canada. The arbitrators should consider only local condi- 
tions. When Mr. Mahon had finished, counsel for the em- 
ployees announced that he had completed their side of the 

L. A. Busby, president of the Chicago Surface Lines, took 
the stand on July 5. He outlined his ten years' connection 
with street railways, and explained briefly the development 
of the graded scale up to 1909, when the present five-year 
spread was established. Mr. Busby introduced exhibits 
showing- the average monthly wages of regular, extra and 
carhouse men for May, 1915, for all employees to be $74.20 
a month. With $.3.10 a month added as the cost of free 
transportation to the men, the general average of all men 
in the service was $927.60 a year, with the average for 
high-rate men $1,011.60 a year. Other statistical exhibits 
were introduced to show that Chicago conditions were bet- 
ter than those in other cities as regards fall-backs, pull- 
outs, turn-ins, accident report time, night cars and receiv- 
er's pay. An exhibit was also introduced showing that bonus 
and dead-time allowances cost the company 3,2.5.5,540 man- 
hours a year, or $1,011,786. This resulted in the Chicago 
trainmen receiving the equivalent of 34 cents an hour maxi- 
mum wage. 

Exhibits introduced showed that the average fare per pas- 
senger ranged from 2.8 cents in Chicago to 4.96 cents in some 
of the Eastern cities. The purpose of the graded scale was 
to insure just recognition of increased efficiency, to reward 
the men for long years of service, and to keep them in the 
service. In connection with the graded scale, Mr. Busby in- 
troduced an exhibit showing coiiditions in other cities. 

The graded scale had been adopted for Chicago school 
teachers and was in line with the apprenticeship courses 
required in other skilled trades averaging approximately 
four years. According to Mr. Busby 200 days a year was 
the average working time for carpenters, with 185 days of 
the year as the avei-age working period for all trades. The 
average earnings per annum for outdoor trades amounted 
to $785. The average wage in Chicago in all industries was 
approximately $590 a year, and the average wage of all in- 
dustries in Illinois ranged from $588 to $914 a year. Most 
of this information was taken from the census of 1919. 

Mr. Busby said that 6546 new applications were filed 
within the past year. In addition more than 5000 men had 
been refused permission to file applications. Only 871 posi- 
tions were available during the year. Chicago conditions 
did not warrant an increase in wages at this time. Operat- 
ing expenses were increasing faster than the gross income. 
Between 1902 and 1912, the capital required to develop and 
c^rry on the industry increased 113 per cent. Other ex- 
hibits showing the per cent of increase in passenger re- 
ceipts over previous years, the decrease in the last annual 
report and the decrease since Feb. 1, 1915, were introduced. 
Another exhibit showed the receipts, expenditures and divis- 
ible receipts per revenue car-hour as increasing prior to 1914, 
and decreasing since that time. Numerous other statistical ex- 
hibits showing the expenses of maintaining property and 
making renewals were also introduced. In 1912 46,380 acci- 
dents were reported, or 46.7 per million passengers. In 1913 
these figures were 39,330 accidents, or thirty-five per mill- 
ion passengers. In 1914 there were 37,143 accidents or thirty- 
three per million passengers. During the first four months 
of 1915, beginning Feb. 1, the number was reduced to tw'en- 
ty-eight accidents per million passengers. This included 
accidents of all kinds as reported by the trainmen. This 
closed the testimony taken on the evening of July 5. 

On July 6 Mr. Busby was cross-examined regarding 
wages and transfers. Counsel for the employees questioned 
him about the surface railways contract with the city, the 
original purchase price of the properties and the allowances 
on construction costs when work was done by company 
forces. Mr. Busby thought that the Cleveland Railway and 
New York subway ordinances were more favorable to the 

companies than the 1907 Chicago ordinance. Mr. Busby re- 
ceived $60,000 a year salary; Henry A. Blair, chairman of 
the board of operation, $30,000 a year, and John M. Roach, 
adviser to the president, $20,000 a year. Each of the other 
four members of the board of operation received $2,500 a 
year. Counsel for the employees criticised the company for 
setting aside 14 per cent in cash for maintenance and re- 
newals. Questions of depreciation, taxes and dividends paid 
by the surface railways were also touched upon. 

William Weatherwax, general superintendent of transpor- 
tation of the Chicago Surface Lines, followed Mr. Busby. 
In direct examination, he stated that men were promoted 
from the train service to responsible positions in nearly all 
the railway departments. He would rather not employ ex- 
trainmen because it was difficult for them to overcome their 
old habits. Mr. Weatherwax outlined his experience with 
the company beginning as a tow-boy in 1886. He compared 
old-time and present-day working conditions. Mr. Weather- 
wax thought that the five-year period was just right for a 
man to attain maximum efficiency. The request of the em- 
ployees that all Sunday runs be eight hours or less was not 
practical. It would require the use of many men who would 
not have work on other days of the week. Mr. Weatherwax 
had not endeavored to increase the schedule speed, but found 
it difficult to keep the men from running in advance of the 


Superior Court Judge Sturtevant granted a temporary 
injunction on July 6 to the United Railroads, San Francisco, 
Cal., restiaining the city of San Francisco from operating 
municipal C and D line cars on the outer Market Street 
tracks below Geary Street. The court held that the city vio- 
lated the contract with the United Railroads dated Nov. 12, 
1912. No question of the usurpation of the franchise is in- 
volved, and municipal railways may still operate on Market 
Street the lines in operation prior to the 1912 agreement. 
This means that all passengers from the ferry to the ex- 
position via Market Street must transfer. The court finds 
the municipal cars on the outer ferry loop so numerous that 
the United Railroads business is affected and excessive 
wear caused to the track and overhead construction. The 
judge states that his decision parallels the case of the Sec- 
ond Avenue Passenger Railway, Pittsburgh, involving the 
same principle. The United Railroads has been placed un- 
der a bond commensurate with the financial loss estimated 
by the Municipal Railway. Appeal to the Supreme Court is 
to be made immediately. 

The Detroit (Mich.) United Railway, through President J. 
C. Hutchins, has notified the Detroit Street Railway Com- 
mission that the latest draft of the proposed agreement for 
the purchase by the city of the company's property within 
the one-fare zone is acceptable to the officials and will be 
presented to the stockholders on July 14 with a recommenda- 
tion for acceptance. The letter to the commission also ad- 
vised that upon acceptance by the commission of the con- 
tract the company would take steps immediately to procure 
the consent required of the trustees for the holders of the 
bonds to appear in the chancery court to fix the price of the 
property provided the contract is accepted by the electors. 
The commission accepted the contract and gave the company 
until Aug. 2 to obtain formal ratification by the stockhold- 
ers and consent of the trustees of the bondholders to appear 
in the suit. In addition to the contract a number of city 
charter amendments must be prepared, and upon these 
agreement must be made by both parties. 

In a letter to the commission, Mr. Hutchins repudiated 
the suggestion that the company's attorneys had endeavored 
to write anything into the contract "prejudicial to the city's 
interests," and stated that a similar allegation might be 
made against the city's attorneys. The company also wrote 
the commission to the effect that it would not accept the idea 
of having the grievances of the street car men's union 
threshed out before the commission, maintaining that the 
present method of arbitration is sufficient to take care of 
the matter. It is stated that Elihu Root will pass upon ths 
agreement for the bondholders. 

July 10, 1915] 




On the plea that the State is attempting to collect double 
taxes, the Cincinnati, Milford & Loveland Traction Company 
appealed to the Ohio Supreme Court on June 18 for an 
order directing the Hamilton County Court of Appeals to 
certify the record of the decision it recently rendered in 
favor of the State. This court decided that the company 
must list for taxation as its gross earnings all the sums 
collected by it, although under the terms of the agreement 
between it and the Cincinnati Traction Company it is com- 
pelled to turn over 3 cents out of every 5 cents from fares 
collected in the city to the Cincinnati Traction Company. 
As the Cincinnati Traction Company pays excise taxes on 
this portion of the receipts the interurban line holds that 
the construction of the law made by the lower court is 

The State Tax Commission has placed the value of the 
Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Com- 
pany's property in Ohio at $1,020,620, an increase of 
$360,000 over 1914. This amount was fixed on the basis 
of the company's settlement with the Hamilton County 
authorities for the years prior to 1911, it is said. The 
question now arises as to whether the commission can add 
to the valuations for the years 1911-1914 inclusive. This 
has been submitted to the Attorney-General for a ruling. 
The increase grew out of a complaint recently made by 
Attorney R. S. Alcorn of Cincinnati. 


Neither Cleveland nor Cincinnati may be able to push 
through certain contemplated extensions and improve- 
ments, requiring consents of owners of abutting property 
before October, if the Ohio Supreme Court does not con- 
vene in special session to render decisions on the cases that 
were argued on June 30 and July 1, since this tribunal has 
adjourned for the summer vacation. The cases were those 
of property owners on Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, between 
East Twentieth and East Fortieth Streets, and David L. 
Carpenter and other property owners on Reading Road, 
Cincinnati, who object to the extension of the Bond Hill 
line over their street. 

Walter M. Schoenle, city solicitor, appeared for the city 
of Cincinnati and argued that the law requiring the con- 
sent of property owners to a street railway is unconstitu- 
tional and that a decision for the city would be of great 
advantage to all cities and towns of the State. Attorney 
Dinsmore, representing the property owners, asserted that 
the consent law is not a delegation of legislative power, 
as had been contended, but that it merely states conditions 
upon which the city may act. 

The main question in the Cleveland case is whether the 
new charter adopted takes precedence over the State law, 
when there is a conflict between them. The charter pro- 
vides that consents of property owners along the line of a 
proposed street railway track are not necessary. Law 
Director Stockwell represented the city and Attorney 
Harry J. Crawford represented the Cleveland Railway, 
while Attorney Wilbur Wilkin appeared for the property 
owners. Mr. Stockwell contended that the charter under 
the home-rule amendment to the constitution supersedes the 
State law. 

Director Stockwell contends that if the Supreme Court 
rules against the city, it will have the right to build the 
track itself and lease it to the Cleveland Railway. 


The committee on railway mail pay, representing 264 
railroads, operating 218,000 miles of line, made public on 
July 3 a booklet entitled "What the Railway Mail Pay 
Problem Means to the Railroads." In the booklet the com- 
mittee discusses the law dealing with the system of pay- 
ment for mail transportation advocated by the Post-ofiice 
Department introduced in the last session of Congress. 
This proposed law, known as the Moon bill, failed of pas- 
sage, but the Postmaster General has announced that he 
intends to have it introduced again in the new Congress. In 
the opinion of the committee as set forth in the booklet, the 
defects of the present practice respecting the payment to 

the railroads for carrying the mails can best be remedied 
by providing the following reforms: 

1. That the mails be weighed, and the pay be readjusted, 
at least once a year on every railway mail route, instead of 
once in four years, as at present. 

2. That the railroads be paid for the use and operation 
of comj^artment post-office cars — for which the present law 
allows no pay — on a pro rata basis with the compensation 
allowed for full railway post-office cars. 

3. That the railroads be paid for, or relieved from, the 
duty of carrying the mails between railroad stations and 

The booklet contains the resolutions unanimously adopted 
at the meeting of railroad executives in New York City on 
May 20, last, at which 90 per cent of the mileage of the 
country was represented. These resolutions completely sus- 
tained the position of the committee on railway mail pay, 
and indorsed the remedies it has suggested. The resolu- 
tions also approved the suggestion of the committee that 
in its opinion the ultimate solution of the railway mail pay 
problem would lie in reference of the matter to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, with full power. 


The Councils of Philadelphia, Pa., on July 1 by unani- 
mous vote passed ordinances appropriating the $6,000,000 
transit loan to the Department of City Transit and author- 
izing Director of City Transit A. Merritt Taylor to let con- 
tracts and start work immediately on the Broad Street 
subway and the Frankford elevated. The ordinances 
allotted $3,000,000 of the loan for each of these projects. 
Actual construction work on both projects will be started 
on Sept. 13. Mr. Taylor says that if there is no delay in 
making the loans available, the entire Broad Street subway 
can be completed in thirty-two months and the Frankford 
elevated road within two years. 

Advertisements appeared in the Philadelphia morning 
papers of July 2 inviting bids for the construction of the 
section of the Broad Street subway which will extend 
from a point in Broad Street at the north side of the exist- 
ing subway structure of the Market Street Elevated Pas- 
senger Railway north of City Hall to a point in Broad 
Street at the south side of the existing subway structure 
of the Market Street Elevated Passenger Railway south of 
City Hall. This section will pass diagonally under the 
westerly side of City Hall. Bids for this work wiU be 
opened on Aug. 16. The specifications call for actual con- 
struction to be commenced on Sept. 13, and for the contract 
to be completed within thirty months. 

Advertisements were scheduled to appear in the papers 
on July 8, inviting bids for the construction of the founda- 
tions for the Frankford elevated line, between Callowhill 
Street on the south and Unity Street on the north. Bids 
for this work will be opened on Aug. 16. The specifications 
call for actual construction to be commenced on Sept. 13, 
and for the contract to be completed within eight months. 
Advertisements will appear in the papers on July 26 invit- 
ing bids for the construction and erection of the steel work 
for the section of the Frankford elevated line, extending 
from Callowhill Street on the south to Unity Street on the 
north. Bids for this work will be opened on Aug. 23. The 
specifications call for the erection of the steel work to be 
commenced on Dec. 1, 1915, and for the contract to be com- 
pleted within one year. 

On July 1 Mr. Taylor issued a statement in regard to 
the work which he concluded as follows: 

"Now that the policy of the city of Philadelphia has been 
finally determined by formal action on the part of the elec- 
tors and the municipal authorities, after three years of re- 
search and public discussion, with full knowledge of all 
relevant facts, I hope that all parties in interest will co- 
operate generously in expediting the completion of the 
much-needed facilities which have been authorized, and 
such additions thereto as will be necessary, to the end that 
Philadelphia and Philadelphians may enjoy the bounteous 
returns which they will gain in time saving, convenience 
and comfort, and from a wider field of opportunity which 
will result from the establishment and operation of adequate 
rapid transit facilities in Philadelphia on a proper basis." 

The Mayor has signed the transit loan bills. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 


The employees of the Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated 
Street Railway and the Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway 
have ratified the wage agreement with the New England 
Investment & Security Company referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal of July 3, page 34. The new wage 
schedule provides for the same daily rate of wages now 
paid conductors and motormen on the Springfield Street 
Railway, but hereafter all overtime will be reckoned on 
the basis of nine hours a day instead of ten hours a day, 
as was settled upon when the previous agreement became 
opei-ative. The employees of the Worcester Consolidated 
Street Railway, who received a minimum wage of 23 cents 
an hour and a maximum wage of 28% cents an hour, will 
receive a minimum wage of 25 cents an hour and a maxi- 
mum rate of 30^/^ cents an hour for the first six months and 
a minimum of 25 cents and a maximum of 31 cents for the 
last six months under the new agreement. The agreement 
will expire on May 31, 1916. 

The miscellaneous departments, which include messen- 
gers, freight handlers, yard men and other employees, ex- 
clusive of conductors and motormen, will all receive in- 
ci-eases in wages. The messengers hereafter will receive 
conductor's wages, which will mean that instead of work- 
ing on an hourly basis at 25% cents an hour for a ten-hour 
day, they will receive $2.85 for a nine-hour day, or an 
increase of about 6 cents an hour over the present rate. 
The platform men will receive an increase of 7% cents an 
hour, with a reduction in hours. Instead of working a 
ten-hour day for $1.92 Vs, they will receive $2 for a nine- 
hour day. All other departments classified under miscel- 
laneous will get a nine-hour day, with an eight-hour day 
on Sundays and holidays. They will receive time and a 
half for all overtime work. It is estimated that 120 or more 
men of the miscellaneous departments will receive an in- 
crease in wages ranging from 5 to 37% cents a day over 
and above what they receive now, not including the in- 
crease that is represented in the leduction of the working- 
day from ten to nine hours. 

Under the new management the wages of the employees of 
the Springfield Street Railway and the Worcester Consoli- 
dated Street Railway are practically equalized, the former 
still profiting by a small margin. The Worcester men 
receive a minimum of $2.25 a day for a nine-hour day as 
compared with $2.30, the present wages on the Springfield 
lines. They will receive a maximum of $2.75 for the first 
six months of the agreement and $2.79 for the last six 
months of the agreement, as compared with $2.85, the 
maximum daily i-ate on the Springfield lines. They will 
still continue to operate on platform time, whereas the 
Springfield conductors and motormen will continue to 
operate under a day schedule. The Springfield employees, 
instead of receiving a minimum of 23 cents and a maximum 
of 28% cents for overtime, will receive about 25% cents 
an hour for the minimum schedule and about 31% cents 
for the maximum schedule. This means an increase of 
2% cents an hour for the one-year men and an increase 
of 3 cents an hour for the three-year men. 


Nine of twelve jurors in the Jackson County Circuit Court 
gave a verdict on July 1 for $1,500,000 damages to the Inter- 
state Railway against the Kansas City, Clay County & St. 
Joseph Railway, the Wyandotte Construction Company, and 
the estate of George Townsend. The motion for a new trial 
will be heard on Aug. 2. If unsuccessful, appeal will fol- 
low. The Interstate Company, suing for $2,000,000, alleged 
that the defendants had usurped a right-of-way, which two- 
year options received several years ago had kept alive. 
Some property owners testified they had not given consent 
as claimed by the plaintiffs to notation of renewal on op- 
tions. One question involved was whether the plaintiffs 
had paid for any land, or had done the work required by 
law to preserve the charter rights. A similar suit by the 
Interstate Company against the Missouri River & Camden 
Company, a Townsend steam road project, was thrown out 
of court four years ago. Suit similar to the Interstate case 
had been filed against the Kansas City, Clay County & St. 

Joseph Railway for $200,000 damages by the Kansas City 
& St. Joseph Electric Railway. This suit was dismissed, 
and the Kansas City-St. Joseph Electric Railway joined the 
Interstate Company, alleging it had sold its rights to the 


The Rapid Transit Commission at Cincinnati, Ohio, made 
its report to Mayor Spiegel on July 2. It calls for the con- 
struction of a line under what is known as Modification H 
of Plan No. 4 and locates the line from a point in Norwood, 
a suburb of Cincinnati, through the Duck Creek ravine, 
under Owl's Nest Park, skirting the bluff and Mount Adams 
to a point near the Pennsylvania Railroad station; thence 
over Pearl Street to Walnut Street, as a subway under 
Walnut Street to the canal, in the canal to St. Bernard and 
then through the open country to Norwood. The cost of 
the line, exclusive of power house, equipment, and dam- 
ages to adjoining property, is estimated by the commission 
at $5,717,849. 

The commission says that the line should be built by the 
city according to the plan mentioned in its entirety and 
that the people should be asked to vote for a bond issue 
that will cover the cost. It is the opinion of the commis- 
sion, however, that the line should be leased to an operat- 
ing company. If no tenant is found in advance the city 
should operate the line in order to give the interurban lines 
an entrance to the business section. 

The report contemplates a high-speed line over private 
right-of-way on the section between St. Bernard and Nor- 
wood as soon as the city is built up in that section and 
street crossings become dangerous. The commission recom- 
mends that land be purchased at once for that purpose. 
The opinion is expressed that the line would not earn its 
fixed expenses in the beginning and that the city should 
arrange to make this good in some way. The commission 
suggests that the proposed boulevard along the Miami and 
Erie canal be developed with the construction of the road. 
The subway should be open between street crossings, so 
that as much light and air as possible may be admitted to 
the cars. 

The commission has been at work a year and has had the 
aid of George F. Swain, chairman of the Boston Rapid 
Transit Commission, Engineer F. B. Edwards, and Engi- 
neer Ward Baldwin, the latter having charge of the elec- 
trical phase of the proposition. 

Mayor Spiegel has expressed disapproval of the plan, 
principally because it would provide excellent advantages 
to St. Bernard and Norwood, both of which have opposed 
annexation to the city. He says the western part of the 
city has been practically ignored by the commission. He 
also favors a wide street along the canal, instead of a 
boulevard. Mayor Spiegel said he would be in no hurry to 
act on the report, because such a large proposition should 
not be rushed through without due consideration. The re- 
port urged the appointment of a commission at once under 
the Bauer rapid transit act, so that the road may be built 
as soon as possible. 


The question of wages, about which the officers of the 
Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I., and the repre- 
sentatives of the men have been unable to agree, will be 
arbitrated. A. E. Potter, president of the company, was 
quoted by the Providence Journal of July 2 in part as fol- 

"We have agreed to arbitrate the wage question. We 
have reached a good understanding on all other matters, 
that is, the five demands made by the men. It is true that 
we offered the extra men $1.50 a day. In fact, we even 
went further, as we agreed to give that sum to all such 
men who were required to report for duty. This was done 
in lieu of any arbitration on this particular point. At 
yesterday's conference I offered to grant without further 
arbitration such increases as the men asked for in their 
recent demands, providing the company received an increase 
of 2 per cent in its business month by month compared 
with the previous year. Likewise I assured them that I 
would recommend to the board of directors that they be 

July 10, 1915] 



given the increase asked for next year, providing we re- 
ceived an additional increase of 2 per cent in our business. 
I do not know what action has been taken on these pro- 

Electrification of Short Oregon Line. — It is reported that 
the purchase of the Rogue River Valley Railroad by the 
Southern Oregon Traction Company, Medford, Ore., means 
the electrification of the Rogue River line for its entire 
length, 8 miles, which includes 1 mile in Medford, 5 miles 
between Medford and Jacksonville, and 2 miles to the brick- 
yard, and the extension on West Main Street of the present 
line of the Southern Oregon Traction Company. 

First-Aid Chests Required on Illinois Railroads. — The Illi- 
nois Legislature, which adjourned last week, passed a bill 
requiring all railroads to provide emergency chests for first- 
aid to the injured on all trains. The workmen's compensa- 
tion act was also amended so that its provision would apply 
to transportation companies, and a third bill amends the 
public utilities act to permit railroads to give transportation 
to newspapers and magazines in exchange for advertising 

New Publicity Department for Barstow Properties. — 
W. S. Bartow & Company, New York, have started a new 
publicity department in charge of E. Burt Fenton, manager, 
an experienced newspaper man. For the present Mr. Fen- 
ton's headquarters will be in Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose 
of the new department is to distribute information of 
interest to the public concerning the various railway and 
lighting properties controlled by this company and bring 
the public into closer relations with these properties. 

Mr. Moore Returns. — George Gordon Moore, well known 
through his activities in electric railway promotion in Michi- 
gan and his connections with the San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Railways, Oakland, Cal., has returned from 
Europe. When the war began Mr. Moore was invited by 
General Sir John French to visit France, and he was at 
the British army headquarters almost continuously from 
the outbreak of hostilities up to the time of his return to 
this country. It is said that Mr. Moore has the distinction 
of being the only American permitted to visit the English 

Question of Tunnel or Bridge in New York. — Chairman 
Edward E. McCall of the Public Service Commission for 
the First District, has sent a letter to the Board of Esti- 
mate and Apportionment, inclosing a report from Alfred 
Craven, chief engineer of the commission, upon the pro- 
posal made by the Board of Estimate that a tunnel 
under the East River at Sixtieth Street be substituted for 
the use of the Queensboro Bridge for the tracks of the new 
Broadway subway, to be operated by the New York Mu- 
nicipal Railway Corporation. The chief engineer prefers 
the use of the bridge in accordance with the dual system 
contracts rather than risk the delay which may follow a 
change in plans at this time. Commissioners J. Sergeant 
Cram and Robert C. Wood, however, favor the tunnel and 
have notified the Board of Estimate and Apportionment to 
that effect. 

Pennsylvania Public Service Commission Appeals. — In 

declaring that it had no jurisdiction over appeals from the 
decisions of the Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania 
under the revised act of June 3, 1914, the Dauphin County 
Court has left nearly twoscore of such appeals from vari- 
ous business men's and improvement associations unde- 
cided with no apparent way of ever questioning these de- 
cisions in court. Under the act of 1913, the Dauphin 
County Court was named as the tribunal to hear all ap- 
peals from the Public Service Commission's decisions. 
When the act was superseded on June 3, the appeals were 
directed to the Superior Court with the proviso that they 
must be made within thirty days of the commission's de- 
cision. Some forty decisions had already been filed for 
argument in the Dauphin County Court, and when the first 
of these came up the court announced that it had no juris- 
diction under the latest act. As more than thirty days 
have elapsed since the commission's decision, these appeals 
have no means of disposition. Several appeals have al- 
ready been made to the Superior Court and at least one of 
these will question the constitutionality of the new legisla- 
tive act. 

Financial and Corporate 


Pittsburgh Railways 

The statement of income, profit and loss of the Pittsburgh 
(Pa.) Railways for the year ended March 31, 191.5, follows: 

Gross earnings from street railway operations $11,670,091 

Operating expenses: 

Maintenance of way and structures $1,183,427 

Maintenance of equipment 733,076 

Traffic 28,017 

Transportation 4,384,329 

General and miscellaneous 1,286,271 

Total operating expenses $7,615,120 

Taxes 438,082 

Total operating expenses and taxes $8,053,202 

Net earnings from street railway operations $3,616,889 

Auxiliary operations : 

Gross earnings $143,532 

Operating expenses and taxes 97,098 

Net earnings $46,434 

Total net earnings $3,663,323 

Other income 112,833 

Total income $3,776,156 

Deductions from income 2,955,797 

Net income before deducting fixed charges $820,359 

Interest on funded debt 389,620 

Interest on income debentures 330,739 

Net income for the vear $100,000 

Surplus, April 1, 1914 636,982 

Additions to surplus 6,984 

Gross surplus $743,966 

Deductions from surplus 116.692 

Surplus March 31, 1915 — per balance sheet $627,274 

Although the territory served experienced a very severe 
industrial depression covering almost the entire year, the 
loss in gross earnings from street railway operation was 
more than offset by economies practised and reduced cost of 
power. A comparison of the results of 1915 with those of 

1914 show a decrease in the gross earnings from street rail- 
way operation of .$112,769, or 0.95 per cent, the operating 
expenses having been decreased $280,747, or 3.55 per cent. 
The result was a gain in net earnings of $167,978, or 4.32 
per cent. The operating ratio for street railway operation 
was 65.25 per cent in 1915 as compared with 67.01 per cent 
in 1914. The average passenger earnings per car-mile were 
31.29 cents, as compared with 31.45 cents, a decrease in 

1915 of 0.16 cent. 

There was expended during 1914 the sum of $1,4.53,061 for 
improvements, betterments and extensions, of which $1,073,- 
970 was charged to property accounts, and $379,091 to a 
deferred maintenance account, to be amortized during the 
life of the property benefitted. In addition, there was ex- 
pended by the maintenance of way department $1,183,427 for 
ordinary maintenance of roadway, tracks, bridges and over- 
head construction. By improvements the fire-insurance cost 
for the year was reduced $7,955. During the year the toll 
bridges showed an increase in receipts of $4,875, or 20.19 
per cent, and a decrease in expenses of $1,065, or 7.24 
per cent. 

During the year the company received the one hundred 
low-floor motor cars mentioned in a previous report. Nearly 
all of these are now in service. The low-floor, low-wheel, 
side-entrance car has met with the approval of the public, 
and it has been very satisfactory in operation. Owing 
to the public educational program adopted by the trans- 
portation and claim departments, the accidents and ex- 
penditures for claims have been greatly reduced. All the 
employees, with the exception of the trainmen, have been 
insured under the group-policy plan of the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society. 

The above information is contained in the annual stock- 
holder's report of the Philadelphia Company, which controls 
the Pittsburgh Railways. This report states that during the 
year the Philadelphia Company caused valuations to be made 
of its transportation and distribution lines, service lines, 
regulators, meters and compressing stations by independent 



engineers. After making due allowance for depreciation 
these were incorporated in the balance sheet to the extent 
of a total increase of $12,556,441. The book values of the 
Philadelphia Oil Company, the Pittsburgh & West Virginia 
Gas Company and Equitable Gas Company shares were in- 
creased to represent more correctly the actual value. The 
company availed itself of the above increases to make a 
reduction of $8,924,254 ih the valuation upon its books of 
street railway and traction stocks and other reductions in 
gas values sufficient to make the total amount of reduction 
in book values $15,774,052. 

The report also contains the annual statement of the 
Beaver Valley Traction Company, showing in the main the 
following results: Gross earnings from railway operations, 
$334,093; operating expenses and taxes, $236,704; net earn- 
ings from railway operations, $97,388; net deficit from aux- 
iliary operations, $4,262; total net earnings, $93,126; other 
income, $518; total income, $93,644; deductions and fixed 
charges, $96,132; deficit, $2,488, and surplus on March 31, 
1915, $92,336. 


Preliminary Details of New Arrangement — Plan Believed to 
be Satisfactory to All Parties 

It is reported that the reorganization of the Northern 
Electric Railway, Chico, Cal., has been brought into con- 
crete form. The new organization plan represents the 
perfected work of the attorneys representing the bankers' 
committee, the underlying bondholders' committee, the 
Spreckels interests and the Sloss trustees. 

The general features of the plan are that a new railroad 
corporation will be created to acquire the properties of the 
Northern Electric Eailway, the Sacramento & Woodland 
Railroad, the Marysville & Colusa Branch and the Sacra- 
mento Terminal Company, the latter subject to the $150,000 
existing mortgage. This new corporation will issue first 
income bonds in exchange, bond for bond, for the bonds 
of the Northern Electric Company, the Sacramento & 
Woodland Railroad and the Marysville & Colusa Branch, 
and it will issue second income bonds in exchange, bond 
for bond, for the bonds of the Northern Electric Railway. 
All the bonds will bear interest at the rate of 5 per cent 
per year. 

The unsecured creditors of the present companies will 
receive, as security for their claims, second income bonds 
equal to 50 per cent of their claims. These second income 
bonds will be delivered to the unsecured creditors by the 
Sloss Securities Company, and will be the consideration 
which the latter company will receive for its participation 
in the plan and for its cancellation of various unsecured 
claims it now holds against the Northern Electric Railway 
amounting to more than $1,000,000. 

The new corporation will also create a first mortgage 
bond issue of $500,000 for the purpose of raising sufficient 
money to pay for necessary repairs and replacements to 
the road, receivers' certificates, expenses, attorneys' fees, 
costs of litigation, preferred claims for labor or materials 
which have been ordered paid by the court, and expenses of 

Interest will be payable unconditionally on the first mort- 
gage bonds from the date of issue, and after five years 
from date upon the first income bonds. During the first 
five years interest will be payable on the first income bonds 
only as and when earned by the new corporation. Upon the 
second income bonds the annual interest charges will be 

All of the stock of the new corporation will be placed 
in trust with the Union Trust Company of San Francisco 
for a period of five years, with the power of selling the 
same for not less than $2,000,000. In case of such sale 
the money will be distributed pro rata among the unse- 
cured creditors and those secured by second income bonds. 
While the stock is so held in trust, the trust company will 
vote a majority of the stock in accordance with the instruc- 
tions of the first income bondholders. 

It is expected that the complete reorganization plan will 
soon be submitted to the bondholders and the creditors 
for their final approval. Support for the arrangement from 
all sources is anticipated. 


A circular has been addressed by the directors of the 
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash., to the stockholders in regard to the reduction of the 
quarterly dividend on the preferred stock of the company to 
three-quarters of 1 per cent, as noted briefiy in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal of July 3, page 38. The directors 

"This reduction of dividend is due to a decrease in earn- 
ings caused by operation of jitney buses at a time when 
business conditions have been generally unsatisfactory. The 
jitney first appeared in the Puget Sound district in Jan- 
uary of this year, rapidly increasing in number until in 
February and March there were about 700 in operation, 
resulting for a time in a loss in gross earnings to the com- 
pany of more than $2,000 a day. A careful study of jitney 
operation throughout the country gives every indication 
that such cars under fair and reasonable regulation cannot 
be operated permanently and profitably in competition 
with street railways. A gradual decrease in such com- 
petition is, therefore, to be expected and such decrease is 
already taking place in the Puget Sound cities, the number 
of cars now in operation being less than 400. 

"It is the opinion of the directors that neither the busi- 
ness depression alone, nor the operation of the jitney alone, 
would have affected earnings to such an extent as to make 
the reduction of dividend advisable. The company is at 
present in a strong position financially, vdth a substantial 
cash balance and only a small floating debt. The directors 
believe that this position should be maintained. As the 
company has had but six months of jitney competition, and 
as under most favorable circumstances this competition will 
not immediately disappear, they feel the company's re- 
sources should be conserved through postponing the pay- 
ment of a portion of the preferred stock dividend. 

"A return of general business toward normal conditions, 
or a further reduction in the operation of jitneys, should 
warrant the resumption of preferred stock dividends at the 
regular rate. The preferred stock is cumulative and, there- 
fore, any deferred payments must be made up before divi- 
dends are paid on the common stock." 


Emil G. Schmidt, president of the Des Moines (Iowa) 
City Railway, has been appointed receiver of the property 
by the Federal Court as a result of action by the bond- 
holders of the company to protect their interests. The de- 
cision of the State Supreme Court that the company's right 
to operate in Des Moines ends on Aug. 22 is believed to 
have been nullified by this latest court proceeding. Fran- 
chise negotiations are continuing, however, and a fran- 
chise settlement is expected. The franchise rights of the 
company were already being contested for by the bond- 
holders in the federal courts, and the receivership will 
enable the company to make much-needed improvements 
which could not be made before on account of the unsettled 
franchise situation. Mr. Schmidt says that the jitney traffic 
in Des Moines is showing a big decrease and is now on 
the point of vanishing, if the growing receipts of the city 
railway are a criterion. The validity of the new jitney 
ordinance, which has been attacked in the courts, is unde- 
cided. Previous reference to the default in bond interest 
and the franchise difficulty of this company was made in 
the Electric Railway Journal of April 17. 

Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation, Augusta, 

Ga. — The officers of the Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric 
Corporation recently filed with the Secretary of State of 
South Carolina a certificate of increase in capital stock 
from $1,500,000 to $2,500,000. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — The directors 
of the Bay State Street Railway have decided not to pay any 
dividend at this time on the $20,517,200 of common stock, 
practically all of which is owned by the Massachusetts 
Electric Companies. 

Belvidere (IlL) City Railway. — W. C. Foster, Rockford, 
111., representing interests of that city, has purchased at 
auction the Belvidere City Railway. 

Camaguey (Cuba) Company, Ltd. — The stockholders of 
the Camaguey Company, Ltd., have approved a proposition 

July 10, 1915] 



to give the Electric Bond & Share Company an option for 
ninety days on the $1,000,000 of capital stock of the com- 
pany at $90 a share. Examinations of the properties will 
be made. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. — The State Tax Commission 
has fixed a tentative valuation of $24,891,100 on the prop- 
erty of the Cleveland Railvk^ay. Although the company has 
refused to pay the amount of taxes demanded for the last 
two years because of the excessive valuation placed on its 
property, and has brought suit to enjoin the collection of 
the amounts claimed each year, the tentative figures show 
an increase of $2,138,370 over the value fixed last year and 
about $5,000,000 more than the company is willing to con- 
cede. Each year the company tendered a check for the 
amount of taxes it was willing to pay and each year this 
was rejected by the county treasurer. These amounts have 
been set aside for payment when the courts adjudicate the 
matter. The company has insisted that the commission 
make known its methods of fixing the valuation, but this 
request has been refused. 

Grand Valley Railway, Brantford, Ont. — The offer by the 
city of Brantford of the sale of the Grand Valley Railway 
line from Paris to Gait for $30,000 and electrification of 
the Lake Erie & Northern Railway from Port Dover to 
Brantford, has not been accepted by M. H. Todd, acting for 
the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Lake Shore Electric Railway, Cleveland, Ohio. — The di- 
rectors of the Lake Shore Electric Railway have decided to 
use the surplus earnings in the development of the business 
instead of making further dividend disbursements at pres- 
ent. The power service of the company is being improved 
at considerable cost, but the changes are expected to reduce 
the cost of production materially and make it possible for 
the company to increase the business of this department. 
The first preferred stock of the company is a cumulative 

Norton & Taunton Street Railway Company, Norton, 
Mass. — Judge De Courcy in the Supreme Court has ap- 
pointed Amos F. Hill, Lowell, as receiver of the Norton & 
Taunton Street Railway Company, until foreclosure pro- 
ceedings are brought by the American Trust Company, 
trustee for the bondholders, on account of defaulted in- 
terest. The company is a consolidation of the Mansfield & 
Norton, Mansfield & Easton, Norton & Attleboro and Nor- 
ton & Taunton street railways. On June 1, 1903, all were 
mortgaged to the American Trust Company to secure 
$296,000 of 5 per cent bonds. 

Paeific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, Cal. — 
The board of directors of the Pacific Gas & Electric Com- 
pany has declared a stock dividend of 6 per cent on the 
outstanding common stock, payable with stock certificates 
for whole shares of new common stock and stock dividend 
warrants for fractional parts of such shares in two instal- 
ments, 3 per cent on July 15, 1915, and 3 per cent on Dec. 
15, 1915, to holders of common stock of record on June 30, 
1915. Previous reference to this declaration was made in 
the Electric Railway Journal of June 19. 

Peoria (III.) Railway. — The Illinois Public Utilities Com- 
mission has issued an order permitting the Peoria Railway 
to sell $115,000 of first and refunding 5 per cent mortgage 

Southern Oregon Traction Company, Medford, Ohio. — The 

purchase of the Rogue River Valley Railroad, an 8-mile 
steam line, by the Southern Oregon Traction Company is 

Washington & Maryland Railway, Washington, D. C. — 

The Public Utilities Commission of the District of Colum- 
bia has authorized the Washington & Maryland Railway to 
issue $66,200 of first mortgage thirty-year 5 per cent bonds 
at the highest price obtainable under such details of sale 
as may be approved by the commission. The proceeds are 
to be used to fund indebtedness for cost of construction 
and improvements now made and to provide working capi- 
tal. In a previous decision the commission valued the prop- 
erty of the company, including working capital, at $63,381 
as of Aug. 15, 1914. The present debt to be funded is 
$53,000, and in order that the total securities may not ex- 
ceed the fair value, the outstanding capital stock must be 
reduced to $10,360. 

Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio. — The Western Ohio 
Railroad was authorized by the Public Utilities Commission 
of Ohio to transfer its interurban property to the Western 
Ohio Railway and its electric light property at Sidney to 
the Standard Power & Equipment Company. 


Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 3 per cent, first 

Boston (Mass.) Suburban Electric Companies, 50 cents, 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) City Railroad, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Company, Honolulu, 
Hawaii, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 2 per cent 

Kentucky Securities Corporation, Lexington, Ky., quaj 
terly, 11/2 per cent, preferred. 

Ottawa (Ont.) Traction Company, Ltd., quarterly, 1 per 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, Iowa, 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Public Service Investment Company, Boston, Mass., quar- 
terly, $1.50, preferred. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattk 
Wash., quarterly, 75 cents, preferred. 

Railway & Light Securities Company, Boston, Mass., 3 pc 
cent, preferred; 3 per cent, common. 

South Carolina Light, Power & Railways Company, Spar- 
tanburg, S. C, quarterly, IV2 per cent, preferred. 

Springfield & Xenia Railway, Springfield, Ohio, quarterly, 
IV2 per cent, preferred. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio, quar- 
terly, 1 per cent, preferred. 



Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Period Revenues Expenses Income Charges Income 

Im., May, '15 $165,033 $114,124 $50,909 $39,678 $11,231 

1 " •■ '14 186,749 125,732 61,017 39,604 21,413 

11 15 1,818,854 1,175,487 643,367 438,487 204,880 

11 " •' '14 1,920,524 1,219,435 701,089 420,259 280,630 

Im., May, '15 $60,920 *$32,008 $28,912 $17,500 $11,412 
1 14 56,965 *27,962 29,003 17,367 11,636 

12 15 791,131 *382,303 408,828 209,925 198,903 
12 14 772,137 *352,698 419,439 208,423 211,016 

Im., Mav. '15 $90,909 *$59,018 $31,891 $30,079 $1,812 
1 ■■ " '14 94,761 *59,111 35,650 28,840 6,810 
12 15 1,045,731 *704,925 340,806 347,431 t6,625 

12 " '• '14 1,172,194 *709,159 463,035 315,806 147,229 

Ini., Mav, '15 $245,947 *$151,170 $94,777 $37,821 $56,956 
1 14 254,559 *166,580 87,979 43,673 44,306 

12 " " '15 3,065,554 *1, 846, 344 1,219,210 467,975 751,235 
12 " " '14 3,052,154 *1, 965, 552 1,086,602 489,108 597,494 

Im., May, '15 $1,108,008 *$585,862 $522,146 $359,853 $162,293 

1 14 1,106,985 *586,519 520,466 343,608 176,864 

12 15 14,017,929 *7, 520, 595 6,497,334 4,294,048 2,203,286 

12 14 13,894,073 *7, 697, 943 6,196,130 3,988,669 2,207,461 

Im., Mav, '15 $204,546 *$117,802 $86,744 $70,326 $16,418 

1 14 197,885 *114,135 83,750 63,504 20,246 

12 " " '15 2,550,473 *1, 441, 152 1,109,321 769,781 339,540 
12 " " '14 2,429,876 *1, 398, 351 1,031,525 747,687 283,838 


Im., Mav, '15 $194,301 *$117,593 $76,708 $63,889 $12,819 

1" "' '14 227,430 •153,711 73,719 59,686 19,033 

12 " ■■ '15 2,498,810 •1,483,543 1,015,267 747,005 268,262 

12 " " '14 2,751,609 *1, 731, 975 1,019,634 611,725 407,909 


im., Mav, '15 $323,324 $191,317 $132,007 
1 " ■ '14 323,036 191,808 131,228 
.-, " •• '15 1,424,675 900,768 523,907 
r, 14 1,403,920 860,110 543,810 

$51,524 $80,483 

50,660 80,568 

255,962 267,945 

250,815 292,995 

Im., May, '15 $247,644 •$148,625 $99,019 $56,845 t$42,239 
1" " '1 4 256,325 *159,538 96,787 56,454 $40,407 
5 " ■' '15 1,210,228 •755,134 455,094 284,286 il71,132 
?, 14 1,247,905 ^777, 784 470,121 279,187 $191,284 

'Includes taxes, fl^'eflcit. Jlncludes non-operating income. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 

Traffic and Transportation 


Philadelphia Regulatory Measure Signed — New Orleans 
Ordinance Sustained in State Supreme Court 

On July 2 Mayor Blankenbuig of Philadelphia signed the 
Jitney regulation ordinance after it was returned to him 
by Councils with his amendment to the zone clause refused. 
The ordinance will become effective on July 12. In a state- 
ment the Mayor made it plain that he objected to the 
zone clause in the measure, but that he was opposed to 
permitting jitneys to operate unregulated all summer. 
Immediately after announcement was made that the Mayor 
had signed the bill, G. S. Winner, president of the Jitney 
Auto Service Company, said his organization would ask the 
Court of Common Pleas to grant a temporary injunction 
restraining the department of public safety from enforcing 
the provisions of the law. If this request is refused, he 
said, the company would appeal to the Public Service Com- 
mission for redress. John H. Fow, counsel for the Jitney 
Auto Association, also said he would file a bill in equity 
restraining the police department from enforcing the zone 
section of the ordinance. 

The New Orleans ordinance designed to regulate jitney 
traffic was upheld on June 28 by the State Supreme Court, 
and a temporary injunction obtained in the Civil District 
Court by jitney owners to prevent the city authorities from 
enforcing the law was dismissed. Owners of jitneys ob- 
jected principally to a provision of the ordinance which 
stipulated that all owners must give an indemnity bond of 
$5,000. Each of the cars of the New Orleans Railway & 
Light Company is affected by the ordinance. 

When the proposed ordinance regulating the jitneys in 
Scranton, Pa., came before Councils, a delegation of jitney 
owners asked Councils to define regular routes for them to 
travel on streets not occupied by the lines of the Scranton 
Railways, and offered to furnish the city with a blanket 
bond covering all members of the association. The offer 
was accepted. 

At the request of the Pottsville (Pa.) Jitney Owners' 
Association, Judge Brumm has issued an injunction on 
Mayor Mortimer and the City Council preventing the en- 
forcement of the jitney ordinance recently passed. The 
jitney owners say the new law is impossible of enforce- 
ment, as it requires a certificate of efficiency from all driv- 
ers, and there is nobody with authority to issue such cer- 
tificates. They also charge that taxicabs exact large fares 
and are taxed only $10 annually, while jitneys with 5-cent 
fares are taxed from $25 to $100. 

City Solicitor Field of Baltimore, Md., has submitted 
to the Board of Estimate a tentative ordinance for the 
regulation of the jitney in that city. The measure fixes 
the license fee at $200 for a car with a capacity of eight 
passengers or less, with an additional payment of $25 for 
every passenger in excess of eight. A further tax of 9 per 
cent of the gross receipts is provided, this being at the 
same rate as the tax imposed on the earnings of the local 
railways for park purposes. The matter of an indemnity 
bond has not been covered in the measure as prepared by 
Mr. Field, as the Mayor believes that this could perhaps be 
dealt with better in a separate measure. 

The jitney regulatory ordinance passed by the City Coun- 
cil of Grand Rapids on May 10 has gone into effect. The 
Council found that of the 3385 names signed to a petition 
presented by the jitney men for a referendum only 947 were 
qualified electors and the petition was promptly revoked. 
The ordinance provides for the payment of a license fee of 
$3.50 for each passenger according to seating capacity. 
The bond for each driver is fixed at $10,000. Jitneys are 
required to operate between 6 and 10 a. m., noon, 1 and 2 
p. m., and 5 and 8 p. m. 

Judge Leslie R. He\vitt of the Superior Court at Los 
Angeles, Cal., has sustained the city's demurrer to the 
suit of J. M. McClasky for an injunction to restrain enforce- 
ment of the motor bus ordinance. The ordinance became 
effective July 1, but the provision for $11,000 indemnity 
bonds does not become effective until July 17. 


Careful counts made by the San Francisco-Oakland Ter- 
minal Railways of the jitney buses operating in Oakland, 
Cal., indicate a gradual decrease in the number of 5-cent 
auto vehicles. The craze began the latter part of Decem- 
ber, 1914, and within thirty days approximately 500 ma- 
chines appeared in the service. The need of legislation 
was quickly demonstrated. At that time jitney drivers 
were operating under a resolution passed by the City 
Council, permitting them to operate on a $5 per annum 
license fee. The first formal ordinance, passed in Feb- 
ruary, 1915, added an indemnity bond of $10,000 for each 
machine. Under this clause the jitneys have been paying 
a premium of $80 to $100 per annum to the Pacific Coast 
Casualty and the Guardian Casualty & Guarantee Com- 
panies. The latter company, however, has recently with- 
drawn from the field, gradually cancelling all bonds already 
written and refusing to write any new business. This ordi- 
nance also raised the city license fee from $5 to $60 per 
annum, payable quarterly; specified regular routes; called 
for a full stop at all railway crossings and other minor 
regulations under direct supervision of the chief of police 
of the city. 

The ordinance was objectionable to the jitney operators, 
particularly the clauses in reference to the $60 annual 
license fee and full stop required at all railway crossings. 
The City Council reconsidered the matter and passed a 
new ordinance which, while requiring the annual license 
fee of $60, provided full stops at railroad crossings not con- 
trolled by flagmen or traffic officers and permitted opera- 
tion over street railway crossings at a reduced speed of 
5 m.p.h. This second ordinance was also opposed by the 
jitney operators on the ground that the $60 license fee was 
exorbitant. An amendment was proposed to reduce this 
amount to $10 per annum. This proposal was referred to 
a referendum vote by the people at the regular mayoralty 
election on May 11, and was defeated. The election at the 
same time approved an amendment making it obligatory 
upon the chief of police to revoke jitney licenses for viola- 
tion of any part of the ordinance or any traffic law passed 
by the city. 

The principal point now in dispute is between the city 
and those jitney operators who are operating under the 
original $5 annual license fee. The city is endeavoring to 
collect the license fee under the new ordinance while the jit- 
neys contend they are not liable to the $60 tax until their 
original license expires. The city attorney has advised the 
Council that the right to increase the license fee is a legal 
one and the jitney operators received grace until July 1 to 
come in under the new license. 

At present about seventy-five jitney operators are run- 
ning under the original $5 license fee which nominally ex- 
pires on Jan. 1, 1916. They are preparing to contest the 
ruling of the city attorney through a case now pending in 
the lower courts, but with little encouragement for relief. 

During the latter part of April 284 machines were 
licensed for jitney operation, but from actual count only 
246 operated regularly during the week, except that on Sat- 
urdays due to increased travel and half -holidays, nearly all 
were operated. At that time the average earning per car 
was about $4.25 per day, the longest route was 4.4 miles 
and the shortest 2.1 miles. In the latter half of May the 
total of machines licensed to operate had decreased to 270, 
but only 196 were in actual operation on week days other 
than Saturday. The greatest reduction was noticeable on 
the longest routes. By the middle of June the total num- 
ber of licenses had decreased to about 200, which is ac- 
counted for by the rapid deterioration of machines, accidents, 
extraordinary wear, decrease in earnings and the apparent 
wearing off of the novelty as well as the usual loss of 
travel during the summer months on account of the absence 
of vacationists from the city. 

Inquiry among jitney bus drivers indicated that no 
operators have made more than a living wage; also that a 
great many who are now running contemplate leaving the 
jitney field as soon as they are able to procure employ- 
ment elsewhere. It was considered likely that many 
machines would be withdrawn from service under the pro- 
vision for the renewal of licenses which was to go intO' 
effect on July 1. 

July 10, 1915] 




A. L. Kempster, manager of the Puget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company, operating in Seattle, Everett, 
Bellingham, and Tacoma, states that preparations for in- 
stalling jitney bus service in Seattle, heretofore reported 
in the Electric Railway Journal, are well under way, 
and that the first unit of fifty machines will be in opera- 
tion in the very near future. Mr. Kempster said: 

"Some of the machines are being operated temporarily in 
Everett, but they will be put on in Seattle as soon as we 
are in shape to handle the traflRc. The first fleet will con- 
sist of fifty machines. We may confine the jitney system 
to that number or we may put on 200 more, just as there 
seems to be profit in a speedy short-haul business. No se- 
lection of routes has been made as yet, but it is probable 
that the Broadway and the Woodland Park runs will re- 
ceive our attention first, as these seem to be profitable and 
much desired by the independent jitney operators. We are 
training our own men for the operation of our jitneys, and 
shall not accept anyone from the ranks of the licensed 
jitney bus operators. In this manner, we will find an out- 
let for certain labor not productive of profit now, and in 
addition we will be utilizing men whose records are well 
known to us and who have the fullest measure of our con- 
fidence. This will reduce the possibility of reckless driv- 
ing, inefficient handling of traffic, or discourtesy." 

The company contends that with a central repair plant, 
the ability to purchase supplies in large quantities, and 
other advantages that accrue through its well-developed 
organization it will make a better profit than is possible 
for the independent operators. According to the plans of 
the company, there will be no specially constructed bodies 
on small-car chasses, the company taking the stand that 
as soon as the attempt is made to carry a large number of 
persons in a jitney the element of speed, which is appar- 
ently one of the main desires of the traveling public, is 


Division of Traffic Losses in San Diego Ascribes 62 Per 
Cent to the Jitney 

Although it is the seat of the Panama-California Ex- 
position, San Diego has suffered a slump in travel of all 
kinds due to the business depression. So far as the San 
Diego Electric Railway is concerned, the losses are en- 
larged by the still-unregulated jitney business. The com- 
pany has made analyses of the jitney travel from time to 
time, and from these it has drawn the conclusion that about 
62 per cent of the losses are due to this cause. The com- 
parative figures for Sept. 1 to April 30, 1914 and 1915 
respectively show a decrease in gross earnings from $638,- 
399 to $625,847, or $12,551, equivalent to 2 per cent. Dur- 
ing the period of Sept. 1, 1914, to April 30, 1915, the jit- 
neys carried about $84,000 of business, while the hard times 
were held responsible for a loss of $50,153. The latter two 
figures are based on comparisons of actual business and 
what the company expected with the normal annual in- 
crease in business up to May 1, the influence of the Panama- 
California Exposition has not become a determining factor 
in the company's revenues. 

A count of jitney business at San Diego on May 29 for 
the eighteen hours from 6 a. m. to 12 midnight showed 
2954 round trips, 7046 passengers, and $352.30 in receipts. 
The average passengers carried per trip were 2.39. The 
total number of cars was 125, giving an average of $2.82 
per car. An ordinance regulating jitney traflic was passed 
by the Common Council on May 1, but its enforcement was 
postponed pending the service of a restraining order which 
expired on June 7. Since Jan. 1 the number of jitneys has 
averaged about 125. At one time as many as 200 men were 
engaged in jitney operation. 

The company has lately adopted the plan of carrying its 
case to the public through a series of advertisements in the 
newspapers. All of the advertisements occupy large space 
and are directly concerned with problems growing out of 
the jitney competition. The subjects dealt with are indi- 
cated by the headings on the advertisements. Some of the 
headings in recent statements to the public follow: "Re- 
duce Fares and You Break the Street Car Company," "Why 

We Reduced Our Car Service," "Would the People Stand 
for the Jitney Bus if They Owned the Street Railway 
Lines?" "A Crippled Street Car System Is the Surest Way 
to Cripple a City," "Is the Jitney Competition Fair?" 
"Jitney Buses Make Hundreds of Men Jobless." 


Vigorous Campaign of the Long Island Railroad to Inculcate 
Respect for Safety 

The Long Island Railroad has inaugurated a campaign 
to induce chauff'eurs and automobile drivers to be more care- 
ful when driving over grade crossings on Long Island. At 
prominent points on Long Island, where they cannot fail to 
be seen by those in automobiles, the railroad is placing huge 
signs which read: 

All the Precautions in the "World Will Not Save the 
Lives of Those Who Drive Automobiles Recklessly 
Over Railroad Crossings 
When Approaching a Crossing Please Stop, Look and Listen 
We Are Doing Our Part. Won't You Do Yours? 

Long Island Railroad. 

The first of these signs has been placed at Broadway, 
Flushing, on the electrified division, where the railroad 
bridge crosses the highway. Some of the signs will be 50 
ft. long and 10 ft. high, while others will be 10 ft. square. 
Several of them will be electrically lighted at night. 

Not only is the Long Island Railroad putting up signs call- 
ing the attention of motorists to the danger of driving reck- 
lessly over grade crossings, but it is going to conduct an 
advertising campaign with a series of "life saving bulletins." 
These bulletins will make a plea for greater care on the part 
of drivers of motor cars on Long Island. There are still 
631 grade crossings on Long Island. Up to date, 305 have 
been eliminated at a cost of more than $15,000,000. At the 
present time, work on the elimination of thirty-two more 
crossings is in progress. 

J. A. McCrea, general manager of the company, is urging 
upon the State of New York action similar to that taken by 
New Hampshire, which has just passed a law requiring 
every city and town to maintain a warning sign on every 
highway approaching a crossing at a reasonable distance on 
each side of the crossing. Under the New Hampshire act 
grade crossing protection is put in the hands of the Public 
Service Commission. That commission has ordered that 
enamel metal signs 24 in. x 12 in., white letters on a blue 
ground, shall be placed at varying distances from grade 
crossings. If any town for sixty days neglects to comply 
with the commission's order, it forfeits $1 for each day. 
Anyone injuring or defacing these signs is liable to a fine 
of $10. 

Since 1911 there have been some 507 accidents at grade 
crossings on Long Island as the result of recklessness on 
the part of automobilists, motorcyclists, carriage and wagon 
drivers. In that period forty persons were killed and 111 
persons injured, for none of which casualties the railroad 
company was responsible. Of the people killed twenty-four 
were in automobiles, twelve in wagons and carriages, and 
four on bicycles and motorcycles. Of the people injured 
sixty-seven were in automobiles, twenty-six in wagons and 
carriages, and eighteen included pedestrians, bicyclists and 
motorcyclists. In forty-two of the 507 grade-crossing acci- 
dents nobody was injured. In 157 cases automobile and 
wagon drivers defiantly ran their machines and vehicles 
through lowered gates, damaging the railroad's property to 
the extent of breaking the crossing gates. In attempting 
to cross the tracks 125 autos and fifty-three wagons were 
damaged. Some were struck by trains while others sus- 
tained damage by contact with lowered gates. From 1911 
to June 17, 1915, a total of sixteen horses were killed and 
eight injured at Long Island grade crossings through the 
carelessness of their drivers. 

J. A. McCrea, general manager of the Long Island Rail- 
road, said on June 20: 

"The Long Island Railroad management regards every 
accident as one too many, and it is now in the midst of an 
aggressive campaign to the end that life and property shall 
be preserved. If those who have occasion to use grade cross- 
ings on Long Island will co-operate with us, we shall suc- 
ceed in accomplishing this distinctly humane object. With- 
out their aid we must fail." 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 2 


Pending the determination of the reasonableness of i,ne 
original order by the Railroad Commission of Wisconsin 
commanding thirteen tickets to be sold for 50 cents by 
The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., the fare coupons given out by the company 
pending the Supreme Court Appeal will not be accepted 
for passage, according to J. D. Mortimer, president of the 
company. In a statement which he made Mr. Mortimer 
is quoted as follows: 

"This company's investment in railway business is now 
earning so little as to make the expenditure of additional 
capital for further facilities absolutely impossible without 
obtaining some relief. Relief should take two forms — in- 
creased revenues and the cessation of hostile attacks on 
the busir.ess of the company. Both are necessary and the 
latter is as important as the former. 

'"When The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany appealed from the decision of the Railroad Com- 
mission of Wisconsin, ordering the company to sell thirteen 
tickets for 50 cents, it was agreed by stipulation that the 
company should have the opportunity of contesting the 
reasonableness of the order, should the courts finally hold 
that the commission had the power to modify rates of 
fare prescribed by the company's franchise. 

"The courts have now held that the commission possesses 
this power. Pending the determination of the reasonable- 
ness of the 'thirteen tickets for 50 cents' order, the fare 
coupons cannot be accepted in payment for transportation. 

"Subsequent to the entry of the commission's order re- 
ferred to, many things have occurred. The expense of the 
company of maintaining paving within the track zone has 
developed into large proportions. Requirements for in- 
creased service, resulting from special orders of the com- 
mission, have largely increased operating expenses. Open- 
ing of new lines and extensions of track, yet unproductive 
of appreciable earnings, have further reduced the margin 
which the commission believed to exist in the year 1912. 
General advances in prices paid for materials and labor 
have also increased expenses. More recently the advent of 
the jitney bus has reduced receipts without reducing ex- 

The decision of the United States Supreme Court in the 
Milwaukee fare case is abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 


The safety organization of the surface transportation 
department of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Com- 
pany has presented its first half-yearly report, for the six 
months ended June 7. The report is signed by A. Max- 
well, superintendent of employment, who is secretary of 
the departmental safety committee of the surface trans- 
portation department. In summarizing the results of the 
safety work to date Mr. Maxwell says: 

"As to what bearing the net result of the safety move- 
ment to date has had on the accident situation is an in- 
teresting question. The monthly claim department acci- 
dent statement for Classes A, C, D, and E accidents for the 
six months under review shows as follows in per cent, 
Avhen compared with the corresponding period of the pre- 
vious year: 

Dec. Jan., Feb.. Mar., Apr., May, 
Classification 1914 191.=i 1915 1915 1915 1915 

Car collisions — 57.2 — 32.1 — 70.0 — 35.5 — 16.7 — 53.1 

Car and vehicle collisions.— 32.9 —IS. 9 —42.6 —52.2 —21.2 — 2S.1 

Cars striking- persons —43.1 —12.5 -|-43 1 -fll.7 — 4.9 — 35.7 

Boarding: and alighting-. . — 25.9 — 2.4 — 17.3 — 0.7 Even — 21.7 

"The prime reason for tabulating only the above four 
classes of accidents here is that these classifications more 
directly concern platform employees than any other class 
of accident, and, if statistics count for anything, these fig- 
ures should reflect just what the men themselves are ac- 
complishing toward minimizing and reducing our accident 

"In conclusion it is believed that the safety movement 
of the surface transportation department has been fairly 
and successfully launched, and that, as time advances, what 
may now be described as an imperfect system will become 
a complete, harmonious and perfect system to the ulti- 
mate benefit and gain of the company and the community 
at large." 

Curbing the Philadelphia Chauffeur. — The trainmen in the 
employ of the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company 
have been asked to co-operate with the police of that city 
toward reducing reckless auto driving by reporting infrac- 
tions of the traffic rules by chauffeurs. 

One-Man Car Request Refused. — The Public Service Com- 
mission of Massachusetts has refused the request of the 
Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Railway for au- 
thority to operate electric cars in charge of one man on its 
lines between Cellingham, Four Corners and Caryville. 

St. Louis Skip-Stop Hearing Concluded. — The hearing be- 
fore the Public Service Commission of Missouri upon the 
request of the United Railways, St. Louis, for permission 
to eliminate 770 car stops was concluded on June 26. Attor- 
neys were instructed to file their briefs within ten days. 

Passes Withdrawn. — A bulletin has been issued by the 
East St. Louis & Suburban Railway, East St. Louis, 111., in 
regard to free transportation. Mail carriers vdll here- 
after be carried gratis only between 6 a. m. and 8 p. m. 
Deputy sheriff badges will not be honored, nor will the 
special agents of railroads receive free rides. Terminal 
Association agents will be carried free only on Eads Bridge. 
Policemen and firemen will be carried free only when they 
are dressed in full uniform. 

Invites Manufacturers. — The Indiana & Michigan Electric 
Company, South Bend, Ind., is advertising in the Chicago 
daily papers, the manufacturing advantages of the St. 
Joseph Valley and the many attractions of South Beach, Elk- 
hart, Mishawaka, Niles, Buchanan and other communities 
to manufacturers seeking smaller cities for location. Manu- 
facturers are invited to submit their industrial problems 
to the Indiana & Michigan Company and the traction com- 
pany promises co-operation. 

New Detroit Interurban Station. — On July 1 the De- 
troit (Mich.) United Railway opened a new interurban 
station in Detroit. The ground floor is given over almost 
entirely to the uses of patrons of the interurban lines, 
while the remaining five stories of the building will be used 
for the general offices of the company. One of the features 
of the building is a wide gallery which has been fitted up 
as a ladies' rest room. The new office building and station 
is at Bates Street and Jefferson Avenue and was formerly 
the Edson-Moore Building. 

Lexington Participation Plan. — All of the non-union train- 
men of the Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company, Lex- 
ington, Ky., have accepted the contract proposed by the 
company some time ago, on the basis of an increase in 
wages proportioned on the saving made through any reduc- 
tion in the cost of accidents. The union men have declined 
to accept the contract. They are reported to have drawn 
up a substitute contract which they will present to the com- 
pany to replace the old one, which expires this month. The 
contract with the non-union men went into eff'ect on July 1 
for a term of three years. The general conditions of the 
participation plan were referred to in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 19, page 118.3. 

The Memphis "Jim Crow" Case. — The Memphis (Tenn.) 
Street Railway has won its case in the courts in which its 
interpretation of the "Jim Crow" law was involved, the 
State Supreme Court having upheld the measure thus re- 
versing the Circuit Court and the Court of Appeals. The 
case centered on the question of seats, two white men having 
entered a street car when there were plenty in the white 
compartment and having taken seats reserved for negroes. 
When the car filled up the conductor called upon them to 
give up their seats to negroes. They agreed to if he would 
get them seats in the white section. The upshot of the 
incident was that the conductor ejected the men and had 
them put under arrest, whereupon they brought suit for 
damages, getting an award of $1,000 each in the lower court. 
The Supreme Court said in part: "These seats must be 
kept separate and apart; there should be a well-defined 
dividing line; blacks should be made to occupy their own 
seats and the whites theirs. Conductors have a sort of 
police power over passengers, and the latter are subject to 
orders from this officer, who must live up to the statutory 
provisions." The case was that of A. M. Keisker, and 
Ralph Bowden against the Memphis Street Railway. 


Personal Mention Construction News 

Prof. Charles M. Spofford, of the firm of Fay, Spofford 
& Thorndike, consulting engineers, Boston, and head of 
the department of civil and sanitary engineering of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has been appointed 
by the Governor of Massachusetts a member of the Ter- 
minal Commission, constituted by a recent legislative act 
to investigate the subject of terminal facilities and the im- 
provement of facilities for the transportation of freight 
in the Boston metropolitan district. 

Mr. Frank C. Rose has been appointed purchasing agent 
for W. S. Barstow & Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., engi- 
neers and manager for the General Gas & Electric Company 
and the Eastern Power & Light Corporation, which control 
among other properties the Rutland Railway, Light & Power 
Company, Rutland, Vt.; the Claremont Railway & Lighting 
Company, Claremont, N. H.; the Reading Transit & Light 
Company, Reading, Pa., and the West Virginia Traction & 
Electric Company, Wheeling, W. Va. Mr. Rose was connect- 
ed with the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad for 
eighteen years, with J. G. White & Company for seven years 
as assistant purchasing agent and with the Foundation 
Company, Ltd., Montreal, for a year and a half as general 
purchasing agent. He succeeds Mr. F. A. E. Thorling as 
purchasing agent with Barstow & Company. 

Mr. Fred F. Stockwell has been appointed treasurer of the 
New England Street Railway Club, succeeding the late Ed- 
ward P. Shaw, Jr. Mr. Stockwell is widely known in the 
electric railway field as treasurer of the Barbour-Stockwell 
Company, Cambridge, Mass., manufacturer of special track- 
work. He was born in Brattleboro, Vt., but his parents 
moved to Cambridge soon after his birth, and after attend- 
ing the local schools Mr. Stockwell learned the machinist's 
trade in Boston. He entered business with a partner in 
1889, and a consolidation of interests led to the incorpora- 
tion of the Barbour-Stockwell Company in 1893. The new 
treasurer has been closely identified with the development of 
electric railway special work since the days of horse trac- 
tion. He is a charter member of the club and is active in 
the American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association. 

Col. Timothy S. Williams, president of the Brooklyn 
(N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, celebrated twenty years 
of service with the company and its constituents on July 1. 
On his arrival at his office on the morning of July 1 Presi- 
dent Williams found on his desk a huge silver loving cup 
filled with American beauty roses — the gift of nineteen 
men of the company's official staff, whose service with the 
company has been coextensive with his own. The men 
who presented the loving cup to Colonel Williams were 
Messrs. G. H. Beck, E. Brower, T. S. Curley, J. H. Dwyer, 

G. H. Jackson, W. J. O'Neill, J. F. Throckmorton, J. Weid- 
man, F. J. Spaulding, C. D. Meneely, J. H. Bennington, 

H. A. Crowe, J. Duffy, W. H. Gordon, A. Maxwell, W. Sie- 
bert, J. Walsh, Jr., C. T. Victorine, I. Isaacsen. The loving 
cup is inscribed on one side with the names of the donors 
and on the other side bears the following inscription: "To 
our president and friend, Col. Timothy Shaler Williams, to 
whose wisdom, foresight and courage is so largely due the 
conception, nurture and development of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit System to its present proud pre-eminence, from 
those who have been associated with him for twenty years, 
who have to some extent shared his labors and who rejoice 
in his well-earned success." 


Joseph H. Pierson, assistant claim agent of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, was 
killed when his automobile turned over on the evening of 
June 23, while he was driving from his office to his home at 
Valley Mills, a few miles south of Indianapolis. Mr. Pier- 
son was born in Wayne Township, Marion County, Ind., in 
1870. He was educated in the public schools of his native 
township and later took a course in the Central Normal Col- 
lege, Danville, Ind. He taught in the schools for several 
years. Mr. Pierson was active in Democratic politics for 
many years and was elected as representative to the 1909 
session of the Indiana Legislature. He became connected 
with the claim department of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis 
& Eastern Traction Company in 1909. 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 

Lauderdale Power Company, Florence, Ala. — Incorpo- 
rated in Alabama to construct a railway between Florence 
and Huntsville, 75 miles. Alan Jemmison, Birmingham, 

Intercity Terminal Railway, Little Rock, Ark. — Incorpo- 
rated in Arkansas to construct and operate a railway in 
Little Rock and Argenta. It is reported that the company 
has been organized to take over the Argenta Railway. 
Capital stock, ,$500,000. Officers: C. C. Kavanaugh, presi- 
dent; E. W. Jackson, vice-president, and F. J. Schmutz, 
secretary and treasurer. 

Mississippi Valley Railway & Power Company, Dover, 
Del. — Incorporated in Delaware to construct railroads and 
to operate by steam, electricity, or other power. Capital 
stock, $4,500,000. Incorporators: Charles B. Bishop, Clar- 
ence J. Jacobs and Harry W. Davis, Wilmington, Del. 


Phoenix, Ariz. — The Phoenix Railway has received a fran- 
chise from the Council to build a double-track line down 
Fourth Street from Roosevelt Street to Washington Street 
and to extend the Monroe Street loop to Fourth Street. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The Council decided on June 26 to 
advertise for sale a franchise for a street car track cov- 
ering a distance of 448 ft. on Central Avenue in front of 
the Southern Pacific Station. The track is to turn in toward 
the station at a point 69 ft. south of Fifth Street and turn 
back to the present tracks at a point 448 ft. farther south. 
The track is desired by the Los Angeles Railway to pro- 
vide for its passengers easier access to the station than is 
afforded by the present arrangement. The plan has been 
indorsed by the board of public utilities and the public 
utilities committee of the Council. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The Board of Public Works has been 
authorized by the Council to advertise for bids on the street 
railway franchise on South Park Avenue. Bids will be re- 
ceived on two sections of the line, the first extending from 
Jefferson Street to Slauson Avenue, and the second from 
Slauson Avenue to Florence Avenue. 

Hutchinson, Kan. — The Hutchinson Interurban Railway 
has received from the Council a franchise to extend its 
line on Second Street from Main Street to a point 300 ft. 
east of Walnut Street. The Council also granted to the 
Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway the right to use the 
Second Street track for reaching its terminal station which 
will be located at 111 Second Avenue, East, recently pur- 

Pittsburgh. Pa. — In a recent letter to the Council 
Mayor Joseph G. Armstrong recommended that seventeen 
out of the twenty-five requests for franchises for curves, 
additional tracks and sidings made to him by the Pitts- 
burgh Railways be granted. Together with this letter the 
Mayor submitted to the Council a proposed ordinance in 
which the conditions under which these franchises should be 
given were fully stated. The Mayor told the Council that 
he had prepared his recommendations after conferences 
with the law department and the Department of Public 
Works. He asked for immediate action on the part of the 
Council, inasmuch as conferences with the officials of the 
Pittsburgh Railways will probably be necessary. 


Birmingham, Ala. — In connection with the proposed 
electric railway from Birmingham to the Warrior River, it 
is planned to continue the line to Jasper, about 35 miles 
from Birmingham. W. W. Shortridge, Birmingham, is 
interested. [June 26, '15.] 

Douglas (Ariz.) Traction & Light Company. — This com- 
pany is constructing 300 ft. of additional trackage at Camp 
Douglas, extending the line eastward from its former 
terminus to a point near the eastern boundary of the 
Eleventh Infantry camp. It is later intended to extend the 



trackage the entire distance to the eastern edge of the 

Hoxie Electric Railroad, Calico Rock, Ark.— Plans are 
being made to revive the project for an electric railroad 
from Hoxie to Calico Rock. J. W. Myers, Calico Rock is 
interested. [Feb. 27, '15.] 

Burlingame (Cal.) Electric Railway.— It is stated un- 
officially in San Francisco that the Burlingame Railway, 
owned by Ansel M. Easton, Burlingame, and others, will 
be equipped with the overhead trolley. The road, 2 miles 
long, has been operated since March 1, 1913, with storage 
battery cars. 

Marin County Electric Railway, Mill Valley, Cal.— Con- 
struction has been begun on the first unit of this company's 
line. This stretch of track will extend from the heart of 
the town to the upper end of Cascade Canyon. It is expect- 
ed that the system will eventually be extended to Sausalito. 
[May 22, '15.] 

San Francisco (Cal.) Municipal Railway. — Bids will be 
received by the Board of Public Works on July 14 for steel 
rails to be used in the construction of the Church Street 
municipal railway. The city engineer plans to have the 
construction of the road contracted for in three parts — one 
from Van Ness Avenue and Market Street to Church Street 
and Eighteenth Street; another from Eighteenth Street to 
Twenty-second Street and the third from Twenty-second 
Street to Thirtieth Street. The plans for the section from 
Van Ness Avenue to Eighteenth Street will provide for the 
construction of two tracks on Market Street from Van 
Ness Street to Church Street. 

Capital Traction Company. AVashington, D. C. — The Public 
Utilities Commission of the District of Columbia has denied 
the application of this company to build an extension of its 
lines on Seventeenth Street, I Street, Thirteenth Street, H 
Street and other streets in Washington. 

Orlando (Fla.) Interurban Traction Company.— W. C. 
Temple, president, reports that the project to build an 
electric railway to connect Orlando, Kissimmee and San- 
ford has been abandoned. [April 12, '13.] 

Palatka-Hastings Interurban Railway, Palatka, Fla. — 
This company reports that the project to build an electric 
railway from Palatka to Hastings has been abandoned on 
account of the inability to secure permission from the Put- 
nam County Commissioners to use the bridge crossing the 
St. Johns River upon a basis that would enable it to operate. 
F. J. Von Angelken, East Palatka, secretary. [Nov. 
15, '13.] 

*Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.— Bids are desired until Sept. 18 
by H. R. Stanford, chief of the bureau of yards and docks, 
navy department, Washington, D. C, for the construction of 
a marine railway at the naval station. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 
according to specification 2172. The appropriation for this 
work is $94,000. 

Lincoln Railway & Light Company, Lincoln, 111. — This 
company expects to lay new track on Union Street from 
Broadway to Tremont Street. The 40-lb. rail now in use 
will be replaced by 60-lb. rail. The company has laid 80-lb. 
rail on its Broadway line. 

Evansville & New Harmony Traction Company, Evans- 
ville, Ind. — This company announces that it has contracted 
with M. A. Peoples, Chicago, for the financing and con- 
struction of its line from Evansville to New Harmony, 30 
miles. The line will connect a number of suburban towns 
in the vicinity of Evansville. It is expected that construc- 
tion will be begun about Sept. 1. C. J. Seibert, Evansville, 
general manager. [Nov. 28, '14.] 

Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company, New 
Albany, Ind. — Complete suspension of traffic on Market 
Street between Washington Street and Vincennes Street has 
been ordered by the Board of Public Works, while the con- 
crete bed for the new brick pavement is laid and allowed 
to settle, the railway company transferring passengers from 
car to car across the intervening square. The city and the 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company are in 
a controversy as to the nature of a crossing which the 
company is to construct over Market Street. The city calls 
for T-rails embedded in cement between the tracks, and the 
railway wants to use oak planks. 

Topeka (Kan.) Railway. — Material has been ordered and 
work will be begun at once on the extension of this com- 
pany's line on Kansas Avenue from Seventeenth Street to 
Twenty-first Street. A bridge across the Shunganunga 
River will be built in connection with the extension. It is 
estimated that the bridge will cost about $19,000. 

Cumberland & Manchester Railroad, Manchester, Ky. — 
T. J. Vermillion & Son, Barbourville, have received the con- 
tract to construct a 3-mile section of this company's line 
from Manchester to Barbourville. The route extends via 
Cannon, Girdler, Hopper and Woollum. M. E. S. Posey, 
Barbourville, chief engineer. [June 19, '15.] 

Brandon (Man.) Municipal Railway. — This company re- 
ports that it is constructing 6700 ft. of single track, form- 
ing a belt line 5% miles long. 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — This company will con- 
struct new tracks on Olive Street between Fourteenth 
Street and Boyle Avenue, St. Louis. 

*Ruthcrfordton, N. C. — Plans are being considered to 
build a line from Rutherfordton to Columbus, about 15 
miles. L. D. Miller, Rutherfordton, is interested. 

*Dayton, Ohio. — Plans are being considered to build a 
railway between Dayton and St. Marys. At a meeting of 
the citizens of the towns on the proposed line, held at Cov- 
ington on June 30, Judge Dennis Dwyer of Dayton was 
appointed chairman of the committee to look after the 
financing of the line. 

Oklahoma (Okla.) Railway. — Plans are being made by 
this company to reconstruct its tracks from the Rock Island 
Railroad tracks north on Broadway to Tenth Street and on 
East Fourth Street. 

Sand Springs Railway, Tulsa, Okla. — This company con- 
templates the construction of an extension of its lines south- 
west to the oil fields, about 30 miles. 

Northampton (Pa.) Traction Company. — Arrangements 
for the physical connection of the property of this company 
with the Northampton, Easton & Washington Traction Com- 
pany across the Delaware River are under consideration and 
are expected to be completed in the near future. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Bids will be received until Aug. 16 by 
A. M. Taylor, director department of City Transit, 754 
Bourse Building, Philadelphia, for the construction of the 
City Hall station section of the Broad Street subway under 
City Hall and Market Street subway and work appurte- 
nant thereto, known as Contract 101. This section will be 
about 700 ft. long, and will include the underpinning of 
the west side of City Hall and the Market Street subway. 
Plans and specifications may be had at Room 748, Bourse 
Building, upon a deposit of $50 per set, pending return. 

Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I. — Work has been 
begun by this company laying double tracks on North Main 
Street between Camp Street and Mill Street, Providence. 

Southern Public Utilities Company, Greenville, S. C. — 
Material has been received and work will be begun at once 
on the reconstruction of this company's tracks on Wliitner 
Street and South Main Street, Anderson. 

Carolina, Greeneville & Northern Railroad, Greeneville, 
Tenn. — A. H. Jacoby, Greeneville, has been awarded the 
contract for part of the work of this company's line from 
Bristol to Knoxville, via Kingsport, Newport and Sevier- 
ville, 140 miles. The maximum grade will be 1.5 per cent 
and the maximum curvature 10 deg. Three steel bridges 
aggregating 1500 ft. will be built on the line. H. S. Reed, 
205 Grant Building, Los Angeles, president. [June 26, '15.] 

Corpus Christi-Ward Island Interurban Railway, Corpus 
Christi, Tex. — Grading has been begun on this company's 
line from Corpus Christi to Ward Island, 7 miles. The 
work of laying track will be begun in about four weeks and 
it is expected that the line will be completed about Oct. 1. 
The company plans to develop Ward Island as an amuse- 
ment park. J. H. Caswell, San Diego, is interested. 
[May 15, '15.] 

Dallas (Tex.) Southwestern Traction Company. — At a 

meeting of the stockholders of this company on June 21 
it was announced that the sale of $60,000 of the company's 
$2,500,000 of bonds has been authorized. E. P. Turner, Gas- 
ton Building, Dallas, president. [June 12, '15.] 

July 10, 1915] 



Lynchburg (Va.) Traction & Light Company. — In connec- 
tion with improvements being made by the city, this com- 
pany plans to double track its line on Main Street. 

*Norton, Va. — Plans are being made to construct a rail- 
way from Norton to High Knobs in Stone Mountain, about 
5 miles. Patrick Hogan, High Knobs, is interested. 

Radford-Willis Southern Railway, Radford, Va. — The con- 
tract for constructing this company's line from Willis to 
Radford has been awarded to Williams Brothers Construc- 
tion Company, Roanoke. John L. Vaughan, Shawsville, 
president. [March 13, '15.] 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — In 
connection with the proposed extension of this company's 
line on West Broad Street from Robinson Street to the 
corporate limits, officials of the company have stated that 
further extensions of its lines are practically at a stand- 
still owing to the difficulty in securing the desired legisla- 
tion, jitney encroachment and general depression. It is 
stated that at the present time the company finds it im- 
practicable to build the line, and, as the time limit has 
already expired on the franchise, is prepared to avail itself 
of the alternative provision of forfeiting the $5,000 bond 
which it put up as assurance at the time of securing the 

Charleston (W. Va.) Interurban Railroad. — Four miles of 
track on this company's 25-mile extension from Charleston 
to Montgomery has been laid and it is stated that cars will 
be operated between Charleston and Maiden, 6 miles above 
Charleston, by July 15. 

*Morgantown & Wheeling Railway, Morgantown, W. Va. — 
This company advises that it is extending its line from 
Cassville to Blacksville, 15 miles. All the grading and 
masonry is completed with the exception of one bridge 186 
ft. long. The bridge is completed and ready to put in place 
as soon as it is reached by track. Seven miles of track have 
been completed and are being operated by steam. The com- 
pany is using 70-lb. A. S. C. E. rails and oak and chestnut 
ties. It is planned to operate the line by steam for about 
two years, when it will be operated by electricity. 

Weston & Glenville Electric Railroad, Weston, W. Va. — 
Surveys will soon be begun by this company on its pro- 
posed line between Weston and Glenville. Lloyd Rinehart, 
W^eston, is interested. [Oct. 17, '15.] 


Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. — A new trolley 
station will be built at Woodmont by this company in the 
near future. The structure will be of stucco. The cost of 
the building is estimated at $5,000. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway. — On July 1 this company 
removed its interurban station and general offices to the 
Detroit United Building on the southeast corner of Jeffer- 
son Avenue and Bates Street. The waiting room is located 
on the ground floor with the main entrance on Jefferson 
Avenue, while the exit to the cars will be on Bates Street, 
as win also be the entrance to the general offices. 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric 
Traction Company, Minneapolis, Minn. — This company an- 
nounces that it will soon begin the construction of general 
repair shops at Faribault, Minn. 

Citizens' Traction Company, Oil City, Pa. — Announcement 
has been made by this company that it will erect a modern 
carhouse on the site of the present structure in Franklin. 
The building will have a frontage of 52 ft. on Liberty Street 
and will be 150 ft. deep. The structure will be of brick 
with concrete floors and rolling steel doors. 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways.— This company has placed 
an order with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company for four 1800-kw., 600-volt d.c, six-phase sixty- 
cycle, 514-r.p.m. compound wound commutating-pole rotary 
converters; twelve 625-kva. single-phase, sixty-cycle, 11,003- 
volt high-tension to rotary voltage low-tension O. I. S. C. 
transformers and one thirty-three-panel switchboard to 
control the above apparatus; also three 1000-kw., 550-volt, 
commutating pole d.c. generators with 1440-hp., three- 
phase, sixty-cycle, 10,000-volt, a.c, 514-r.p.m. synchronous 
motor generator sets with d.c. exciters. 

Manufactures and Supplies 

Southern Traction & Power Company, Alexandria, La., 

will probably purchase two or three cars. 

Mobile Light & Railroad Company, Mobile, Ala., is ex- 
pecting to purchase a number of single-truck cars. 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark., has ordered three buses from the Southern Car Com- 

New York & Queens County Railway, New York, N. Y., 

noted in the Electric Railway Journal as expecting to 
purchase six double-truck cars, has ordered this equipment 
from the Southern Car Company. 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Railway, Ogden, Utah, has ordered 
six trailers from the American Car Company, St. Louis, 
Mo. This item is a correction of a note in last week's 
issue, in which the name of the contracting carbuilder was 
erroneously stated. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of May 15, 1915, as having 
issued specifications for ninety-two all-steel cars, has 
ordered forty-six cars from the Wason Manufacturing 
Company, and forty-six from the Osgood-Bradley Car 


Automatic Ventilator Company, New York, N. Y., has 

received an order to equip with ventilators seven cars of 
the Union Electric Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Q. P. Signal Company, Needham, Mass., has erected at 
Needham a new four-story brick and concrete manufactur- 
ing plant 103 ft. X 40 ft. The plant is completely equipped 
and will be ready for operation in about two months. 
Special power house apparatus and substation signal ap- 
paratus and trolley catchers will be manufactured in the 
new plant. 

General Railway Signal Company, Rochester, N. Y'., has 

received a contract to build a new interlocking plant at 
the crossing of the Illinois Traction System and Wabash, 
Illinois Central and Alton railroads at Pontiac, 111. Work 
will commence at once and will be completed in ninety days. 
The plant will be all electric and of the latest type of 
modern construction, and will have eighty levers. 

Universal Safety Tread Company, Waltham, Mass., is 
now manufacturing all types of its safety treads in its new 
plant at Waltham, Mass. All the machinery and shops have 
been moved from Groton, N. Y., where the treads were 
formerly manufactured, to Waltham, Mass. The new plant 
is completely equipped with lathes, presses, stamping and 
special machinery for the manufacture in all its processes 
of "anti-slip" and lead-filled safety treads used in the 
transportation and building industries. 

Esterline Company, Indianapolis, Ind., manufacturer of 
"Golden Glow" headlights, has received an order for twenty- 
four SE-95 headlights from the Shreveport (La.) Railways. 
This makes a complete installation of this equipment by the 
Shreveport property. The company reports deliveries of 
this equipment during June to the following railways: 
Austin (Tex.) Street Railway; Atchison Railway, Light & 
Power Company; Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway; 
Helena (Ark.) Interurban Railway; Arizona Copper Com- 
pany, Clifton, Ariz.; Sioux City Service Company; Scran- 
ton Railway; American Car Company for new cars of the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railway; Wichita 
Railroad & Light Company; Pressed Steel Car Company 
for new cars of the New York, Westchester & Boston Rail- 
way; Des Moines (Iowa) City Railway; Hutchinson Inter- 
urban Railway; Denver & Interurban Railroad; Auburn & 
Syracuse Electric Railroad; St. John (N. B.) Railway; 
Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Railway; Biddison & 
Crow Interurban Railway, Tulsa, Okla.; San Antonio (Tex.) 
Traction Company; Cincinnati Car Company for new cars 
of the Lancaster Traction & Power Company; Union Elec- 
tric Company; Shreveport (La.) Railways; Seattle (Wash.) 
Municipal Railway; Trinidad Electric Transmission Rail- 
way & Gas Company; Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Com- 



[VOL. XLVI, No. 2 

pany; Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Company; 
Georgia Railway & Power Company; Denver Tramway; 
Ephrata & Lebanon Traction Company; South Carolina 
Light, Power & Railways Company; Northern Texas Trac- 
tion Company; Tarentum, Brackenridge & Butler Street 
Railway; Binghamton (N. Y.) Railway, and Topeka (Kan.) 


Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo., has 

issued a folder listing its various types of rolling stock and 
other railway equipment. 

G. M. Gest, New York, N. Y., contracting conduit engi- 
neer, has issued a folder which contains a map on which 
are designated the various cities where he has completed 

Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo., has 

issued a price list of its second-growth hand-shaved hickory 
handles for use as axe, hammer, hatchet and pick handles in 
railroad work. 

L. S. Brach Supply Company, New York, N. Y., has 

issued a catalog describing its types 36 and 40 vacuum ar- 
resters, mica shield protected, to meet the requirements of 
telephone train dispatching. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has just 
issued Bulletin No. 44,712, which illustrates and describes 
G-E lightning arresters for electric railway service, both 
in the station, on the line and on the car. This bulletin 
supersedes the company's previous bulletin. No. A-4135. 

Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has 

issued a folder on its tool steel gears and pinions, also a 
reprint from an article by T. C. Goodyer in the Tramway 
& Railway World which contains data showing the greater 
length of life of treated as compared with untreated gears. 

Railway & Industrial Engineering Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., has issued advertising sheets describing and illustrat- 
ing the Burke switching and protective apparatus, high- 
voltage air-break switches, horn-type fuses, improved horn- 
type lightning arrester and choke coil, and combination 
horn-type fuse and series horn-gap lightning arresters and 
choke coil. 

Rail Joint Company, New York. N. Y., has issued an 
attractive catalog illustrating its continuous, Weber and 
Wolhaupter rail joints as applied to A. R. A. Series A and 
B rails, guard rails, frogs and switches, T-rails and girder 
rails. Illustrations are also shown of the different types 
of joints with fiber and with wood insulation, the "twin" 
insulated rail joint and the step rail joint. 

Ohmer Fare Register Company, Dayton, Ohio., has is- 
sued a folder on its fare register system. The folder states 
that the Denver Tramway Bulletin, referring to the 
monthly list of conductors' Ohmer efficiency grades records 
that the general average for the entire system for April 
broke all previous records. This company has also issued 
an advertising blotter on its fare register system. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued in pamphlet form a paper en- 
titled "Considerations in the Design of Railway Motors," 
a treatise on the ventilation of this type of motor, by R. E. 
Hellmund. This paper is a reprint of an article which ap- 
peared in the Electric Railway Journal of May 1 and 
also the Electric Journal and goes very thoroughly into this 
important subject. A large number of illustrations are 
used showing practice in ventilating motors, together with 
diagrams showing the air currents through the windings 
and cores of the armatures. 

Electric Service Supplies Company, Philadelphia. Pa., has 
issued a general catalog on the Garton-Daniels lightning 
arresters. The catalog is divided into four sections, so 
arranged as to make easy the selection of proper apparatus 
for any set of conditions. Part I contains descriptions 
and price lists of a.c. arresters up to 20,000 volts, d.c. 
arresters up to 2400 volts, arc circuit lightning arresters 
for both a.c. and d.c. circuits, panel-board arresters, and 
lightning arrester cross-arm hangers. Part II contains 
a description and price lists on choke coils and disconnect- 
ing switches. Part III deals thoroughly with the subject 
of lightning phenomena as regards the construction and 

operation of a.c. and d.c. arresters. Part IV contains val- 
uable information accompanied vdth diagrams on the in- 
stallation of lightning arresters, their grounding, distribu- 
tion, and inspection. 

Sangamo Electric Company, Springfield, 111., has issued 
Bulletin No. 41, which describes and illustrates its "econ- 
omy" electric railway meters, for use in aiding motormen 
to increase their efficiency by saving energy in operation. 
These meters are of two varieties, ampere-hour meters and 
watt-hour meters. They are both of the mercury motor 
type and therefore have all the advantages inherent to 
mercury flotation, the chief of which is immunity from 
damage due to vibration and shock. Through the use of 
these meters it is claimed that the motorman will take 
active interest in his car or train in that he will look for 
troubles and promptly report all defects for repair. The 
catalog contains tables and data concerning the use of 
these meters on the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
road and shows the saving in power consumption per car- 
mile effected thereby. Testimonial letters from the Chi- 
cago & Joliet Electric Railway and the Rockford & Inter- 
urban Railway are also included which are significant in 
showing the saving brought about on these lines. 

Trussed Concrete Steel Company, Detroit, Mich, has 
issued a comprehensive 128-page publication on its united 
steel sash. The book covers all the various types of sash 
with its applications in building construction. The first 
portion of the book is devoted to the general discussion of 
the features of steel sash construction, covering the ques- 
tions of strength, weathering, workmanship, daylighting, 
ventilation, hardware, and glazing. The large variety of 
sections that are combined to make up steel sash are de- 
scribed in the next portion of the book, including among 
them the mullions. Standard pivoted sash is next thor- 
oughly covered, including the horizontally and vertically- 
pivoted sash of all types. Continuous sash of the top-hung 
and center-pivoted type are comprehensively covered with 
numerous pages of details. Vertical-sliding sash represents 
the most recent development in steel-sash construction, and 
a large amount of space is devoted to the various types, 
including vertical-sliding sash with removable jamb guides, 
counter-balanced sash, counter-weighted sash and spring- 
balanced sash. Horizontal-sliding sash is also indicated at 
this point. Partitions and steel sliding and swinging doors 
are shown. The remaining portion of the book is devoted 
to photographic reproductions of important installations. 
One page contains illustrations of the attractive stations 
and shops of the New York, Westchester & Boston Rail- 
way where these windows are used. They are also shown 
in views of a paint shop of the Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway 
and a power house of the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit 


Proceedings of Sixth Annual Convention Pacific Claim 
Agents' Association, Spokane, July 9-11, 1914. 79 
pages. Paper. 
This book contains a list of the officers and committees 
of the Pacific Claim Agents' Association, and presents the 
running discussions, papers and reports before the conven- 
tion in Spokane last year. A general index permits the 
ready finding of any desired information. 
Human Nature and the Railroad, by Ivy L. Lee, published 
by E. S. Nash & Company, 620 Sansom Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 129 pages. Price, $1. 
Mr. Lee's easy style and analytical reasoning are well 
known through his contributions to the popular and tech- 
nical press and his addresses before various bodies. The 
present volume is made up of ten of these addresses, and 
while they will be of interest and instruction to the gen- 
eral public because they tell the story of the railroad, they 
are equally of interest and instruction to the railway offi- 
cial because they explain to him his weaknesses and foibles, 
tell him the importance of telling the story and how to tell 
it as well as to live up to the story. The purpose, as 
explained by the author, is to establish a point of contact, 
to make the railroad manager, the employee and the public 
in their mutual relations understand one another's point of 
view. We hope that the volume will be widely read so 
that this wish will be fulfilled. 

Electric Railway Joim^al 

Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. / ^ ^ " 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Revi 

Vol. XL VI 


RETROGRESSION While we have all proper respect 
IN RATE ^j^g theory that administrative 

MAKING , , ... 

bodies should exercise constraint 

in interpreting "doubtful" provisions of law relating to 
their own powers, we believe that the Public Service 
Commission, Second District, New York, has no right 
so rigidly to interpret its enabling act as to rob it of 
one of its most progressive and constructive features. 
In declaring in the Ulster & Delaware Railway mileage 
case that it must be subservient to the old 2-cent statu- 
tory maximum rate fixed before commission regulation 
began in New York, it has reverted to the practice of 
inexperienced legislative domination which the com- 
mission law endeavored to destroy. The maximum rate 
was simply an ill-considered guide pending the installa- 
tion of more scientific methods which the present regu- 
latory machinery was intended to supply. While this 
should be self-evident, the point is strengthened by the 
facts that in Michigan the maximum rate law has been 
declared superseded by the commission law and that in 
New York since 1907 Governors have vetoed all rate 
bills as infringements on the powers delegated to the 
commissions. For a non-expert Legislature to force a 
commission to exercise discrimination so as to grant 
unlimited relief to the public and greatly restricted re- 
lief to the carriers, is a travesty upon the whole spirit 
of commission rule. Of course, if the Legislature wishes 
to resume its rate-making power, it can ; but while com- 
missions last, no super-technical nullification should be 
exercised against their potential usefulness in grant- 
ing rates which they are convinced are just to carriers. 

THE We realize that it is not a popular 

PURPOSE OF thing for a commission to raise 

COMMISSIONS rates and so diminish the priv- 

ileges which the public has enjoyed for a great many 
years. We believe, however, that the "unpopularity" 
which would result from such an action is more im- 
aginary than real. In the first place, the public mind is 
prepared to accept increases in railroad rates with much 
more grace than it was a few years ago. There has 
been so much publicity on the necessity of higher rates 
that everyone now realizes that the expenses of opera- 
tion of the railroad companies have increased, just as 
have the living expenses of individuals. Again, the 
public has a better recognition of the obligations of the 
railroad commissioners to grant such increases when 
they are justified. This view of the situation was well 
expressed in a recent address by Hon. J. F. McLeod, 
chairman Public Service Commission of Massachusetts. 
He said: "Capital honestly and prudently invested under 
economical and efficient management has a constitu- 

No. 3 


tional right to a fair returB^lj.agd.Jt*re commission is 
under legal compulsion to allow such rate as will make 
that return possible. If an increase in fares is shown to 
be just and reasonable according to that standard, the 
commission has no discretion except to allow it." We 
agree with the sentiment thus expressed. The purpose 
of the appointment of a commission is to provide an 
impartial body with opportunities in the way of obtain- 
ing testimony on which the merits of the rate case ca'ii 
be judged. The testimony alone, and no outside con- 
siderations of popularly or unpopularity, should decide 
whether the rates are to be increased or decreased in 
any particular case. 



An effort to correlate and per- 
petuate the general safety work 
now being conducted in different 
cities is the purpose of the Safety First Federation of 
America. For many years electric railway companies 
have been working out their problems largely unaided. 
When safety-first work began the railway companies 
were possibly surprised but certainly gratified to find 
that they would have willing associates among the pub- 
lic authorities, representatives of the public schools, 
chambers of commerce and individual, public-spirited 
citizens. While in many cities the initiative in the 
safety-first movement was taken by the local railway 
companies, it soon became, and properly, a community 
movement in which all of the interests already men- 
tioned participated. In this form most important work 
has been accomplished, but there have been two points 
upon which some fear has been expressed in regard to 
the future. The first of these has been a question of 
the maintenance of interest in it. In all volunteer move- 
ments, after the first enthusiasm has passed away, there 
is danger that the interest in it will flag. This feeling 
was expressed in these columns some months ago under 
the heading "The Brass Band in the Safety Movement." 
The question raised was: How long-lived will a move- 
ment be which has no definite organization behind it 
whose sole purpose would be to keep it alive? The other 
point was in connection with the correlation of the work 
done in the different cities so as to get the most effective 
results for the least expenditure of energy and money. 
This meant a comparison of methods followed wherever 
safety-first work has been undertaken. These two needs, 
in brief, it is the aim of the Safety First Federation of 
America to supply. As with the movement in individual 
cities, it is not primarily a railway matter or even a 
corporation matter, and it is well that it is not so, but 
President Allen of the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation has accepted the office of chairman of the trans- 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

portation committee of the federation so that the rail- 
way interests will be properly represented. A report 
of the first meetiiig of the transportation '^Committee, 
which occurred this week in New York, will be found 
on another page of this issue. 


Mr. Strong's article in the issue of May 8 on tele- 
phone dispatching at Rochester and the article in this 
issue on a similar system at San Antonio should help to 
promote wider , use of this most rapid means of com- 
munication. If it is a good thing to be able to adjust 
schedules from day to day it is a better thing to adjust 
them from: hour to hour and even from minute to 
minute. . On the European battlefields of to-day we see 
millions of men moved about as easily as Napoleon 
maneuvered his thousands, and in no small measure is 
this due to the telephone. It is not enough to order 
a regiment to do a certain thing; it must be possible 
to change its orders almost instantaneously. 

Car operation should be on the same modern plane. 
The schedule, for example, may designate certain cars 
as short-liners and others as through. Now, if a car is 
-carrying a large number of passengers who want to go 
beyond the short-line terminus, literal obedience to the 
schedule will probably displease some of the passengers, 
especially in bad weather. Sometimes an inspector is 
stationed at the short-line terminus to decide whether 
or not the<car shall go on, but with telephone dispatch- 
ing in practice the crew could get instructions directly 
from the dispatcher. Contrariwise, a long-line or 
through car could be converted to a short-liner if it has 
no through passengers and when the dispatcher knows 
that the following car will go through in a few minutes. 

Most deviations from the schedule, like those due to 
mass meetings, public concerts and ball games, can be 
provided for in advance ; not so with large movements of 
people due to fires or other unforeseen events. Not 
long ago there was a big fire in a large Southern 
city. Had an effective telephone dispatching system 
been in use the local railway would not only have re- 
routed the affected car line more quickly, but would also 
have collected thousands of fares by running special 
cars to and from the fire. Instead, the jitneys got the 
business. The way the San Antonio Company dis- 
patched and rerouted cars in accordance with the prog- 
ress of a parade shows how readily the telephone 
permits the remolding of a schedule! 

It is hardly necessary to reiterate here the advan- 
tages of telephone dispatching as revealed by the 
detailed practices of Rochester and San Antonio. But 
the conclusion may be drawn that the telephone offers 
barely-appreciated opportunities to make the service 
flexible, thereby securing with one stroke more revenue 
and greater public satisfaction. The latter result, in 
fact, is seldom capable of attainment by direct means, 
but where every car crew, even in the farthest outlying 
districts, can notify the passengers in advance regard- 
ing unexpected operating changes, at least one prolific 
source of friction is at once removed. 

The latest article by F. W. Doolittle, director of the 
bureau of fare research, published elsewhere in this is- 
sue, is unusually valuable by virtue of its lucid presenta- 
tion of the best practice in the work of collecting traflSc 
data. From the experiences of individual railways and 
engineering companies that have made traffic surveys, 
Mr. Doolittle has collated basic information for all elec- 
tric railway operators and has also added carefully- 
drawn distinctions in regard to the survey plans to be 
followed by companies of different sizes. Officials who 
desire for themselves or for their traffic survey staff a 
readable analysis of traffic survey procedure will find 
Mr. Doolittle's article replete with concrete suggestions. 

In constructing his paper Mr. Doolittle develops his 
theme logically along the line of the items to be covered 
by a traffic survey, the frequency of their collection, the 
preliminary work, and the actual collection and the 
recording of data. The two points most interesting are 
in connection with the frequency of collecting data and 
the extent of the data to be taken. The frequency of 
traffic studies is impossible of exact determination on 
account of such factors as size of company, character 
and growth of territory, traffic density, business condi- 
tions and season changes, but sufficient generalization 
can be made on this topic to say that the time interval 
between collection dates should be short so that the 
company will keep pace with traffic fluctuations. The 
conducting of separate studies for the five ordinary 
week-days and for Saturdays, Sundays and holidays; 
the use of twenty-four hours as a minimum period of 
observation and the making of surveys by preference in 
the autumn and winter better to estimate peak condi- 
tions — these seem also to be becoming definitely formu- 
lated principles. It is more difficult to state the extent 
to which traffic count data should be accumulated, but 
we believe that Mr. Doolittle has outlined a feasible 
platform for the average comprehensive survey when he 
suggests in general the ascertaining of the average num- 
ber of passengers getting on and off each car at eyery 
point during twenty-four hours in the case of the lar- 
ger companies, the- number of passengers getting on and 
off each car at important traffic points during eighteen 
hours for companies of- medium size and the number of 
passengers on each car at the point of maximum load- 
ing during rush hours for the smaller companies. 

It may be that some traffic experts will not agree en- 
tirely with this platform. The more one goes into the 
detail of Mr. Doolittle's article, the greater chance there 
is of finding particular practices which some experts 
may not like so much as their own. The science of 
making traffic surveys is still new to the transportation 
field as a whole, and through the kindness of local condi- 
tions individual initiative has had full sway in its de- 
velopment up to now. But Mr. Doolittle's article is con- 
cerned not so much with details as with general prin- 
ciples. Traffic survey principles are gradually becoming 
clarified and more widely accepted, ■ and he Who desires 
to understand the theory of such work should give the 
article a careful perusal. The technique to be followed, 

JULY 17, 1915] 



however, in applying these principles to specific proper- 
ties under the varying effect of local conditions and in- 
herent characteristics is a problem to be worked out 
with all possible standardization by the men who are 
experienced in the multitudinous details of traffic sur- 

Never were there more interesting developments in 
progress in electric traction than at the present moment 
and in no place are these developments more interest- 
ing than in heavy electric traction. In this field one 
hears more about locomotives, cars, power plants and 
transmission lines than about contact systems, but the 
importance of the contact system was brought out in 
the railway papers and discussion presented at the 
A. I. E. E. convention, which were abstracted at length 
in last week's issue of this paper. While much of the 
discussion was taken up with routine construction and 
operation, one can read between the lines and note 
some very significant facts. 

In the first place the phraseology of .contact systems 
needs definition in order that the apparatus and its 
perfc^rmance may be accuratelytand concisely described. 
The art is (jhanging so rapidiyt|;at there is.the possi- 
bility 'of adopting names for objects almost off-hand, 
that the words that are first perhaps thoughtlessly ap- 
plied will remain. This would be upfortunate. In the 
I early days of electrical development?'^Sies"(5f this kind 
jjgcctfrred, and exprfessions then coined have become so 
cj-^ely associated with the industry that it-^l^as never 
!lj|ien possible entirefly ;to get rid of them. ,!|he terms 
'"Hl^Oster" and "to boof^t down" are exampltfei In the 
'present advanced state of the art, howeverj'^'tlftere is no 
excuse for the establishment of such barbarisms or 

It is further quite apparent that this is a trying-out 
period for heavy electric traction contact equipment. 
Broadly speaking, the system is entirely successful, but 
in detail there is much that is experimental. Steel con- 
tact wires are substituted for copper '6r phosphor- 
bronze contact wires, but it is found that they rust; 
rollers are supplied with wood cores and sleeve bear- 
ings, but later the cores are omitted and roller bear- 
ings are substituted. At the same time data of cost 
of operation are being accumulated, and if the operators 
and manufacturers will make these data fully avail- 
able there will be ample compensation for the an- 
noyance and expense accompanying the developmental 

In the third place progress in this instance, as al- 
ways, brings up new problems or old ones in new guise. 
Provision for voltage rises in third-rail conductors is 
one such problem. Readers of this paper have noticed 
several recent references to the subject. When a cur- 
rent in any circuit is interrupted the collapse of the 
accompanying magnetic field upon the conductors pro- 
duces a voltage rise. This is more evident when there 
is magnetic material in the neighborhood of the circuit, 
as is the case with a third-rail conductor. Such voltage 

rises add to the difficulties of design of high-voltage 
d.c. equipment. 

Electrification has not as yet made serious inroads 
upon the steam railroad field. It will do so in due time. 
Meanwhile the present experiments with motors, con- 
tact systems, drives, etc., will make it possible ulti- 
mately to electrify a large system without danger of 
obsolescence losses like those incurred in the early street 
railway electrifications. 


The false public impression created by undeserved 
criticism from unscrupulous newspapers is difficult and 
often impossible for public utility companies to correct 
by mere improvements in service. Experience has 
shown, however, that the misrepresentation may occa- 
sionally be rectified by deflecting the editorial "punch" 
in another direction. 

The president of a public service company in a me- 
dium-sized city recently related confidentially the ex- 
perience of his company, which for a while found itself 
at the mercy of two local newspapers. One of them 
bitterly attacked its service, while the other stood up 
for it, putting it in a position somewhat like that of 
the ancient mariner when the two specters were dicing 
for his life. Though many of the attacks were unwar- 
ranted the company realized that some of them were 
justified. It accordingly remedied the defects of 
service and then, calling the hostile newspaper's at- 
tention to the betterments accomplished, requested it 
to give due publicity to them. The editor of the news- 
paper, however, frankly replied that retraction of its 
present propaganda would be impossible, for without 
such a resourceful means of opposing its local rival's 
policy life would become a bore to his readers and the 
circulation list would melt away. This answer was a 
hard blow to the company, but it presently adopted an- 
other plan. Through its influence a citizen's advertis- 
ing club was formed for the purpose of attracting peo- 
ple and industries to the city. When the new plan was 
explained to the hostile newspaper, the latter, tickled 
at the thought of prospective subscribers from a city 
of increased population, at once discarded its toreador 
policy and backed the advertising club with enthusiasm. 
It even claimed to have originated the plan. The offi- 
cials of the public service company smiled inwardly at 
this assertion, but were perfectly satisfied to allow the 
newspaper full credit because the latter's columns now 
glowed with notices of the special facilities afforded by 
the city, among which were mentioned an up-to-date 
street railway and a low-priced lighting system. 

Whether newspaper criticism is just or unjust, so 
long as the criticism is sincere public utility companies 
may aspire to overcome its effect by adopting more 
progressive operating methods. If the motive behind 
the attack, however, is simply the idea that to keep at- 
tention attracted to it the paper must always be charg- 
ing with head down at somebody, practically the only 
remedy, as in the above case, is to wave a red flag in a 
different direction. 


Telephone Dispatching at San Antonio 

The Flexibility of Schedules in Meeting Traffic Changes Has Been Greatly Improved— All Outside Men and 
Service Cais Are Also Controlled from the Dispatcher's Office 

The San Antonio (Tex.) Traction Company has been 
using, since August, 1914, a telephone dispatching sys- 
tem with connections to forty-two street box dispatching 
stations. The equipment is of Western Electric manu- 
facture installed and operated under lease by the South- 
western Telegraph & Telephone Company. The system 
is so arranged that in case of need any Bell telephone 
may be used. 

The dispatcher's board is equipped with two private 
trunks which join it to the San Antonio public tele- 
phone exchange. The board also has connections to the 
traction company's commercial switchboard. The num- 
ber of active plugs is now forty-two, with room for sixty. 
The telephones of all officials of the company are tied 
in with this board so that the dispatcher can get into 
touch with them at once. 

The primary purpose of the board is, of course, the 
dispatching of cars, but the use of the telephone gives 
a much greater flexibility than would otherwise be 
the case, and certain other uses have developed as by- 

The cars are dispatched by one man ordinarily, an 
assistant being employed only for meal relief and dur- 
ing the peak hours. The board is operated for the 
complete daily transportation period of nineteen hours. 
To enable two men to work together if necessary the 
board is divided into two sections. 

Character of Schedules 

The regular schedule calls for headways varying from 
five to fifteen minutes, according to the line and 
the time of day. However, conditions frequently 
arise which make it desirable to deviate from the regu- 
lar headways. Practically all runs are of such char- 
acter that the men report for orders on reaching each 
end of the run. In this way the dispatcher can give 
clearance orders to the men at frequent intervals or 
special orders if necessary. 

A typical conversation is as follows: The dispatcher 
says: "Hello." The motorman then replies, "Car 317, 
Tobin Hill (the line), Otto (motorman)." The dis- 
patcher then says, "9:15 a. m." (time of day). The 
motorman repeats "9.15," and the dispatcher closes 
with "O.K." 

Making Changes in Schedules 

The usefulness of the telephone in adding to the 
flexibility of the schedule will be apparent from the 
following instances: 

Following rains it may be desirable to slow down the 
running time by adding say one minute on a fifteen- 
minute headway. This is readily accomplished by the 
time instruction which the dispatcher gives to suc- 
ceeding cars at any given terminus. To guide each 
man he gives out the revised round-trip time and head- 
way so that the car man can figure his new time-points 

Saturday and Sunday night service is left entirely to 
the dispatcher, through the road inspectors, as to when 
it is desirable to pull off or add cars on any line. The 
inspectors merely telephone the load conditions to the 
dispatcher, who acts accordingly. 

"The convenience of the telephone for setback oper- 
ation is illustrated by a condition which arose on the 
West End line on Thursday, May 13. The street was 

being paved at one end of the line, and many delays 
were caused by the use of temporary track and the con- 
gestion of foreign vehicles which could use no other 
place but the track. All cars were made equally late. 
As the schedule headway was fifteen minutes the cars 
were set back a half-space, or seven and one-half min- 
utes, at 5 :37 p. m. and another half space at 7 :22 p. m. 
Of course, the same result would have been accomplished 
with one full-space setback at 5:37 or perhaps at 6:07, 
but this would have caused all cars to drag the line at 
the period of heaviest riding. Consequently, the half- 
space setback was used, as described, the second half- 
space being made when traffic was not so important. 
On other like occasions the conditions before the first 
setback have been restored by later advance of the 
same amounts of time. 

The most frequent source of delay is due to the 
breakdown of foreign vehicles where only one car is 
aflfcctcd. In cases of this kind the delayed car is gen- 
erally allowed to proceed until caught by the car fol- 


lowing. When this occurs the car with the least pas- 
sengers transfers its load (usually to the car ahead) 
and turns back at the last meeting point. When it is 
impossible to turn back both cars because of a heavy 
load on each, the cars are permitted to go to the end 
of the line, and a special car, designated a "pull-out/' 
is taken out of the car station to fill the gap in town 
and to the opposite end of the line. It may be added 
here that all San Antonio lines are routed from one 
side of the town through the business district to the 
opposite side of the town. The lines are not necessarily 
true radii, as they make several bends in their course, 
especially in the business district. 

Still another schedule feature of telephone dispatch- 
ing is the conversion of short-line cars into full-run 
cars when load conditions unexpectedly demand it. As 
soon as such cars have been ordered to proceed to the 
end of the line, the dispatcher orders out additional 
cars to maintain the original headway on the short- 
line section. 

Another field for the telephone is found in the ease 
of securing additional transfers, tickets or change if 
the conductor runs short. The conductor telephones his 
wants to the dispatcher advising when his car will pass 

July 17, 1915] 





Lino Diroctio 

Uotormaa Conductor . 

Nalurv of Acciilont 

No. of PwcDgen on Car. . . . 
No. SL-riomty Hurt od Car. . 
Nwnei of Injured 

. in Vehiale .. 
. .In Vehicle, . 


downtown head- 
quarters. The sup- 
plies are then deliv- 
ered by messengers. 

Trouble Reports 
The telephone is 
also used by the 
trainmen to report 
not only on car 
troubles but also on 
line and track de- 
fects. These mat- 
ters are handled on 
standard forms 
which show the dis- 
position made by the 
dispatcher and by 
the department con- 

A still more im- 
portant form of re- 
port, which is re- 
produced, is that re- 
lating to accidents. 
The almost instan- 
taneous knowledge 
of accidents thus obtained permits representatives from 
the executive office to get to the scene of trouble at 
once. Minor accidents involving only slight damage to 
property are not reported until the car reaches the 

One interesting feature of the company's accident 
practice is that the conductor is frequently ordered to 
remain with the injured person. In the meantime the 
motorman handles the car alone to the end of the trip, 
thereby avoiding car blockades and delays to passengers. 

One "trouble shooter" and one traffic inspector are 
always on hand at the main office to take care of con- 

Reports from Inspectors 

The dispatcher also keeps in regular touch with the 
road inspectors who must report their whereabouts to 
him at least once an hour, oftener if possible. The dis- 
patcher from these calls plots squares showing when 
an inspector reported from a given line. By glancing 
at the sheet one can readily see whether the inspectors 
are spending too little or too much of their time on 
given routes. Of course, the fact that the inspectors 
report at frequent intervals enables the dispatcher to 
assign any of them to special service. A typical ex- 
ample of the use of inspectors is afforded by stating 
the conditions under which they were employed to super- 
vise traffic during the "Battle of Flowers" week in 
April. In addition to the usual number of inspectors 
in the downtown district, special men were placed at 
five important corners where telephones were installed 
to keep the dispatcher in touch with the location and 
progress of parades ; also to keep the regular inspectors 

— — ■ 







M K M A « K ■ 




telephone dispatching — record of conductors' 
requests for supplies run short 

advised of the dispatcher's orders concerning the shift- 
ing of routes and the turnbacks made necessary by the 
parades. This made it possible to keep up continuous 
service to the very last minute and to resume it as 
soon as possible. 

Service Gangs and Cars 

Contact with the line and track workers in the field 
is also greatly improved by means of the telephone 
dispatching system, mainly by requesting trainmen to 
deliver certain messages to the workers along their 

Even the sand car is dispatched by telephone, as it 
can thus be used to the best advantage as reports on 
track conditions may indicate. The wrecker also re- 
ports to the dispatcher for orders immediately after 
clearing up any job in hand. In general, all service cars 
and gangs are subject to telephone control. 

Other Benefits 

The telephone dispatching system has not only 
effected the improvements in service noted but has 
also been of value to the general public in other ways. 
It has facilitated especially the handling of lost arti- 
cles. Again, in the case of flooded track, it is now pos- 
sible to answer inquiries more quickly and more intelli- 
gently than before so that patrons will know just how 
they can best reach their destinations in the absence of 
regular routing faci-lities. 

The Galesburg (111.) Street Railway has opened High- 
land Park, near that city, to the public. Amusements 
for children received special attention. The park is 
equipped with a large dining-room for banquet pur- 
poses. At Highland Lake, adjacent to the park, the 
company has developed attractive swimming pools, 
chutes and springboards. The Galesburg Daily Mail 
spoke editorially in a very complimentary manner of the 
public work which the company is doing and urged out- 
of-town shoppers to plan picnics in this park as a part 
of their sight-seeing while in Galesburg. 



ram iri rfported on iqi 

Car No. 




Naturk op Trouble 



Final Action 



The trainman's section is shown at the left of this blank, the dispatcher's section at the right 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

The Collection of Traffic Data 

The Items to Be Included and the Method and the Frequency of Their Collection — Preliminary Work, 

Length of Period of Observation and Data to Be Taken in the 
Field — Conclusions to Be Drawn 


The frequency and the regularity with which traffic 
studies were made in the past varied considerably. In 
1910 information from twenty-four companies indi- 
cated that eight made such studies daily, three twice 
per week, three once or twice per month, two upon com- 
plaints, and eight at irregular and indefinite intervals. 
A report' made at that time suggests the following fac- 
tors which may be said to control the frequency of such 
studies and the seasons at which they should be made: 

1. Size of the property. 

2. Chaiacter of the territory served. 

3. Rapidity of its growth. 

4. Density of traffic. 

5. Business conditions. 

6. Season changes. 

The report further points out that in order to secure 
full advantage of fluctuations in traffic and to antici- 
pate puVjlic complaints the interval between such 
studies should be short. In this connection it is of in- 
terest to quote the following two paragraphs: 

"Passenger counts.- — That there should be periodical 
developments of records of passenger traffic with com- 
paratively short intervals intervening.'" 

"The committee wishes to recommend that all mem- 
ber companies make daily records of passenger busi- 
ness by trains in interurban operation, feeling that 
such records are necessary statistics, not alone for 
proper construction of schedules and time-tables, but 
as well for the purpose of comparison with past results 
(the 1910 report shows eighteen companies out of fifty- 
seven making such a comparison) and as essential fac- 
tors in developing estimates of future operation.'" 

Since traffic conditions vary not only with the sea- 
sons of the year, but also with the days of the week,' 
many who bave studied the matter believe that it pays 
to make a separate traffic study for week days, Satur- 
days and Sundays, since the termination of even a 
small part of the service and for a short time only may 
mean the saving of many car-miles. Touching on this 
matter, C. M. Larson says:' 

*'Such a record is necessary for week days, for Sat- 
urdays, and for other seasons of the year when the 
traffic is not of the same magnitude. There are, of 
course, variations in traffic due to weather conditions. 
These can usually be determined by general observa- 
tions and the necessary steps taken for the required 
variation in the service." 

In a paper presented in March, 1914, before The Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Company's section of 
the American Electric Railway Association on "The 
Purposes of a Street Railway Traffic Survey," E. J. 
Archambault says : 

"The traffic count that is carried on in an extensive 

ilfilO Proceedings of the Transportation & Traffic Association 
of the American Electric Railway Association, pp. 256a and 264. 
(Electric 'Rkylv^xx Journal, Oct. 14, 1910, pp. 822 and 824.) 

-1911 Proceedings of the Transportation & Traffic Association 
of fhe American Electric Railway Association, p. 506. (Electric 
Railw.^t Journal, Oct. 13, 1911, p. 836.) 

»See article bv F. W. Doolittle in Electric Railway Journal, 
May 15, 1915. p. 926. 

*C M. Larson — "A Street Railway Traffic Survey" — Municipal 
Engineering. February, 1914. (Electric Railway Journal, Jan. 
24, 1914, p. 177.) 

manner is generally taken during the late autumn and 
winter months, because it is then that the peak loading 
is most pronounced and hardest to handle. Other 
checks, however, are constantly made at all times of the 
year. It is obvious that this is necessary since the de- 
mand is constantly on the increase as a rule, and also 
that changes are brought about by local conditions 
along various lines, which affect the loading of other 
lines as well." 

It is interesting to note in this connection that the 
1914 Detroit, as well as the 1910 and 1912 Philadelphia, 
traffic surveys were all made in the autumn of the re- 
spective years. The Detroit survey was made by Bar- 
clay Parsons & Klapp.' The first Philadelphia survey 
was made by Ford, Bacon & Davis", and the second by 
the Department of City Transit, Philadelphia, with 
Ford, Bacon & Davis as consulting engineers. To quote 
from the latter report:' 

"The survey extended over a period of five weeks 
from Oct. 14, 1912, to Nov. 18, 1912, which period was 
selected as representing most nearly normal traffic con- 
ditions in Philadelphia." 

Quite naturally the periods of heaviest riding- 
throughout the year, the week, and the day have re- 
ceived the greatest amount of attention, but if the 
traffic survey is to accomplish for any company all the 
good that it can, it should indicate plainly the relation 
existing at all times between the amount of transporta- 
tion furnished and the amount required. 

Preliminary Work 

The extent of data to be collected in a street railway 
traffic study is variable, depending upon how compre- 
hensively it is desired to analyze the transportation 
problem. Most recent traffic studies consist of a sys- 
tematic series of inspections and observations in which, 
an actual passenger count is made and the movements 
of cars and passengers are recorded by inspectors or 
field agents stationed at selected pertinent points, or 
riding on cars, or both. In addition other observations 
of a somewhat general nature are often made. These 
will be referred to later. Traffic experts are fairly well 
agreed as to those points on each line of an electric 
railway system at which a passenger count should be 
made, and generally a preliminary survey is made to 
determine them, although occasionally they can be 
located by a rather casual inspection. 

R. M. Feustel, in his report on the 1913 Winnipeg- 
traffic survey, gives an account* of the preliminary 
work, and other recent studies, such as those in Mil- 
waukee, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, etc., follow similar 
methods of procedure in laying out the work. 

"Inspectors were placed on every car on some lines,. 

^Barclay Parsons & Klapp — Report on Detroit Street Railway 
Traffic and Proposed Subway, January, 1915, p. 57. (Electric 
Railway Journal, April 3, 1915, p. 664.) 

^Ford, Bacon & Davis — Report on Philadelphia Service and 
Equipment. (Electric Railway Journal, June 17, 1911, p. 1065.) 

'A. M. Taylor — "The Solution of a City's Transit Problem" — - 
Electric Journal, October, 1914, p. 516. (Electric Railway Jour- 
nal, Jan. 10, 1914, pp. 76-79.) 

*R. M. Feustel — Report on -Winnipeg Street Railway Service — 
Public Utilities Commission of Manitoba, 1913. (Electric Rail- 
way Journal, April 18, 1914, p. 865.) 

JULY 17, 1915] 



on every other car on other lines, and on every third 
car on the larger lines. They were kept on the car 
during the entire day, from the time the car left the 
carhouse in the morning until late in the evening. 
Points were chosen along each line, approximately four 
blocks apart, and the inspector recorded the number 
of passengers on the car when passing these points and 
the time of passing. These data gave an accurate 
record of loading conditions on the different lines, both 
as to geographical location and as to the time loading 
occurred. The observations taken covered at least two 
representative days of travel on each line, and if these 
two days checked satisfactorily one against the other 
the data were considered sufficient. If, however, for 
any special reason the loading was eccentric, additional 
observations were taken until a normal record was had. 
An examination of data taken indicates that the travel 
throughout the day could be divided into rather char- 
acteristic periods. The record plotted shows the aver- 
age of all the observations taken, and each of the char- 
acteristic periods was plotted separately into what 
might be called 'car-loading' curves. These plainly 
showed the average load carried by the car for each 
period over the entire length of line. The points where 
the total number of passengers on the car was noted 
included all regular transfer points along the line as 
well as the other important traffic stops. * * * 
From the car-loading curves for each line the point of 
maximum loading was determined. Other points along 
the line were selected so that in most cases several 
street observations were taken on each line simultane- 
ously. The inspectors who had become familiar with 
car loads were then stationed at these points to record 
cars and passengers." 

The following special features were shown by these 
preliminary observations: 

1. Variations of traffic in both directions for the dif- 
ferent periods of the day. 

2. Territory in which the pick-up of passengers is 

' 8. Location of through territory' in which compara- 
tively few passengers are discharged or taken on. 

4. Location of unloading territory. ' 

5. Duration of time in which the dVerloadMg' occurs. 

6. Effect of certain transfer points on car loading. 
The following preliminary observations were made 

by Ford, Bacon & Davis in their 1910 study on "Philadel- 
phia Service and Equipment" 

"1. Preliminary car riding by inspectors from July 
12 to Sept. 1, to determine: (a) Characteristics of traf- 
fic. (6) Principal time points. 

"2. Preliminary rush-hour street observations be- 
tween 4 p. m. and 7 p. m. from July 15 to Aug. 26 to 
determine: (a) The number of passengers carried past 
or away from each important point, (b) Regularity of 
schedule. , (c) Car loading." 

The practice followed by companies making studies 
with their own forces is generally less complicated than 
that indicated by the above references. This has re- 
sulted from the fact that the former studies have 
usually been made for the purpose of answering spe- 
cific questions as to conditions at definite points, while 
the latter have sought to obtain information concern- 
ing all lines and routes on the same basis. A report 
made in 1910 shows that out of eighteen companies 
reporting, eleven used points of maximum load for ob- 
servations. In addition, certain other points along the 
line were chosen in order to get roughly the general 
characteristics of the line.'" 

"Fortl, Bacon & Davis — Report on Philadelphia Service and 
Equipment. Electric Railway Journal, June 17, 1911, p. 1065. 

"'1910 Proceedings of the Transportation & Traffic Association 
of the American Electric Railway Association, p. 256a. (Electric 
Railway Journal, Oct. 14, 1910, p. 822.) 

"Similar observations should be made at such other 
points along the line as may be determined by circum- 
stances. The principal purpose of these latter observa- 
tions would be to furnish a basis for turning of cars 
which it is not necessary to operate the entire length 
of the line."" 

An extension of the above method to cover every stop 
along a line may be found in the so-called "boarding 
and leaving" tabulation method, reported in use by the 
Boston Elevated Railway and the Public Service Railway 
Company of New Jersey" and used by Barclay Parsons 
& Klapp in the 1914 Detroit traffic survey." It consists 
of having the checkers ride on a certain proportion of 
cars along a line and record the number of passengers 
getting on or off the car at each stop. This method was 
also used by Ford, Bacon & Davis in their 1910 Phila- 
delphia traffic study." Observers were on one car in 
every eight along each line for twenty-four hours and 
recorded the number of passengers getting on or off 
the car at each stop, together with the time the car 
passed. The lines were counted by selected groups, 
related or adjacent lines being counted together. The 
count extended from Aug. 29 to Sept. 22, but ho ob- 
servations were taken on Saturdays, Sundays or holi- 

Recent traffic studies, particularly those in Milwau- 
kee, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Winnipeg, have demoii- 
strated that the point of maximum load is approxi- 
mately the same for traffic in each direction — ^^that is, 
for in-bound cars in the morning and for out-bound 
cars in the evening; that these points may be consi'd- 
ered to follow roughly a line about the congested 
section ; that between the point at which maximum load- 
ing first occurs and the point at which it ends the num- 
ber of passengers is approximately constant, and that 
there is a point on every line at which the company is 
justified in terminating part of its service, sin'cS 'f^w 
passengers live near the end of the line and the 'waste' 
of car-mileS in order to make a turn is considerable. 

Length of Period of Observation 

The period of time to be covered by the count on any 
line at any point is fairly well agreed upon, consider- 
ing the variation in local conditions and thi^ divergent 
points of view of those having traffic studies in charge. 
A recent paper" comments thus: 

"Unless special inspection is made for the rush hours 
only, the point of maximum loading is covered by an 
inspector at all times of the day from about 6 a. m. to 
about midnight. Frequently surveys are made which 
cover the complete twenty-four hours. This is done 
only where a question arises about the owl service." 

Another says :"' ' ' ' 

"The count should cover a long enough period to ob- 
tain normal results with twenty-four hours as a mini- 

^iC. M. Larson — "A Street Railway Traffic Survey" — Municipal 
Engineering, February, 1914. (Electric Railway Journal, Jan. 
24, 1914, p. 177.) 

i="Recent Practice in Traffic Counts," D. J. McGrath, Electric 
Railway Journal, Dec. 2fi, 1914, p. 1385. 

i^Barclay Parsons & Klapp — Report on Detroit Street Railway 
Traffic and Proposed Subway — January, 1915, pp. 57 and 148. 
(Electric Railway Journal, April 3, 1915, p. 664.) 

"The work was divided into two classes : 

"1. The continuous riding of lines from one terminus to another,, 
recording the number of passengers loading and unloading at every 
street corner, the time from point to point, the number of pas- 
sengers in the cars at various points, transfer conditions and a few 
other special items peculiar to individual lines. 

"2. Additional trips on all lines through the congested dis- 
trict. * * *" 

"Ford, Bacon & Davis — Report on Philadelphia Service and 
Equipment — Electric Railway Journal, June 17, 1911, p. 1065. 

''"Purposes of a Street Railway Traffic Survey," E. J. Archam- 
hault, The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (Company. 

"C. M. Larson — "A Street Railway Traffic Survey" — Municipai 
Engineering, February, 1914. (Electric Railway Journal, Jan 
24, 1914, p. 177.) 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 
















Checked by 


Electric It]j,Journal 


The reports of many of the recent traffic studies 
show that twenty-four hours was the minimum time 
spent at each point. In some cases observations at a 
point covered a period of several days. A surface car 
traffic study in the Chicago business district, made in 
1909 by the bureau of engineering of the Department 
of Public Works," covered a twenty-four-hour period. 
The same amount of time was then spent in a study of 
the elevated lines. In their 1910 Philadelphia general 
traffic survey, Ford, Bacon & Davis" used a twenty- 
four-hour period as a minimum upon any one line. In 
the Winnipeg survey "from two to four days' counts 
were taken on each line in order to obtain average 

When the points of observation and the period over 
which data are to be taken have been determined, ob- 
servers are stationed to collect the required data. 

Data to Be Taken in Field 

There is, as has been indicated, considerable diverg- 
ence in practice between the items recorded in different 
surveys. This is due to varying local conditions, both 
as to the character of traffic and as to the purposes of 

"Electric Railway Journal, May 14, 1910, p. 867. 

•"Electric Railway Journal, June 17, 1911, p. 1065. 

•"R. M. Feustel — Report on Winnipeg- Street Railway Service — 
Manitoba Public Utilities Commission, 1913. (Electric Railway 
Journal. April 18, 1914, p. 865.) 

Stondard 2-1 

1/2 X 7-5/8 


Slip No^ 



Tallied at 




No. of 






Electric Ity,Juumal 


the study, and to the organization of the traffic survey 
department. It is the usual, although not universal, 
practice to record all cars in each direction at all ob- 
servation points along each line, the data for traffic in 
the two directions being preferably kept separately on 
the opposite pages of a notebook. It is standard prac- 
tice on the Chicago Surface Lines to employ a note- 
book ruled as shown in Form I. The New York Rail- 
ways uses "tally slips" (Form II) which are conveniently 
handled and from which figures for fifteen-minute pe- 
riods are entered on Form III for report to the superin- 
tendent of transportation. The Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company uses Forms IV, V and VI 
for collecting and summarizing its traffic data. 

In general the forms furnished to observers provide 
for taking the following information: 

1. Name of line. 

2. Point of inspection. 

3. Origin, destination and direction of car observed. 

4. The car number. 

5. The run number. 

6. The time of arrival and departure. 

7. The number of passengers on car. 

Staudard 7-15/16 1 10-1/2 

Office of Superintendent of Transportation. 

TixUy of_ 
Bound — 


New York_ 



Bound - 

W eather- 


Average seating capacity per car_ 





Excess or 
shortage of 
seat capacity 
per car 

to give 




Excess or 
shortage of 
seat capacity 
per car 

to give 






Superintendent of Traihsportation suitrw 

Copy to Gen'l Supt. of Transportation 

Copy to Division General Foieman 



July 17, 1915] 







Total every 15 minutes 






Checked at 



.M. to 



Checked by 

Electric Ry.Jitumal 


On the last point the practice is not uniform. Some 
cards require an estimate of the total number of pas- 
sengers on a car as it passes the observation point. 
Others specify the number of passengers on the car 
when arriving and when leaving the observation point. 
The number getting on and off at each observation 
point has also been recorded occasionally. 

In Cincinnati'" the following information as to pas- 
sengers was required: 

1. Total passengers on car as it arrives and as it 

2. Number of passengers standing in front and rear 

3. Number of passengers standing in car body. 

4. Number of passengers boarding and leaving car. 

5. Group or type of passengers: (a) Wealthy or pro- 

"w. Harris — Report on Cincinnati Traffic Conditions, 1912. 
(Electric Railway Journal, Nov. 2, 1912, p. 956.) 

Line - 



— rom_ 


















Electric . Ry^ov/ma I 


fessional; ib) middle type and shoppers; (c) laboring 

In determining the number of passengers on a car, 
practice has shown that close estimation of the number 
from the street on the basis of seating capacity (known 
by the inspector for each type of car) by adding for 
those standing and subtracting for vacant seats is a 
sufficiently accurate method — 95 per cent accuracy being 
attained by the inspectors as shown by check during 
the recent traffic survey in Milwaukee by the Railroad 
Commission of Wisconsin."' 

In estimating the number of passengers it is cus- 

-iR. M. Peustel — Report on Winnipeg Street Railway Service — 
Manitoba Public Utilities Commission, 1913. (Electric Railway 
Journal, April 18, 1914, p. 865) : "Checking was continued . . . 
rigidly. . . . The car number and the time being taken each 
was a check on every other, as the car could be traced then from 
one end of line to the other. This work was then again checked 
against the car counts (preliminary study) taken from same 
corner, and a very substantial agreement was had." 

R. W. Harris — Report on Cincinnati Traffic Conditions, 1912. 
(Electric Railway Journal, Nov. 2, 1912, p. 956) : "Experience 
in collecting data of this character has shown this method (esti- 
mating from street) to be most accurate. In order to ascertain 
the correctness of the information thus collected, checkers were 
put on cars and an accurate count was made of a number of cars 
being observed by field inspectors. Considering the entire amount 
of data, the check indicates, on the whole, that the count on tlie 
street is 95 per cent accurate." 

Date - 
Date - 


The Milwaukee Electric Railway and Light Company 

Oheclscd by- 
Checked by_ 
Checked by_ 
Checked by- 


-From To-. 




Actual Passengers 

Actual Seats 

Actual Per Cent 

Per Cent 


Number of Cars 



By days 

15 Min. 

30 Jiin, 

By days 

15 Min, 

30 Min. 

Load Factor 

By days 


15 Min. 

30 Min. 







Electric Ry.Joumal 





[Vol. XL VI, No. 3 

tomary to allow for those voluntarily standing." The 
proportion to which this preferential standing may ex- 
tend is well brought out by an investigation by the 
Wisconsin Railroad Commission covering many thou- 
sands of observations'' and showing that with a full 
carload as high as 20 per cent of the seating capacity 
represents standing by preference. The extent of pref- 
erential standing varies, of course, with local condi- 
tions, among which may be noted type of equipment, 
rules, class of passengers, time of day, and length of 
ride.'* Probably there is a considerable number of 
smokers who would rather stand if allowed to smoke, 
and, when there are vacant seats, it is well to consider 

The number of passengers on a car has been recorded 
in the past in several ways — either the actual number 
estimated or, for instance: light, medium, heavy (Wis- 
consin Railroad Commission); very light, light, full, 
crowded, overcrowded ("1910 committee on construction 
of schedules and time-tables of the American Street & 
Interurban Railway Association) ; or as no load (less 
than six), comfortable load (eight or less standing), 
eight to twenty standing, more than twenty standing 
(St. Louis Public Service Commission), etc. 

In addition to recording all of the above described 
data, the following additional items are usually con- 
sidered to be of sufficient value to warrant their collec- 
tion : 

1. Weather conditions throughout day. 

2. Abnormal occasions such as ball games, etc. 

3. General traffic conditions at observation points, 
both pedestrian and vehicular."' 

Traffic may be classified as vehicular and pedestrian, 
and again as: few; considerable but causing no delay; 
considerable and causing much delay.'" 

The transportation department of the old Metro- 
politan Street Railway, New York, classified delays to 


pf five minutes or more as follows:"' 


Blocking by vehicles. 


Carelessness of employees. 


Miscellaneous car trouble. 




Plow trouble. 


Electrical car trouble other than plow trouble. 


Electrical transmission trouble. 


Mechanical defects (cars). 


Faulty track. 

--Blon J. Arnold — Report on Traffic Situation in San Francisco, 
(Electric Railway Journal, Jan. 11, 1913, p. 63) : "Allow- 
ance must be made, especially in San Francisco, for the existing 
fact that many passengers stand by preference even when seats 
are vacant." 

-^Railroad Commission of Wisconsin, 13 — W. R. C. R. — 156. 

-■*R. W. Harris — Report on Cincinnati Traffic Conditions, 1912 
{Electric Railway Journal, Nov. 2, 1912, p. 956) : "The number 
of preferential standing passengers for any car load is peculiar to 
the conditions existing in each locality. In Madison, Wis., 21 
per cent of any load will stand by preference ; in La Crosse, 15.5 
Iter cent : in Lincoln, Neb., 14 per cent; in Milwaukee, 19 per cent, 
and in Cincinnati, 15.5 per cent." 

R. B. Stearns, vice-president and general manager The Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Company, made the following state- 
ment in the summer of 1914 : "Since smoking on the cars in the 
Milwaukee system has been discontinued and pay-within systems 
of folding doors and closed platforms adopted, a recent recalcula- 
tion of the number of passengers standing by preference would 
indicate approximately 5 per cent as compared with 19 per cent 
a few years ago when smoking was permitted and all the cars 
were operated with open platforms, front and rear." 

-Bion J. Arnold — San Francisco Transportation Report on Traf- 
fic and Service — December, 1912 (Electric Railway Journal, 
.Tan. 11, 1913, p. 64) : "One very serious cause of the increased 
difficulties of giving adequate service is the interference of vehicle 
traffic. ... A very material improvement, however, has re- 
sulted from the institution of traffic regulations in this city (San 
Francisco) by the traffic squad of the police department, with re- 
sults that heavy and slow moving vehicles are being gradually 
encouraged to seek and follow less congested thoroughfares, which 
has greatly facilitated passenger movement." 

-"R. W. Harris — "A Method for Determining the Adequacy of an 
Electric Railway System ' — Proceedings of American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, 1910. (Electric Railway Journal, July 9, 
1910, p. SO.) 

'Electric Railway Journal, June 25, 1910, p. 1088. 

10. Fires. 

11. Caused by outside lines. 

12. Miscellaneous trouble. 

13. Due to outside construction. 

14. Due to obstruction in slot. 

In order that any traflSc study may furnish informa- 
tion of the greatest value to the officers of a trans- 
portation company, it must determine as far as prac- 
ticable the causes of the variations in traflRc demand. 
To do this : it is necessary to note many items which 
may at first seem superfluous. It should be borne in 
mind that while the primary purpose of traflflc studies 
is to permit the making of scientific s(5hedules, there is 
frequent opportunity to use the information derived 
from such studies in prognosticating the future, in 
meeting complaints, and in stimulating traffic at times 
and places such as will make the increased traffic profit- 

The steps which must be taken in any community to 
determine the characteristics of the various lines will 
necessarily vary, but the following suggestions cover 
the field in a general way and have formed the basis of 
inspector's reports in various' surveys : 

1. Divide line into characteristic sections, and dis- 
cuss each under the heads: (a) Class of passengers; 
(b) time of travel; ic) probable destination. 

2. Locate various origins of passengers along line 
and obtain destination and probable route (factories; 
etc.). • :K 

3. State transfer points and give idea as to number) 
(in percentage) of passengers leaving car from which 
transfer is made, transferring to other lines. If cars 
on more than one route operate- over line, make sep- 
arate estimates of interchange of traffic. 

4. Determine attitude of public as regards service 
given by the particular line (casual conversation). 

5. Make a few specific observations (record counts)! 
of movements of passengers (seated to vestibule and 
vice versa) in the car as it approaches a stop in down- 
town and outlying districts. 

6. How does standing by preference vary with time 
of day, class of passengers, district, etc.? 

The method used in the 1912 Philadelphia traflRc sur- 
vey differed in many respects from all of the preceding 
and might be of comparative interest, though its ulti- 
mate purpose was somewhat different from most of the 
herein mentioned studies. To quote from the report:^ 

"The present flow of traflfic between all sections of 
the city was determined by a traffic survey made by the 
following novel and practical method." 

A brief summary follows : 

1. A program was prepared from schedules in effect 
on the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company lines pro- 
viding for: (a) The counting of passengers on about 
one car in every five (eighteen-hour) cars operated; 
(b) about four lines a day were to be covered. 

2. Two experienced conductors (borrowed from the 
company and properly instructed and aided) were 
placed on each car: (a) The first, stationed at the en- 
trance, properly filled out and presented an identifica- 
tion slip to each passenger with a request to keep same 
until collected; (b) the second, stationed at the exit, 
collected such slips and noted on them, after inquiry, 
the passengers' destination. 

3. The count slips were printed tickets, somewhat 
larger than street car transfers, were numbered serially 
and supplied in pads of 100. Differently colored slips 
were used for each of four general directions of travel. 

4. At end of each half trip all slips collected for it 

-"A. M. Taylor — "The Solution of a City's Transit Problem" 

Electric Jora-nal, October, 1914, p. 516. (Electric Railway Jour- 
nal, Jan. 10, 1914, pp. 76-79.) 

July 17, 1915] 



were inclosed in an envelope giv- 
ing the following information, (a) 
Number of envelope correspond- 
ing to the number of half trips 
counted; (b) name of collector; 
(c) date; (d) name and number 
of line being counted; (e) direc- 
tion; (/) time of beginning of 
half trip; (g) number of slips in- 
closed; (h) delays; (i) unusual 
traffic movements, and (j) other 

5. The envelopes containing 
slips were turned in after mid- 
night each day, and were then 
sent to the Statistical Service 
Company. Here the information 
contained on slips was transferred 
to twenty-four column Hollerith 
cards, which were then electrically 
sorted and recorded. 

6. No count was made on holi- 
days, Saturdays or Sundays. 

7.. Checks were made by repeat- 
ing the count on several lines. 
These recounts were found to 

agree in a satisfactory manner with the originals. 

8. The data recorded by the Statistical Service Com- 
pany were returned to the survey office, where they were 
further analyzed and charted. 

Recording Data 

"Results are plotted into curves from which it can 
be readily seen wherein service is defective and recom- 
mendations for changes made accordingly." 

This comment on the practice of the Board of Su- 
pervising Engineers, Chicago Surface Lines, may well 
sefve both as a statement of present general practice 
and as a recommendation to all engaged in the accu- 
mulation of traffic data. Such curves simply repre- 
sent a summary of observations, but for the great ma- 
jority of those dealing with such matters the graphic 
representation of data is far more quickly interpreted 
than numerical tabulations. 

A few typical curves together with the data from 
which they are drawn will be illustrated. An observer 
on a car noted passengers boarding and alighting dur- 
ing a run of sixteen blocks, as shown by Table L Fig. 
1 shows this information graphically,'" Data for, say, 
fifteen or thirty-minute periods can be combined readily 
and drawn in the same manner, or from street observa- 
tions as to number of passengers on the car the car 
loading line can be drawn. 

The variation in traffic throughout the day at any, 
point may be shown by a diagram similar to Fig. 2. 
Here an inspector stationed at one point throughout 
the day reports the data shown in Table IL Such a 

-"When the stops are laid off on the base line to the scale of 
their distances apart in miles, the area under this curve represents 
passenger miles, and divided by the total passengers "on" gives 
the average length of ride. The maximum ordinate will generally 
be less than the total "ons." The area between a horizontal line 
representing seating capacity and that part of the curve lying 
above the seating capacity line represents "standing passenger 

Table I — Showing Data Noted by Observer and Used in Fig. 1 
Car No. 100 


10 II 12 13 14 15 16 

Stops Time 

diagram as Fig. 2 serves to indicate whether or not 
unusual loading is due to distortion of headway, and 
also, by the use of a line showing seating capacity, 
points out the relation between excess seats and stand- 
ing passengers for the particular point on the line. 

Of general application and frequent use, the diagram 
reproduced in Fig. 3 combines seyeral important fea- 
tures. An observer records for each car the number 
of passengers aboard and the time of passing the point 
of observation. The seating capacity of cars being 
known, summaries are made (see Form VI, summary 
sheet of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Com-| 
pany), and the results plotted as indicated. By plot-' 
ting on the same figure the seats required by company 

Table II — Showing Data for Traffic Variation at Certain' 
Point as Used in FIg. 2 

Main Street at Twentieth i ' : ; 


4.00 p. m. 
4.03 p. ni. 
4.07 p. m. 
4.09 p. m. 
4.11 p. m. 

4.15 p. m. 

4.16 p. ni. 
4.18 p. m. 




Pas- ;■ 








4.19 p. m. 





4.20 p. m. 





4.23 p. m 


48 ) 



4.24 p. m. 





4.26 p. m. 




4.27 p. m. 




4.28 p. m. 




4.30 p. m. 




c 400 


S_ wo 







Board- Alight- 





In Car 





Board- Alight- 
ing ing 


In Car 



— Stan 


6.00 AM. 6.30 

9.00 A.M. 9.30 

7.00 7.30 8.00 B.30 





[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

standards, or by franchise standards or those of com- 
missions, the sufficiency of the service can be quickly 

Other diagrams than those here illustrated will 
readily suggest themselves and will permit the setting 
forth of the tabular data in ways best fitted to the 
problem under examination. 


It is impossible to indicate other than very general 
conclusions with regard to the frequency of the collec- 
tion of data. It may be concluded, however, that this 
is to an extent automatically determined by conditions 
already enumerated but that in order to secure full 
advantage of fluctuations in traffic and to anticipate 
public complaints, the interval between such studies 
should be short. Moreover, such studies should be 
made not only for week days but also for Saturdays 
and Sundays, and not only for rush periods but for 
non-rush periods as well. Furthermore, in order to 
estimate peak conditions accurately, some traffic studies 
should always be made in the late autumn and winter 

The type of property will have an important bearing 
on this question. Following the classification proposed 
in a previous article in this series, published in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 19, the varying 
requirements of diff'erent companies may be roughly 
stated as follows: 

For the larger companies, all lines should be sub- 
jected to a twenty-four-hour study covering week 
days, Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, and represent- 
ing also traffic conditions throughout the various sea- 
sons of the year. The size of the department which it 
is necessary to maintain to make these studies will 
depend upon the frequency with which it is desired to 
complete the study of all Ines in the system and upon 
the number of lines it is possible for the department 
to consider at a time. 

For the companies of medium size, a twenty-four- 
hour general study should be made periodically and 
eighteen-hour studies on the heaviest lines in rotation. 

For the small companies, an eighteen-hour general 
study, supplemented with special data concerning the 
points of maximum loading on certain lines during rush 
hours, will be sufficient. 

No definite conclusion can be drawn as to the extent of 
data to be taken in any traffic study except that the 
more comprehensive the study made, the greater the 
value of the information secured. Stated very gen- 
erally, however, experience indicates the following gen- 
eral procedure: 

A preliminary study, covering a number of repre- 
sentative car trips during the different periods of the 
day and ascertaining the number of passengers at dif- 
ferent points along the route, should be made for each 
line to determine the points of future observation. 
The points of maximum load and a number of others 
bringing out the characteristics of the traflSc on the 
line should be used as these points of observation, to- 
gether with points at which there are cross-overs which 
may be used for short routing. A car-loading curve, 
based on the preliminary observations, will help to 
locate the desired points. The period of time covered 
by the observations on any one line at any one point 
should be long enough to give normal results, with 
twenty-four hours as the minimum. 

Inspectors should be stationed at each observation 
point and should record accurately the following data 
for every car moving in either direction. 

1. Name of line. 

2. Point of inspection. 

3. Day and date. 

4. Weather. 

5. Origin, destination and direction of car. 

6. Car number. 

7. Run number. 

8. Time. 

9. Number of passengers on car. 

The last-named item should be estimated on the basis 
of seating capacity, by adding for those standing and 
subtracting for vacant seats (seating capacity of all 
types being known by inspectors). Allowance should be 
made for those voluntarily standing, varying from 5 
per cent to 20 per cent, according to conditions. In 
addition to the above data, any other pertinent remarks 
should be made, such as: ball game, street traffic light, 
medium, heavy, etc. 

A general survey of each line indicating the follow- 
ing should be made: 

1. Class of passengers: (a) Business and pro- 
fessional; {b) middle type and shoppers; (c) laboring 

2. Time of travel. 

3. Probable origin and destination (factories, etc.). 

4. Transfer points and their effect. 

5. Attitude of public as regards service on the par- 
ticular line. 

6. Other pertinent data. 

It is possible to reach more definite conclusions con- 
cerning the extent of data to be taken and the manner 
of its determination, by grouping companies in classe;s 
as has been previously done in discussing the organ- 
ization and the frequency of studies. Adopting this 
plan, the following paragraphs take up the question 
of method in greater detail. 

It is neither necessary nor practicable to study the 
loading of every car at every point of a trip. It is 
desirable, however, and the larger companies will ob- 
tain this information, to know the average number of 
passengers getting on and off each car at every point for 
twenty-four hours of the day and for various days and 
periods of the year. This information should be ob- 
tained by a sampling process — that is, by taking cer- 
tain cars and certain points at one time and other cars 
and other points at other times. It will be found that 
the traffic characteristics of the various car trips will 
be very nearly alike from day to day, so that it will 
be possible to combine data concerning one car line 
taken to-day with that taken concerning another car 
line to-morrow, provided, of course, no unusual circum- 
stances arise. 

For companies of medium size, the number of 
passengers getting on and off each car at important 
traffic points previously determined should be noted, and 
for the smaller companies an estimate should be made 
of the number of passengers on each car at the point 
of maximum loading during rush hours. 

At the beginning of any traffic study, all the lines 
should be listed and the general characteristics of the 
territory they serve should be recorded. The relation 
of these lines to each other will determine to a certain 
extent the order in which they will be studied. The 
general characteristics of the traffic on each line can be 
determined from conductors' trip reports and from 
a few rides of inspection prior to the beginning of the 
collection of specific data. 

Each observer should be carefully instructed as to the 
observations which he is to make and he should be fur- 
nished with convenient forms ruled and with printed 
headings. It is very necessary that every effort should 
be made to place the observations on a comparable 
basis, inasmuch as the data from many observers are 
combined to make the final determination of the 
sufficiency of service on any line. 

July 17, 1915] 



In addition to the data concerning the number of 
passengers on cars at various points, together with the 
identification of the car by route and time, the ob- 
server should record information concerning street 
traffic, unusual occasions, weather, etc., in order that 
the extreme variations may be eliminated from the 
statistical analysis. It is generally advisable also to de- 
termine the diversity of loading. For this purpose the 
passengers in each car passing a given point, for say 
fifteen-minute periods throughout the day, should be 
determined and the relation of the maximum to the 
average should be computed. Certain typical forms for 
use in collecting and recording this information have 
been shown. 

After these data have been assembled they can be made 
of greatest value by being represented graphically. 
There are three general types of curves which it is 
found helpful to prepare from the traffic data collected. 
The first is a curve on the horizontal axis of which is 
laid off the various streets passed in a car trip. 
Parallel to the vertical axis and above the horizontal 
axis there is laid off a line proportional in length to the 
number of passengers boarding the car at each street, 
and below the horizontal axis, a similar line represent- 
ing the number of passengers leaving the car at each 
street. By computing the cumulative difference of 
passengers on and off, the curve showing the number 
of people on the car at each street can be drawn. 

The second typical curve shows the number of passen- 
gers on each car passing a given point and the time at 
which the car passed the point. The vertical lines repre- 
senting the number of passengers on the car are drawn 
at horizontal distances representing the time, and a 
line connecting the upper extremities of the vertical 
line represents the loading at any point throughout the 
period of study. The distance between the lines indi- 
cates, of course, the headway of cars and whether or 
not unusual loadings were due to irregular spacing of 

The third general type of curve is one which is 
plotted for any given point on a line showing, for each 
fifteen or thirty-minute period during the time under 
observation, the number of passengers carried by the 
point, the number of seats furnished and the number 
of seats which should be furnished in order to conform 
to the company's rules or to regulations laid down by 
some controlling body. 

Another article will take up the analysis of these 
curves and their application to the problem of construct- 
ing time-tables — which is, of course, the immediate 
purpose of the traffic survey. There are other ways, 
however, in which the traffic survey department can be 
of value to those in charge of the property, and all 
data should be further analyzed for suggestions as to 
means of stimulating traffic on such lines and at such 
times as will make it a profitable addition to the busi- 
ness. There are many questions which the traffic sur- 
vey department is in a position to investigate and shed 
light upon, and it should be an able ally of the traffic 

The United Gas & Electric Company, the Louisville 
& Southern Indiana Traction Company, and the Louis- 
ville & Northern Railway & Light Company, New Al- 
bany, Ind., are behind a plan which will provide 
a monster auditorium in Glenwood Park, the outing 
park in Indiana, between New Albany and Jeffersonville 
and across from Louisville. This is a popular picnic 
ground, a chautauqua ground, camp meeting ground, 
etc. Incidentally it is signed up for picnics of one kind 
or another and other attractions for practically all of 
the summer, and the three railway lines mentioned will 
get the business. 

New Haven Operating Results 

In Several Written Discussions on W. S. Murray's Paper on 
Main Line Electrifications the Relative Costs of Power 
for Steam and for Electric Operation Were 
Taken Up 

In a paper presented before the Franklin Institute 
and reported in abstract in .the Electric Railway 
Journal for Jan. 30, W. S. Murray, consulting engineer 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, gave 
figures covering the cost of construction and operation 
for the electrified division of the New Haven Railroad 
and discussed the general principles of successful steam- 
railroad electrification. Several written discussions of 
the points brought out by Mr. Murray were presented 
at the meeting, and these have become available for 
publication through the Journal of the Franklin In- 
stitute, being given in abstract below. 

Alfred W. Gibbs, chief mechanical engineer, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company, contended that 1 lb. of coal 
burned under the boiler of a central power plant would 
not develop twice the drawbar power that the same 
amount of coal would produce when burned in a locomo- 
tive firebox. He cited the record of twenty-seven tests 
on one locomotive in the testing plant at Altoona. The 
tests showed that the coal consumption per drawbar 
horsepower ranged from 2.5 lb. to 5 lb., twelve of the 
tests showing rates between 2.5 lb. and 3 lb. These are 
the rates when the locomotive is running, and added to 
them are certain stand-by losses at terminals. The 
power station expense, as given by Mr. Murray at 0.69 
cent per kilowatt-hour, including fixed charges, taxes 
and insurance of 0.18 cent, evidently did not include a 
charge for obsolescence. The fixed overhead charge 
should be nearly double the figure given, or say, 0.35 
cent or 0.4 cent per kilowatt-hour. 

George R. Henderson considered that uniformity of 
traffic is just as important as density of traffic because 
the peak loads can only be smoothed out when the traffic 
is uniform, the importance of this being measured by 
the fact that the power-house and transmission lines 
cost in the order of $100 per kilowatt. Mr. Henderson 
considered that the relative fuel consumption for steam 
and electric locomotives of 50 per cent mentioned by 
Mr. Murray was due to the comparison with the old 
type of saturated-steam locomotives. Modern steam 
engines fitted with super-heaters would change this 
ratio to, say, 65 per cent. 

E. H. McHenry, McHenry & Murray, New Haven, 
spoke of the growing tendency toward the consolidation 
of the best features of all of the divergent systems into 
one system of greatest combined merit. The so-called 
war of the systems was already nearly at an end. 

C. Renshaw, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, considered that, owing to ten years' ex- 
perience in construction and operation, the New Haven 
electrical plant could be reproduced to-day for not more 
than 60 per cent of its original cost. 

F. E. Wynne, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, called attention to the figure of $15,000,000 
given as the expenditure for electrifying the New Haven 
Railroad to date, this indicating that the expenditure 
has been $120,000 per unit of motor power and $30,000 
per mile of single track. Complete electrification of the 
New York-New Haven division will be accomplished 
without additional expenditure for trolley construction, 
and consequently these unit figures eventually will be 
somewhat changed. The estimated reproduction cost of 
the installation at 60 per cent of the original cost in- 
dicates that the total construction may be made for less 
than $70,000 per unit of motor power, while the cost 
per mile of single track will be about $20,000. With 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

regard to the results secured in connection with energy 
consumption, these check closely the accuracy of calcula- 
tions made in connection with the service, thus illus- 
trating the fact that energy consumption with electric 
operation can be very closely predetermined where 
trains are operated on a steam railroad basis with 
definite schedules and definite stops. 

Philip Torchio, New York Edison Company, then 
spoke of the fact that power companies, by averaging 
the power demand from a great diversity of users, 
reaped economic advantages in the production of power 
which the railroad cannot secure under independent gen- 
eration. The saving in investment in power stations, 
substations and transmission lines may represent a sen- 
sible item in the costs of railroad electrification. 

W. A. Del Mar, New York, considered that the results 
submitted in the paper would have been more valuable 
if they had been based upon a complete year rather than 
upon a record for two months only. He asked whether 
the $15,000,000 expenditures for the installation as 
mentioned by Mr. Murray included the cost of reducing 
telephone disturbances and of altering the right-of-way 
to conform with electrical requirements. Mr. Del Mar 
was appalled at the development charges amounting to 
40 per cent of the entire investment, which were to be 
inferred from the statement that the present system 
could be replaced for 60 per cent of the original cost. 
An interesting feature about the installation had been 
the development from the complex to the simple and 
mechanical details, and vice versa in the electrical fea- 
tures. He asked whether the mileages upon which the 
unit costs were based included yard switching and light 
locomotive mileage, as these two items might easily 
amount to 15 per cent of the total. He spoke favorably 
of results obtained by watt-meters on locomotives. 

R. H. Wheeler, Mackenzie, Mann & Company, Ltd., 
Montreal, stated that a form of electric power which 
may be standardized for all classes of train service was 
vitally necessary. He considered that the d.c. motor 
was especially desirable, but it could be used only in 
connection with the mercury arc rectifier in case the 
overhead line was energized with alternating current. 
This imposed a serious handicap in both weight and 
control complication. However, by placing the rectifier 
in the roadside substation and supplying the overhead 
wire with power at 3000 volts direct current, the desired 
essentials of transmission economy and standardization 
of motor-power equipment were obtained. This second 
standard was offered to emphasize Mr. Murray's defini- 
tion of the successes arising from a choice of energy 
which can be standardized. 

Closure by Mr. Murray 

In closing Mr. Murray stated that the fixed charges 
mentioned in his paper as 1.8 mills per kilowatt-hour 
were in error and should be changed to 2.9 mills, the 
latter figure being based upon an 11 per cent rate on the 
total investment involved, carrying with it interest, in- 
surance, depreciation and taxes. The total cost, there- 
fore, for energy would become 0.8 cent per kilowatt- 
hour instead of 0.69 cent, the rate mentioned in the 

Realization of the suggestions regarding the uni- 
formity of traffic is, he said, largely accomplished by 
the electrical movement of freight as well as passenger 
trains, as the maximum power demand for the former 
can be made to follow at the time of minimum demand 
for the latter. By plotting the combined load curve of 
the New Haven Railroad's passenger, freight and 
switching services without any rearrangement of the 
schedules as they are made up to-day, a load factor of 
75 per cent is secured. With regard to fuel saving, if 

the economy of generating units remained fixed it 
would be fair to grant Mr. Henderson's point that the 
ratio of coal consumption should be changed from 50 
per cent to 65 per cent. On the other hand, the im- 
provement in over-all efficiency of the generating plant 
is easily keeping pace with that of steam locomotive, 
and, granting this, there are no other constants or vari- 
ables which will tend to alter the ratio of 1 to 2 in 
favor of the fuel economy of electricity versus steam. 

With regard to the transfer of steam locomotive 
power to different divisions of a road where congestion 
may require it, it was easily conceivable that a division 
could be electrified with economy without including the 
financial credit due to the steam locomotive replaced, 
thus automatically providing steam locomotives for the 
congested districts and leaving the electrical apparatus 
to be operated at very high load factor. 

The increased reliability of operation with electricity 
which had been referred to was based upon the engine 
mileage per failure. A fair average for steam locomo- 
tive operation might be cited as 5000 miles per engine 
failure whereas electrical operation certainly should be 
as high as 12,000 miles, and in a number of instances 
on the New Haven it has been as high as 18,000 miles 
per engine failure. Of course, maintenance and repairs 
on electric locomotives should be compared to those of 
steam upon the basis of equal service and weight on 

With regard to the coal consumption cited by Mr. 
Gibbs as applying to steam locomotives, Mr. Murray 
emphasized the necessity for considering the stand-by 
losses in a comparison between steam and electric 
power, these stand-by losses not being included in Mr. 
Gibbs' figures for steam locomotive coal consumption. 

In answer to Mr. Del Mar's questions, Mr. Murray 
said that the expenditures made to reduce telephone 
interference and for altering the right-of-way to con- 
form with electrical requirements were included in the 
general figure of $15,000,000 for the cost of the entire 
installation. However, experience has indicated a 
method of laying out the transmission and distribution 
systems whereby automatic compensation for telegraph 
and telephone services can be secured for a very nom- 
inal amount. The so-called high development charges 
appearing in the New Haven installation were in reality 
due to reductions of cost of material in many cases. In 
1907 large high-tension insulators cost $63 each while 
to-day with three times greater factor of safety the 
price has been reduced to $7. 

With regard to the mileages upon which were based 
the unit costs given in his paper, Mr. Murray stated 
that these included both passenger and freight service 
but did not include yard switching, which is provided 
for by engines designed especially for that purpose. 
Light mileage of locomotives was included for the mile- 
ages of road engines. The train mileages did not in- 
clude the mileage of light locomotives, but these had 
been recorded and were included in the total locomotive 
mileage, including the total unit cost per locomotive- 
mile both in freight and passenger service. 

The point made by Mr. Del Mar with regard to the 
negligible error of meter registration on locomotives 
was interesting, and so far as Mr. Murray had been 
able to determine the meters on the New Haven loco- 
motives have been accurate and valuable adjuncts in 
the determination of the general distribution of power. 

Employees of the Illinois Traction Company at Cham- 
paign, 111., have perfected a permanent organization for 
an L T. S. band, and weekly rehearsals are being held. 
The company gives the use of a room on the third floor 
of its new office building at Champaign for this purpose. 


Safety- First Committee Meets 

Prominent Railway Officials DiscuSs Precautionary Measures at First Meeting of the Transportation Committee 

of the Safety First Federation of America 

Policies and activities for the epsuing year regarding 
uniform street traffic regulation were discussed at the 
first meeting of the transportation committee of the 
Safety First Federation of America on July 13, at the 
Federation's headquarters, 6 East Thirty-ninth Street, 
New York. The meeting was presided over by C. 
Loomis Allen, president of the American Electric Rail- 
way Association and chairman of the transportation 

The field of work which has been assigned to the 
transportation committee covers a wide scope in regard 
to both steam and electric railway operation, as indicated 
by the following subjects, which were selected at the 
organization meeting at Detroit for consideration by 
the committee: 

1. Near-side stop for street cars. 

2. Type of cars in regard to entrances and exits. 

3. Uniform street regulation governing the operation 
of jitney buses. 

4. Uniform signs and signals at grade crossings 
(steam and electric lines). 

5. Educational campaign outlining the dangers of 
grade crossings and trespassing on railway property. 

6. Suggestions offered by the street traffic committee 
at the meeting held in Detroit on June 4. 

The meeting in New York was attended by several 
prominent railway executives and operating officials, 
many of whom have been designated to serve upon the 
committee by organizations affiliated with the Safety 
First Federation. In addition thereto, representatives 
of other organizations concerned in various forms of 
transportation were in attendance. The following execu- 
tive officers of the Federation were present either at 
the business sessions or the luncheon which was later 
tendered to the committee by President Kingsley: D. 
P. Kingsley, president of the Federation and of the 
New York Life Insurance Company; John Gillespie, 
jjthfrd vice-president and police commissioner of Detroit; 
v^., L. Bernheimer, treasurer of the Federation and 
, president Safety First Society of New York, and F. H. 
Elliott, general secretary. The members of the trans- 
portation committee present included the following: 
Chairman, C. Loomis Allen, president American Electric 
Railway Association, Syracuse, N. Y. ; W. E. Cann, 
assistant to general manager Detroit United Railway, 
representing the Safety First Society of Greater De- 
troit; R. W. Meade, president Fifth Avenue Coach 
Company, representing the Safety First Society of New 
York City; J. K. Punderford, vice-president and general 
manager The Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., 
representing the New Haven Chamber of Commerce; 
J. T. Moffet, superintendent of transportation Washing- 
ton Railway & Electric Company, Washington, D. C, 
representing the Washington Safety First Association ; 
F. L. Hubbard, assistant to the general manager Toronto 
Railways, representing the Ontario Safety League; F. 
W. Bacon, vice-president Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Company, Lexington, Ky. ; J. W. Crawford, supervisor 
of claims Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, repre- 
senting the Philadelphia street traffic committee, and 
H. B. Potter, assistant to the second vice-president 
Boston Elevated Railway, representing M. C. Brush, who 
was not able to be present. The members of the com- 
mittee not in attendance were H. Spoehrer and Richard 
McCulloch of St. Louis, George Keegan of New York, 

T. C. Powell of Cincinnati, C. R. Myers of Indianapolis, 
and E. G. Connette of Buffalo. Among the others pres- 
ent were E. B. Burritt, secretary American Electric 
Railway Association, and G. A. Walters, secretary to the 
police commissioner, Detroit. 

Business Meeting 

F. H. Elliott, general secretary of the Federation, 
opened the meeting by presenting a general outline of 
the present development of the Safety First Federation 
and the work which it proposes to do in future. The 
Federation, Mr. Elliott stated, was organized last Feb- 
ruary. Its membership includes at present all of the 
safety-first organizations except two in the country, 
representatives of public service commissions, chambers 
of commerce in various cities and states, organizations 
concerned with transportation and various public-spir- 
ited citizens. No effort has yet been made to develop 
a large membership list. The purpose of the new or- 
ganization is to direct work entirely to problems, of 
public rather than of industrial safety. One of the 
direct results of the February meeting was the prepara- 
tion of a safety-first text-book for children. This book, 
a few preliminary copies of which are now printed, con- 
tains rhymes and jingles accompanied by four-color 
illustrations calculated to impress children with the idea 
of caution in avoiding the dangers of street cars, auto- 
mobiles, fire and water. Mr. Elliott spoke of the sug- 
gestions which were recommended for general use at 
the meeting of the street traffic committee in Detroit 
on June 4-5. These suggestions were mentioned on 
page 1137 of the Electric Railvvtay Journal for June 

The business of the present meeting, Mr. Elliott 
stated, was to consider in a preliminary way all trans- 
portation matters regarding safety in preparation for 
the first annual convention of the Safety First Federa- 
tion of America, to be held at Detroit on Oct. 19, 20 
and 21. In commenting on the near-side stop Mr. 
Elliott alluded to its success in New York as shown by 
the report of the Public Service Commission for the 
first six months of its operation. At present there ig but 
one New York newspaper which is agitating against it. 
Apparently the only difficulty met is that of having 
to board and alight in winter from the rear ends of cars 
in an un-snow-swept part of the street. This objection 
raised the question of whether the position of entrances 
on cars could be standardized. 

C. Loomis Allen stated that standardization of car 
equipment had received careful consideration by the 
American Electric Railway Association and standards 
of certain kinds had already been adopted. While he 
doubted whether it would be possible to adopt standard 
cars he maintained that the committee could do many 
things that make for real safety. It could demonstrate 
the advantages of the near-side stop by citing its suc- 
cessful use in other cities. It may take time to convince 
railways and public service commissions of the advan- 
tages obtained thereby. 

W. E. Cann, assistant to the general manager De- 
troit (Mich.) United Railway, said that after fifteen 
months of experience with the near-side stop, he wished 
to go on record as favoring it. This system has met 
with almost universal favor in Detroit. The only con- 
tention against it was that of having to alight in dirt or 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

snow. For that matter, however, crosswalks were apt to 
be as dirty as the rest of the street. Moreover, the in- 
creasing use of trailers had removed any advantages 
which the far-side stop may have had, because with 
trailers all entrances could not be opposite the cross- 
walk. Mr. Cann spoke favorably of the use of trailers 
in Detroit. He considered the jitney movement not a 
business proposition but the result of the hard times. 
Nevertheless, its regulation is undoubtedly needed. He 
believed in the great necessity of an educational cam- 
paign on the dangers of grade crossings. During the 
week-end of Independence Day six people were killed at 
grade crossings in Detroit. In one of these cases he 
knew there was absolutely no excuse. No attention 
whatsoever was paid to the whistle of the train by the 
driver of the automobile. An educational safety cam- 
paign could be largely handled by the local newspapers. 
Mr. Cann stated that the signals of traffic policemen 
absolutely govern the cars in Detroit. Fire siren 
whistles also are held as sacred as a red flag on the rail- 
way. He hoped that the use of siren whistles on auto- 
mobiles could be confined to fire-department vehicles, so 
that the public would be put on its guard whenever the 
whistle was heard. He thought that there ought to be 
signs showing the proximity of fire department stations. 

J. W. Crawford, supervisor of claims Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company, described the safety zones used 
in that city. They are defined by rope barriers, held 
in uprights. 

J. K. Punderford, vice-president and general manager 
The Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., explained 
that it would be unnecessary, so far as his own railway 
was concerned, to put through laws enforcing some of 
the present suggestions for large cities because his 
property reached only small cities. However, he was 
decidedly in favor of requiring all teams to show lights 
at night. A law regulating the encroachment of vehi- 
cles on tracks should also be desirable. A written exam- 
ination for motormen had recently been adopted by his 
company and he believed it was in the interests of 
safety. The questions relate to safety in operation. 
Near-side stops are being made at certain street in- 
tersections. The laborers of the company are used to 
clean off the streets in winter where the near-side stop 
is used, otherwise the cleaning off probably would not 
be done. Mr. Punderford thinks that the possibility of 
standardized car equipment as regards entrances is 
hardly more than Utopian. A good innovation recently 
ordered by the Public Service Commission for all elec- 
tric railways in Connecticut has been the installment 
of uniform signs where street car tracks emerge from 
a private to a public highway. These signs are erected 
diagonally and bear the words "Railway Crossing." He 
also described an arrangement made by the company 
with the fire department in New Haven by which the 
department apparatus, in going to fires, would use cer- 
tain designated streets. At the intersections of these 
streets with the railway lines signs are posted and a 
full stop of the cars is required. 

F. W. Bacon, vice-president Kentucky Traction & 
Terminal Company, Lexington, Ky., described the edu- 
cational campaign which his railway had conducted in 
issuing to school children small buttons bearing the 
words "I stop before I cross the track" and signs for 
teamsters and merchants to put on their vehicles, "We 
stop before we cross the track." Mr. Bacon suggested 
as an additional traffic recommendation the question 
of regulating slow-moving vehicles on street car tracks. 
If horse-drawn vehicles could be eliminated from the 
tracks the movement of traffic could be greatly facili- 
tated and small interruptions prevented. Country 
people were special offenders in this respect. They 

were apt to stop their buggies for conversation while 
on the track. In regard to safety signs his railway 
has made a special effort to drive home the idea of safety 
by placarding the whole line with special warning signs 
at every road and lane intersection and in the near vi- 
cinity of livery stables and garages. 

H. B. Potter, assistant to the second vice-president 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, spoke of the difficulty 
of adopting standardized traffic rules for irregular 
streets, as in Boston, which are said to have been laid 
out from the original cow paths. His company has in- 
stalled many near-side stops. Each locality, however, 
has to be considered separately. It would be inexpe- 
dient, for example, to install two near-side stops where 
two streets cross the tracks at close intervals. This 
innovation should be installed slowly, otherwise the 
American public, conscious of its inalienable rights, 
will start an agitation to revert to the old practice. Mr. 
Potter believed that it would be a good thing if the 
Federation could bring about standard rules for steam 
and electric road grade crossings. Better co-operation 
between the steam and electric roads was needed. Steam 
railroad men are apt to adopt the big brother attitude 
toward their electric railway contemporaries. 

Mr. Potter thought that safety-first campaigns were 
very difficult to launch by the railways alone, because 
the public was apt to suspect ulterior motives. In the 
recent campaign in Boston the co-operation of the news- 
papers was obtained. The press announced generous 
prizes to children who could compose the best poems 
on "Safety First." This movement was taken up with 
enthusiasm by many schools. In many cases the teach- 
ers had pupils learn the poems. The railway, however, 
wanted to conduct a wider campaign. Advertisements 
on safety first were posted conspicuously on inside cars 
and on billboards. This movement was successful 
largely because it was supported by the Chamber of 

Richard W. Meade, president Fifth Avenue Coach 
Company, New York, said that the jitney bus was a 
forerunner of a transportation system that was certain 
to increase in this country in proportion to the improve- 
ment in roads and motor vehicle construction. The bus 
system in London is an example of wonderfully efficient 
operation. The shops there are a model of mechanical 
perfection. If bus operation is possible in England it 
is also possible in the United States. The Federation 
can be of much assistance in drafting regulations for 
safety which shall be fair and just to all interests. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Allen, two sub-committees 
were appointed for the purpose of preparing reports for 
the transportation committee in anticipation of the 
safety convention in the fall. These sub-committees in- 
cluded a committee on municipal regulation, composed 
of W. E. Cann, J. T. Moffet, J. W. Crawford and H. B. 
Potter, and a committee on State and federal regulation 
composed of J. K. Punderford, R. W. Meade, F. W. 
Bacon and E. G. Connette. 

A luncheon at the Republican Club followed the morn- 
ing meeting and in the afternoon sessions of the two 
sub-committees were held. At the luncheon Darwin P. 
Kingsley, president New York Life Insurance Company 
and of the Safety First Federation, spoke of the aims 
of the safety organization. The safety-first movement, 
Mr. Kingsley said, was the natural outgrowth of the 
intensive life of to-day. He referred to the large num- 
ber of fatalities in New York and said that one of the 
highest aims of the safety-first organization should be 
to educate the public in the hope of diminishing these 
accidents. The public was largely to blame for a great 
many of them and yet was always ready to condemn 
public utility corporations without awaiting investiga- 

July 17, 1915] 



tions. The safety-first movement is not purely humani- 
tarian, however, but is a good, sound business proposi- 
tion. The need of regulating traffic, for instance, was 
graphically illustrated at the time of the recent police 
parade in New York City. Soon after the traffic police 
were withdrawn to parade a condition reigned which 
approached chaos. The more intensive the life we lead 
the more necessary is extended government control. 

Railway Motor Commutation and Flashing 

R. E. Hellmund Discusses the Problems of the Design of 
Direct-Current Motors from the Standpoint 
of Commutation 

In the current issue of the Electric Journal R. E. 
Hellmund of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company has an elaborate article on the causes of 
flashing and sparking in electric railway motors. Some 
of the important points are abstracted below. 

Improved commutation of itself is of little advantage 
to a railway company except as it brings with it re- 
duced maintenance cost. Commutator wear is reduced 
as is evidenced from the fact that the sale of replacement 
commutators by manufacturers has practically ceased 
since the introduction of commutating-pole motors. Im- 
proved commutation further means reduced wear of 
carbons and reduced quantities of carbon and carbon 
dust inside the motor. Such dust accumulations often 
cause insulation breakdowns. Good commutation fur- 
ther avoids roughening of the commutator which is 
usually followed by vibration, leading to wear and tear 
in the brush-holder parts. It also prevents commutator 
blackening, which leads to the breaking down of the 
insulation between segments. 

The commutating pole has made possible the carrying 
of heavy overloads on railway motors, permitting higher 
rates of acceleration and therefore more economical 
operation, and in some cases making it possible to use 
two-motor in place of four-motor equipments. It has 
also made field control possible as well as the design 
of direct-connected motors for voltages higher than 600, 
and for use with very small wheels with armature diam- 
eters correspondingly small. 

Commutating conditions cannot be made altogether 
ideal for several reasons. Ideal commutation requires a 
commutating-pole flux changing in proportion to the 
load, which in turn requires unsaturated magnetic poles. 
On account of space limitations the iron parts of motors 
cannot be made as heavy as would be required for this 
purpose. Further, it is not advisable to design arma- 
tures with a large number of small and flimsy teeth and 
a large number of weak coils, giving numerous chances 
for insulation breakdown. The preference is for large 
slots which lead to certain irregularities in commuta- 
tion. Again, it is not possible to secure the best ratios 
between armature diameter and length from the com- 
mutation standpoint. 

Flashing in railway motors is the formation of elec- 
tric arcs just as in an arc lamp. In the latter the car- 
bons are brought into contact and subsequently drawn 
apart. After the arc has been established a compara- 
tively small voltage will maintain it. In order to obtain 
flashing in a railway motor, it is necessary, first, that 
an arc be established and, second, that this be main- 
tained long enough to cause a flash around the commu- 
tator, either extending part of the distance from brush 
to brush or the entire distance, or a distance around 
part of the commutator and from thence to ground. 
Flashing can be prevented by avoiding the formation 
of the arc and by keeping the voltage between commu- 
tator segments so small that an arc cannot be main- 
tained between them. Improving commutation reduces 

flashing, but even with commutating poles arcs will 
occur. Brushes may be thrown away from the commu- 
tator as a result of a jar, and one of the most successful 
means for preventing flashing from this cause is the 
use of a comparatively high pressure on the carbons. 
In motors having good commutation satisfactory results 
can be obtained with brush pressures of from 3 to 5 lb. 
per square inch, although a somewhat increased pres- 
sure does not materially increase the losses and wear. 
This pressure is not always a sufficient safeguard 
against jumping of brushes. It seems, therefore, in 
many cases advisable to use pressures in excess of 5 lb. 
per square inch, a good rule being to apply an initial 
brush pressure of 5 lb. per square inch, decreasing it 
slightly if there is no trouble from flashing and in- 
creasing it from 6 lb. to 7 lb. per square inch if flash- 
ing proves troublesome. It has even been found neces- 
sary to raise the pressure as high as 9 lb. per square 
inch in some cases, but in these the increase in brush 
and commutator wear was quite noticeable. Jumping 
of the carbons is the most frequent cause of sparking 
in commutating-pole motors. 

Sparking occurs also in commutating-pole motors 
under abnormal running conditions, due to the fact that 
with sudden changes in current the commutating flux 
does not immediately respond to these changes. Any 
interruption and re-establishment of power will, in a 
series motor, always cause temporary arcing and spit- 
ting at the brushes. 

The above statements explain why the commutating 
poles have not eliminated the first cause of flashing alto- 
gether. Even with the commutating pole it is necessary 
to design motors so that there is not much voltage 
between commutator segments. There is, however, a 
limit to the reduction in the number of commutator 
bars and the corresponding reduction in the number of 
turns between bars due to the limit of practicable width 
of the bar. 

Some few commutating-pole motors are more subject 
to flashing than most of the more popular non-commu- 
tating-pole design. The reason for this is that when 
the limitation in design regarding the allowable voltage 
between segments in non-commutating-pole motors was 
removed by the development of the commutating-pole 
type, some designers were led to bring out motors with 
strong armatures and weak fields, as well as with many 
armature turns between segments. These motors were 
very liable to flash, in fact they would flash-over at high 
speed at almost every bad rail joint. However, it would 
not be fair to hold this against the commutating-pole 
motor. Again, in motors properly designed for flashing 
a small amount of sparking at the brushes in normal 
operation does not have any harmful influence upon the 
flashing. This is especially true of the very small arcs 
at times observed at the brushes of commutating-pole 
motors, which produce but a limited amount of vapor 
and require a large voltage to maintain them. This 
condition follows from the fact that, as the commutating 
pole is not a safeguard against the establishment of arcs 
at the brushes under all circumstances, it is necessary 
to keep down the voltage which tends to carry the arc 

Ventilation of motors should have a good effect upon 
flashing and sparking because the ventilation tends to 
remove carbon and copper dust from within the motor 
and to keep the motor dry inside. It further removes 
hot metal vapors which may exist on account of spark- 
ing or incipient flashes. 

There are two conditions of operation under which 
almost any rationally designed motor is liable to flash. 
First, motors are at times subjected to very high over- 
voltages, for example, in third-rail installations where, 
when a heavy load is suddenly taken off the line, voltage 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

rises up to two or three times the line voltage. It 
would hardly be possible to design commercial motors 
which would stand this under any condition of load 
without flashing over now and then. However, the 
damage caused to an up-to-date motor by flashing under 
over-voltage conditions is usually negligible, because the 
high-voltage surges are usually of very short duration. 
The damage caused by voltage surges through insula- 
tion break-downs may, of course, be quite serious. A 
second cause of flashing and which often results in 
serious damage to the motor is the practice of throwing 
the reverse handle of a four-motor equipment, that is 
"bucking the motors." With the motor connections 
established under these conditions it is possible for the 
motors to pick up as generators under practically short- 
circuit conditions. The rush of current is so great 
and the building up of the flux so rapid that the in- 
duced voltages are very high, and together with the 
effect of field distortion nearly always cause a severe 
flash-over if the motor is running at fairly high speed. 
The practice of throwing the reverse handle while 
running should not be tolerated except possibly in order 
to avoid accidents and damage more serious than the 
burn-out or break-down of a motor. 

Electric Railway Earnings 

Analysis by Mr. Doolittle Shows Relative Stability of 
Earnings from Electric Railway Operation 

Continuing the studies of electric railway earnings 
which were published in the Electric Railway Journal 
of Jan. 23, page 183, and of March 13, page 506, F. W. 
Doolittle, director of the bureau of fare research of the 
American Electric Railway Association, has compiled 
the accompanying table to show the results of economic 
disturbances during 1913 and 1914 upon the several in- 
dustries mentioned. Eight of the first nine items in- 
cluded therein are derived from electric railway figures. 

Table Showing Comp.\rative Results Obtained in Several In- 
dustries During 1913 and 1914 

1914 in per cent 

, of 1913 

1. Electric railways — net earnings — Soutli 104.41 

2. JUlectric railways — gross earnings — South 104.19 

3. Electric railways — gross earnings — United States (263 

companies) 100.6S 

4. Electric railways — gross earnings — East 100.58 

h. Electric i-ailways — net earnings — East 99.74 

6. Electric railways — gross earnings — West 99.69 

7. Agriculture — farm crop value — United States 99.60 

5. Electric railways — net earnings — United States (263 

companies) 99. ,57 

9. Bank clearings — amount — W'est 97.41 

10. Electric railways — net earnings — West 96.79 

11. Steam railroads — net earnings — W'est 94.52 

12. Steam iviilroads — gross earnings — West 94.50 

13. Steam railroad.? — gross earnings — South 93.72 

14. Building permits — value — W'est 93.58 

l.'i. Steam railroads — gross earnings — United States 93.46 

16. Bank clearings — amount — South 93.29 

17. Steam railroads — gross earnings — East 92.31 

15. Building permits — value — United States 91. S6 

19. Building permits — value — East 91.66 

20. Steam railroads — net earnings — United States 91.61 

21. Bank clearings — amount — United States 90.64 

22. Bank clearings — amount — East 89.89 

23. Steam railroads — net earnings — East 89.82 

24. Steam railroads — net earnings — South 86.17 

25. Building permits — value — South 85.76 

26. Steel ijroduction — tons 75.50 

27. Iron production — tons .... 74.20 

28. Cotton crop — value 63.00 

The exhibited data argue, of course, not the relative 
profitableness of the traction industry but its relative 
stability. No business operating from year to year 
under constantly increasing costs and furnishing con- 
tinually more and better service for a fare which is 
vastly less when measured in terms of the material and 
labor it goes to purchase than it was twenty years ago, 
is likely to be very profitable. The fact that it requires 
the investment of $5 to $7 to produce $1 of gross reve- 
nue annually is a further indication that large profits 
cannot be expected generally. The electric railways of 

the United States carry ten passengers for every one 
carried by steam railroads. In cities of 8000 popula- 
tion and over, the average individual rides more than 
250 times each year. This use is an integral part of the 
lives and habits of many millions of people, and it is 
not strange to find it maintained during periods when 
other habits are changed. Electric railways are an 
economic necessity and the service they furnish cannot 
be accumulated or postponed. The further grovvi;h of 
a city is dependent upon the growth of its transporta- 
tion facilities. The money for these facilities must be 
obtained in competition with other industries, and it 
can be obtained only by the willingness to pay a fair 
return. The essential stability of the volume of traflSe 
operates, when rates are reasonable, to fix this rate of 
return below that which must be ofi'ered to investors in 
businesses more speculative in their nature, but unless 
stability of earnings accompanies stability of traffic, the 
community loses this advantage which its own habits 
can create. 

West Virginia Association Organized 

The Public Service Utilities Association of West Vir- 
ginia, which includes in its membership electric rail- 
ways, electric light and power and water works com- 
panies, held its first meeting in Charleston on June 15 
and 16 and effected permanent organization by the adop- 
tion of a constitution and by-laws and the election of 
permanent officers, as follows : President, Herbert 
Markle, general manager Appalachian Power Company, 
Bluefield, W. Va.; first vice-president, G. 0. Nagle, gen- 
eral manager Wheeling Traction Company; second 
vice-president. Mentor Hetzer, general manager 
Moundsville Water Company; third vice-president, 
James Imboden, general manager West Virginia Light 
& Traction Company, Charleston, W. Va. ; secretary and 
treasurer, W. C. Davisson, vice-president West Virginia 
Water & Electric Company, Charleston, W. Va. ; execu- 
tive committee, W. C. Mathews, president Virginia- 
Western Power Company, Clifton Forge, Va. ; Herbert 
Markle, G. 0. Nagle, Mentor Hetzer, 0. B. Welch, vice- 
president and general manager Williamson Light & 
Power Company, Williamson, W. Va. ; W. L. Foster, 
general manager Beckley Electric Light & Power Com- 
pany, Beckley, W. Va. ; H. S. Newton, general manager 
Ohio Valley Electric Company, Huntington, W. Va. ; 
E. W. Alexander, general manager Charleston-Dunbar 
Traction Company, Charleston, W. Va. ; W. A. Maxwell, 
general manager Logan Heat, Light & Power Company, 
Logan, W. Va. 

The object of the association is to promote the inter- 
ests of public utility companies in the State along edu- 
cational and political lines. 

Lectures to Employees 

Periodical lectures to employees on proper relations 
with the public have been found to be very helpful in 
reducing complaints to a minimum on the lines of the 
Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn. 
A. W. Warnock, general passenger agent and manager 
of the publicity department, visits each of the company's 
six carhouses every three weeks and delivers a fifteen 
minutes' talk to the extra trainmen and as many of the 
old employees as can attend. Usually the subject dis- 
cussed relates to public complaints received during the 
period between the lectures. The cause of the com- 
plaint, its disposition and methods of preventing similar 
complaints in the future are discussed. Complaints 
afford a new subject for each lecture, and often being 
of a personal nature, are more interesting than would 
be a general discussion. 

July 17, 1915] 



OCTOBER 4 to 8, 1Q15 

American Association News 


H. G. McConnaughy, Director of Transportation for the Convention, Announces the Appointment of Train- 
masters for Different Sections of the Country — Program and List of Speakers for Convention 
Being Compiled — Activity of Various Association Committees 


H. G. McConnaughy, director of transportation for 
the convention, has announced the appointment of J. C. 
McQuiston, manager Westinghouse department of pub- 
Hcity, East Pittsburgh, Pa., as trainmaster of the Blue 
Special train ; Frank H. Gale, advertising manager Gen- 
eral Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., as train- 
master of the Red Special train, and L. E. Gould, 
Western manager Electric Railway Journal, Chicago, 
as trainmaster of the White Special train. The Red 
Special train will leave New York about Sept. 23 by 
way of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, 
thence to Chicago, and thence to St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis over the Great Northern to Glacier Park, Spokane, 
Seattle, Portland and San Francisco. The Blue Special 
train will leave a day or two later over the Pennsylvania 
Railroad by way of Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, St. Louis, 
Kansas City and Denver, then through the Royal Gorge 
to Salt Lake City, Ogden and Lake Tahoe to San 

After the convention the Blue Special will follow 
the Red Special, visiting the Yosemite Park, Los Ange- 
les, San Diego and Grand Canyon, then via Kansas City 
and St. Louis to New York. The White Special will be 
an especially fast train which will make the run for the 
convenience of those who cannot participate in the ear- 
lier tours. It will be a going trip only and will start 
from Chicago. 

Western members who desire to make reservation on 
the White Special should do so through L. E. Gould, 
Electric Railway Journal, 1570 Old Colony Building, 
Chicago. Reservations for either of the other trains 
or reservations from Eastern members who wish to take 
the White Special from Chicago, and requests for infor- 
mation connected with the tours should be made through 
H. G. McConnaughy, director of transportation. Room 
1002, 165 Broadway, New York City, except that mem- 
bers in New England can make reservations through 
H. E. Reynolds, chairman transportation committee for 
the New England territory. Bay State Street Railway, 
Boston, Mass. 

The printed itineraries covering all special trains 
are now on the press and will be ready for mailing 
within the next week. The delay in getting these out 
has been caused by changes suggested by the Railway 
Association and the necessity of rearranging some of 
the details in connection with the tours. Every detail 
covering all tours has been carefully worked out, and 
arrangements at all points covering hotels, side trips 
as planned and shown in the itineraries have been com- 
pleted. The ladies and children accompanying each 
party will have special care and attention. A maid, who 
will be at their service at all times, v/ill accompany each 

The requests received by the transportation commit- 
tee for the different tours have been so heavy that it 
will be absolutely necessary for the members to make 
their reservations as soon after the receipt of itineraries 
as possible, as the number of people who can be accom- 
modated on each special train is limited. Consequently, 
all assignments will be made in the order in which 
requests are received. 


The office of the secretary of the American Electric 
Railway Association is busily engaged in completing 
the program for the convention in October. A feature 
will be addresses by a number of distinguished men. 
These will be in addition to the regular program of 
reports and papers upon matters of technical interest 
to the industry. The list of addresses is not completed 
yet, but a sufficient number of definite promises have 
been secured to mark the convention this year as an 
important one in the annals of the association. Several 
of these special features were announced by Secretary 
Burritt this week. 

The address of welcome will be given by Hiram W. 
Johnson, Governor of California. 

Ex-senator Jonathan Bourne, Jr., will speak on gov- 
ernment ownership, a subject which his years of ex- 
perience in the business of government at Washington 
peculiarly qualify him to discuss. While United States 
Senator from Oregon, Mr. Bourne, besides being the 
author of the parcel post law, was one of the most effi- 
cient forces in the national movement for the construc- 
tion of good roads, and in other matters of countrywide 
importance. He is one of the most brilliant and forceful 
writers and speakers in America. 

Another address of great interest at the present time 
will be on "The Fundamental Principles of the Valua- 
tion of Electric Railways" by Bion J. Arnold. Besides 
the office of chief engineer and chairman of the Board 
of Supervising Engineers, Chicago Traction, which 
Mr. Arnold has occupied since its establishment under 
the ordinance of 1907, Mr. Arnold has been consulting 
engineer of the Public Service Commission, New York 
City, on matters connected with subway and street rail- 
way properties; consulting engineer Detroit United 
Railway, consulting engineer for the cities of Pitts- 
burgh, Providence, Los Angeles, San Francisco, To- 
ronto, Cincinnati and Kansas City, Mo., member of 
the electric traction commission of the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad and president of the A. I. E. E. and has 
held other important offices. 

Jesse W. Lillienthal, president of the United Rail- 
roads of San Francisco, will speak on "Welfare Work," 
a subject to which he has given a great deal of atten- 
tion both before and since his election in 1913 as chief 
executive officer of the electric railway system in San 
Francisco. For fifteen years prior to his going to Cali- 
fornia he was one of New York City's most distin- 
guished lawyers, and has occupied a place no less emi- 
nent at the San Francisco bar, of whose association he 
is the senior vice-president. He is also a director in 
many of the corporations that have played an important 
part in the industrial upbuilding of the Pacific Coast. 

A fourth address will be given by Ivy L. Lee, re- 
cently executive assistant Pennsylvania Railroad and 
now a member of the personal staff of John D. Rocke- 
feller. A number of Mr. Lee's addresses on different 
phases of the subject have appeared in previous issues 
of this paper, and he was the author of an article on 
"Principles Underlying Publicity" in the issue of Oct. 
10, 1914. He will speak in San Francisco on "Putting 
Publicity Theories into Practice." 



The new committee on standards of the American 
Electric Railway Transportation & Traffic Association 
met on July 14-15 and organized. There were present 
L. H. Palmer, chairman, C. V. Wood, Alexander Jack- 
son and J. N. Shannahan. The committee formulated 
rules of procedure for the adoption of standards by the 
Transportation & Traffic Association, this being in- 
tended for submission before the 1915 convention. The 
form of procedure follows very closely, in so far as it is 
applicable, that of the Engineering Association. Pro- 
vision is made in it only for two grades, (1) standards, 
and (2) recommended methods and practices, the 
former to include such recommendations of the associa- 
tion as bear its formal approval as standard. The latter 
grade will include all other definitely approved recom- 
mendations. The committee also drew up a syllabus 
covering the existing standards of the association, and 
it is expected that this will be issued in the early part 
of next year. 

A subcommittee of the committee on standards of 
the American Electric Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion, consisting of A. S. Richey, chairman, J. H. Hanna 
and S. H. Spalding, representing E. R. Hill, met last 
week and drafted tentative regulations to govern the 
style of specifications adopted by the association. These 
proposed regulations are intended for submission to the 
committee on standards at its meeting during the latter 
part of the month, and if approved at that time they 
will be presented before the association at the 1915 


A meeting of the Engineering Association committee 
on buildings and structures was held in New York on 
July 7 with the following in attendance: C. S. Bedwell, 
Newark, N. J., chairman; H. G. Salisbury, Toronto, 
Ont. ; R. C. Bird, New York, N. Y. ; J. H. Frank, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; William Roberts, Akron, Ohio, and H. G. 
Throop, Syracuse, N. Y. A proposed form of contract 
for general construction work was revised and approved 
by the committee and will go to the committee on stand- 
ards for approval as recommended practice. The gen- 
eral specification stands practically as it was except 
that the agreement portion has been greatly shortened 
and specific clauses have been added to cover the owner 
in matters relating to protection against mechanics' 
liens and actions for damages under the workmen's com- 
pensation law. 

The sub-committee on the proper provision for ex- 
pansion and contraction in concrete structures, together 
with provision for waterproofing joints, presented an 
illustrated report giving engineering data on the sub- 
ject and suggested provisions as covered by the assign- 
ment. The report was approved for presentation to the 
association for discussion, with the expectation that the 
work would be continued. 

The sub-committee on fire protection rules reported 
itself as being in accord with the National Board of 
Fire Underwriters in regard to the rules on the use of 
soldering and other heating equipment. The committee 
presented extracts from the Underwriters' building 
code as they apply to construction employed in electric 
railway buildings, with the idea of bringing out discus- 
sion on the recommendations. 

A new sub-committee on the construction and design 
of substations submitted a report which the general 

committee recommended for presentation to the associa- 
tion along with the rules for standard construction 
prepared by the Board of Fire Underwriters. The com- 
mittee will submit a plan showing an ideal substation 
of specified size and also rules and recommendations for 
details of fireproof construction. 


Ways and means by which a new bureau of standards 
may be established among interurban railways which 
are members of the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion was the purpose of a conference held at Fort 
Wayne, Ind., the session being attended by James J. 
Brennan, Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction 
Company ; A. A. Schlessinger, Terre Haute, Indianapo- 
lis & Eastern Traction Company ; J. A. Kelsey, Union 
Traction Company of Indiana; M. J. Kehoe, Ohio Elec- 
tric Railway, and E. J. Burdick, Detroit United Rail- 
way. These men were representatives of the Central 
Electric Railway Association and they form a commit- 
tee to confer with a committee from the American 
Electric Railway Association to ask the latter body to 
adopt a standard of operating interurban trains on the 
lines of the members of the C. E. R. A. which will be 

Meeting of Canadian Electric Railway 

The annual meeting of the Canadian Electric Rail- 
way Association was held at the Chateau Frontenac in 
Quebec on June 21 and 22. After the opening address 
by President C. B. King, manager London Street Rail- 
way, Secretary-Treasurer Acton Burrows, managing di- 
rector Canadian Raihvay and Marine World, gave a 
detailed report covering the association's activities dur- 
ing the year and a wide variety of other topics. W. F. 
Graves, chief engineer Montreal Tramways and chair- 
man of the special committee on the proposed standard- 
ization of steel rails for electric railways, presented a 
report which was referred to the new executive com- 

Copyrighted papers, to be distributed only to officials 
of member companies, were read as follows : "Develop- 
ment of Tourist Traffic on Observation Cars," by R. M. 
Reade, superintendent city division Quebec Railway, 
Light, Heat & Power Company ; "A Proper Accident 
Department," by C. L. Wilson, assistant manager To- 
ronto & York Radial Railway; "Jitney Competition," 
by E. P. Coleman, general manager Dominion Power 
& Transmission Company; "Coasting," by A. Gaboury, 
superintendent Montreal Tramways; "Economy in the 
Electric Railway Repair Shop," by E. A. W. Turbett, 
mechanical superintendent Quebec Railway, Light, Heat 
& Power Company, and "Methods to Minimize Fire 
Risks and Secure Reduction of Premiums," by J. H. 
Ryan, New York. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows: 
President, James D. Eraser, director and secretary- 
treasurer Ottawa Electric Railway; vice-president, E. P. 
Coleman, general manager Dominion Power & Trans- 
mission Company; honorary secretary-treasurer, Acton 
Burrows. The new executive committee includes: 
A. Eastman, vice-president and general manager Wind- 
sor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Railway; A. Gaboury, 
superintendent Montreal Tramways; H. G. Matthews, 
general manager Quebec Railway, Light, Heat & Power 
Company; M. N. Todd, president Gait, Preston & Hes- 
peler Street Railway; C. L. Wilson, assistant manager 
Toronto & York Radial Railway. 


July 17, 1915] 


Motor Ventilation 

Kansas City, Mo., July 10, 1915. 

To the Editors : 

There have been several interesting and instructive 
articles on the advantages and limitations of ventilated 
motors published in the Electric Railway Journal 
within the past few months. Before the appearance of 
these articles the receivers of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway Company of Kansas City had contracted for 
fifty four-motor equipments of the ventilated type for 
cars which have since been delivered, and it has been 
suggested to the writer that perhaps the street railway 
operators generally may be interested in knowing what 
considerations affected the choice of these motors. 

It is recognized that the service conditions under 
which motors are expected to perform have an impor- 
tant bearing upon the design selected, and as the con- 
ditions under which motors operate in the two Kansas 
Cities are very severe there are hereinafter given the 
service requirements under which the new motors are 
expected to perform, as well as the circumstances which 
guided the Board of Control of the Kansas City prop- 
erties in deciding upon the selection of the ventilated 
type of motor for service under these conditions. 

The specifications under which the motors were pur- 
chased set out the service conditions under which the 
equipment would be required to operate as follows: 

Weight of empty motor car completely equipped without mo- 
tors and gears and gear cases 32,500 1b. 

Average load of passengers and crew 4,500 lb. 

Maximum load of passengers and crew 18,000 lb. 

Typical run Troost Avenue 

Length of round trip 10.6 miles 

Morning rush-hour running time (excluding two-minute lay- 
over time) 6 6 minutes 

Mid-day running time (excluding two-minute layover time), 

63 minutes 

Evening rush-hour running time (excluding two-minute lay- 
over time) 68 minutes 

Average trolley voltage 525 volts 

Average stops per round trip 77 

Average length of stop 9 seconds 

Diameter of wheel 30 in. 

Maximum grade 9 per cent 

f 800 ft. of 8 per cent grade 
Other excessive grades -I 4300 ft. of 3 % per cent grade 

I 3100 ft. of 5 per cent grade 
Average rate of acceleration and braking 1.75 m.p.h.p.s. 

In addition, the manufacturer was required to guar- 
antee that after continuous running, including both 
the morning and evening rush, carrying during the 
total time the average loads above indicated and also 
including two successive round trips during evening 
rush with loads of 80 per cent of the maximum indi- 
cated over the entire out-bound trip only, no part of 
the motors would show a temperature rise exceeding 
70 deg. C. above the temperature of the surrounding 
air, excepting the commutator, which might show an 
80 deg. rise. 

As a result both of the bids received and of detailed 
investigation into the whole subject, as applying to 
local conditions, the following conclusions were drawn : 

1. There is a very perceptible decrease in weight by 
use of the ventilated type of motor. 

2. That the service or continuous capacity of the 
ventilated motor was from 40 per cent to 50 per cent 
above that of the non-ventilated motor, having the same 
one-hour rating, assuming that the proper balance of 
design exists in each. 

3. That on a basis of the same continuous capacity, 
the cost of the total equipment of the ventilated motor 
type was from 20 per cent to 25 per cent less than that 
of the non-ventilated type of motor. 

4. That the temperature was maintained more uni- 
form throughout the motor in the ventilated type. 

5. Owing to the elimination of hot spots, the main- 
tenance of the ventilated type should be materially less. 

As to the objections, the fact that water might enter 
the ventilated type of motor and put it out of commis- 
sion was raised as a serious objection, in that we have 
many stretches of track located in low spots, subways, 
etc., subject to overflow, and were this objection well 
taken we would not have been able to use the ventilated 
type. However, it has been our experience that the 
non-ventilated type of motor being also provided with 
drain holes in the bottom of the frame cannot be 
operated through water with the current on. In other 
words, so far as the damage from water is concerned 
it is virtually on the same plane as the ventilated type 
of motor. The second objection was that of the possi- 
bility of dust accumulating in the air passages, pre- 
venting the dissipation of heat and causing ultimate 
breakdown. This condition was found to be more in- 
herent to the duct type of armature, and difficulty 
was not expected from this source, as the motor was so 
designed as practically to eliminate dust pockets. Good 
maintenance demands that motors of all types should 
be regularly blown out and cleaned, and we expect to 
remove all possible difficulty by giving the motors the 
care they should receive when on the pits. It was also 
stated that snow would cause trouble, but we believe 
the design of the motor is such as to make it exceed- 
ingly difficult for even a slight amount of snow to 
enter, or only so little as would cause no trouble. 

Therefore, so far as the bids received were con- 
cerned and in view of the guarantees given, it was our 
experience that we could get a lighter motor of greater 
service capacity with less maintenance cost at a 20 per 
cent to 25 per cent decrease in price. There could 
hardly be a question as to the choice made under these 
circumstances. Philip J. Kealy. 

Specifications for Track Material 

At the recent convention of the American Society for 
Testing Materials specifications were presented to cover 
heat-treated high-carbon-steel splice bars. These con- 
form quite closely to the recommended specifications for 
untreated hard-steel splice bars of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association, except, of course, 
as regards the heat treatment. The practical points of 
difference in the two specifications are that the A. S. T. 
M. provide for a check analysis from finished bars by 
the purchaser if desired, with an increase in the phos- 
phorous content of 25 per cent over the ladle analysis; 
that the bend-test arcs are 50 per cent greater in the 
A. S. T. M. specifications, and that a variation in size 
of hole of only 1/32 in. is allowed by the A. S. T. M. 
Provision is made for the retreatment of bars that failed 
in tests, one or more heat treatments being allowed. 

At the same convention specifications were presented 
for heat-treated steel track bolts, and a revision was 
submitted for the existing standard specification of the 
A. S. T. M. for yellow-pine bridge and trestle timbers, 
this applying to solid members and not to composite 

The Boston Elevated Railway has converted a small 
open car into a traveling display of scenes in parks on 
or near the local system and will operate the equipment 
over many routes during the coming months. On each 
side of the car are mounted three oil paintings illustrat- 
ing scenes at Norumbega, Franklin, Marine and Lex- 
ington Parks, with large maps showing the location of 
these breathing spaces as well as the Blue Hills and 
Middlesex Fells. The canvases call attention to the 
natural and artificial attractions at these outing places. 
In place of the usual destination signs the car carries 
the designation "Trolley Outings." 



[Vol. XL VI, No. 3 

Equipment and Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical 
Practices in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

(Contributioitu from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will he Paid for at Special Rates.) 

Experimental Open -Car Reconstruction 
in Atlantic City 


Two old-style, open, running-board cars were re- 
modeled by this company for this season's traffic into 
center-entrance cars as shown in the accompanying 
illustrations. The open-car feature was retained as an 
absolute necessity in a seashore resort like Atlantic City, 
where the principal attraction to visitors, as far as 
car riding is concerned, is a ride down the coast in some 
kind of an open car. By the adoption of the plan de- 
scribed below it would seem possible to get every ad- 
vantage of the pay-as-you-enter method of car collec- 
tion and additional protection from accident hazard 
without sacrificing any of the advantages of the old 
type of car excepting seating capacity. 

While it is not claimed that this construction is an 
entirely novel one, there are some features different 
from those previously described in the columns of the 
Electric Railway Journal. 

The remodeled cars were twelve-bench cars, 39 ft. 6 
in. over bumpers in length, 7 ft. lO^o in. over side-posts 
in width, the floor level being 2 ft. 10 in. above the rails. 
They were equipped with double trucks, 25 ft. 6-in. on 
centers with 30-in. wheels. The trucks were of the 
Brill 27G type. 

In remodeling, one side sill was dropped at the center 
to provide three step heights, 10 in., 10 in. and 14 in. 
respectively. A drop girder was added to stiffen the sill. 
On one car we put a Prepayment Car Sales Company 
door with step-controlling mechanism, and on the other 
a J. G. Brill Company equipment. On each car a con- 
ductor's stand was located as shown in the drawing. 
In arranging for the seating, as shown, the rear bulk- 
head was removed and only the seat behind the front 
bulkhead was retained. The two plans used in inclos- 
ing the sides for a height slightly more than 3 ft. 
above the floors are shown in the accompanying half- 
tones. In one a sheet-steel sheathing was applied for 
half this distance and a substantial screen for the re- 
mainder. In the other the screen was used alone. The 
former plan gives a more finished appearance to the 
car, while the latter allows a somewhat better circu- 
lation of air. 

A specially-arranged spring seat is provided for the 

33' 6' Out to Oat of Bumpers >i 

Section^! Plan 

reconstructed open cars — details of entrance, 
seating, etc. 

motorman which is removable when not in use. The 
register is operated by the conductor by means of a 
foot-lever-control mechanism running under the car 
floor. A Consolidated Car Heating Company buzzer 
system permits the passengers to signal to the con- 
ductor, who in turn signals to the motorman by means 
of a bell operated from a push-button arranged handily 
on the operating stand. 

Conditions in Atlantic City are such that a larger 
car than that now in use could be operated to advan- 
tage, conditions being favorable to trailer operation, al- 
though the company does not favor such operation at 
present. While it is true that a larger seating capacity 
is desirable, it must be remembered that the Atlantic 
City season is short and the traffic very variable, so 
that a smaller type of car used in numbers to suit the 
traffic can always be operated to advantage. After all, a 
good, safe, service car with as many of the features of 
the open-bench car as can be obtained is what is most 

The Atlantic City & Shore Railroad has a large 
number of near-side cars in which the "in-and-out" 
plan is used, while on the experimental cars the "all 
out" and "all in" plan is used. The result is that there 
is a little confusion this summer on the part of pas- 
sengers. This confusion was unavoidable, however, in 
the carrying on of the present experiment. The center- 
entrance plan was devised partly to avoid confusion and 
extra walking on the part of the passengers which 
would have resulted had the rear-entrance and front- 
exit plan been adopted. This would have been prefer- 


July 17, 1915] 



able in many ways but it would not have worked in well 
wich the use of near-side cars. 

From the experience with the reconstruction of the 
two samples the cost records show that if the cars can 
be put through the shops in lots of ten the cost of re- 
modeling- each car will not be more than $550. These 
cars will be run during the present season experiment- 
ally before plans for remodeling additional ones are 
worked out. 

Motor- Bearing Trimmer 


Having adopted a standard babbitt-lined motor bear- 
ing, special forms have been made by the Los Angeles 
Railway for use in rebabbitting them. All bearings are 
trimmed and oil-grooved before they leave the shops for 
the different divisions. However, owing to our com- 
pany having a gage of only 3 ft. 6 in., we have no room 


for an axle collar. Hence it is necessary to face all 
wheels hubs for a motor brass collar bearing. As there 
is a slight variation of the distance between the motor 
and wheel hub, the motor brass collar cannot be com- 
pleted for service at the shops. This slight variation 
is overcome by using a home-made motor-bearing trim- 
mer, with which every division is furnished. This shop 
kink consists of a self-centering clamp attachment 
which holds the bearing firmly, and attached thereto is 
a rotary automatic self-feeding cutter which is operated 
by hand, to trim the collar to any desired length. This 
little machine eliminates all lathe work, and as it is 
automatic it can be operated by any employee. Its oper- 
ation is such that the trimming of a pair of bearings 
can be completed on this trimmer in less time than it 
would take to center the bearings on a lathe. 

Record time was made by the Chattanooga Railway & 
Light Company, Chattanooga, Tenn., in replacing the 
old cables on the Lookout Mountain incline. Heretofore 
several days have been required to complete the installa- 
tion of the new cable. This year the exchange was 
made in two days. The cables have to be renewed about 
every two years. 

Railway Motor Gearing 


As a result of the presentation of a paper by the 
writer on "Railway Motor Gearing" at the recent meet- 
ing of the Central Electric Railway Association, ab- 
stracted at length in the issue of the Electric Railway 
Journal for June 26, page 1201, a number of questions 
have been asked. In the belief that the answers to 
these questions may be of interest to railway men other 
than those who propounded the questions, these answers 
are given with the questions in the following para- 
graphs : 

Question No. 1. — How will the railways which pur- 
chase gearing to specifications know whether the mate- 
rial so purchased meets the specifications? 

Answer. — The railways with inspection and testing 
departments can arrange to have all material on order 
tested and inspected before shipment. In that case the 
manufacturer must provide the proper facilities for 
such testing and allow the inspectors free access to his 
plant at all times during the course of manufacture of 
the material. Properties not having such testing de- 
partments can have this work done for them by com- 
mercial testing laboratories, or can secure from the 
manufacturers test reports covering any materials 
shipped on their orders. If the number of pieces on 
order is sufficient to warrant a physical test, the report 
should show the physical properties of the piece selected 
to represent the lot, while the surface hardness of each 
piece can be identified by a serial number plainly 
stamped on each gear and pinion appearing in the re- 
port. For example, a typical test report might be as 
follows : 

Customer's order No 


Invoice No 

Serial Number Surface Hardness 

518-363 555 Brinell 

518-364 532 BrineU 

518-365 555 Brinell 

Test Taken *51S-366 512 BrineU 

If a physical test is made, the serial number of the 
gear or pinion from which the test piece was machined 
and the physical properties should be shown as follows: 

Test Taken * Serial Number 518-366 

Ultimate tensile streng-th 

Yield point 

Elongation in 2 in 

Reduction of area 

Surface Hardness 512 Brinell 
. . . . 125,425 lb. per sq. in. 
. . . . 85,500 lb. per sq. in. 

16.4 per cent 

41.9 per cent 

Question No. 2. — Will the purchase of gearing to 
specifications increase the cost of this gearing? 

Answer. — Each variation in the chemical composition 
of the steel used in the manufacture of gearing, or in 
the temperatures and duration of heating and cooling 
during heat treatment, or in fact any variation in the 
process, tends to produce non-uniformity in the re- 
sultant material. To insure against such non-uniform- 
ity the progressive, conscientious manufacturer has 
found that it is necessary constantly to test his product 
in practically the way described in the C. E. R. A. paper. 
The sale to specifications, therefore, should only require 
the additional work made necessary by the reporting of 
this test information to the railway and should not 
increase the purchase price of such gearing. It will, 
however, have a tendency to increase the cost of produc- 
tion of the unscientifically manufactured material, which 
increase will be more than compensated for in the in- 
crease of the life and eflficiency of this class of material. 

Question No. 3. — Will the purchase to specifications 
relieve the gearing manufacturer of his responsibility 
for breakage or poor life? 

Answer. — The equitable adjustment of claims and 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

complaints, which is of as much value to the purchaser 
as to the seller, requires first determining the exact 
cause of failure. The purchase of gearing to trade 
names, without a comprehensive knowledge of the char- 
acteristics of the material on the part of the purchaser, 
is apt to produce an unsatisfactory situation in the 
event of failure, due to the natural tendency of both 
parties involved to feel that the failure lies within the 
other's sphere. On the other hand, when supplies are 
purchased to specification the determining of the cause 
of failure is greatly simplified by following a natural 
course of inquiry. If, for instance, the unsatisfactory 
material failed to meet the specifications, placing 
the responsibility is not difficult. If it meets the speci- 
fications, the failure may be due cither to defective 
installation, operation or maintenance, or to a wrong 
application of the particular grade of material in the 
specific service. By a process of elimination an investi- 
gation may show that the failed material was only an 
isolated case due to some error as in the above list, or 
it may show that some inherent weakness exists in 
operation or maintenance methods which can be entirely 
corrected. If there should be an epidemic of such fail- 
ures in a specific service and caused by operating con- 
ditions not possible of change, such an investigation 
may develop the fact that a grade of gearing of greater 
strength, toughness or surface hardness must be used. 

Now, while an elaborate investigation is impractica- 
ble in each instance, the intelligent consideration of the 
above outlined phases of gearing operation and main- 
tenance conducted by the manufacturer, together with 
the operator, cannot fail to educate the manufacturer 
as to the service to which his material must be sub- 
jected, as well as permit the operator to learn the 
requirements of gearing for his service. This mutual 
education will undoubtedly greatly minimize failures 
and increase possible economy through wise selection, 
as well as provide the necessary data for satisfactory 
adjustment. It would seem, therefore, that rather than 
relieve the manufacturer of his responsibility, purchase 
to specifications increases this responsibility and in 
reality leads to his rendering a service to the railway 
of unlimited value in the selection of that grade of 
gearing best suited to the specific service in question. 

One-Man Cars at San Francisco 

The United Railroads of San Francisco now has in 
operation three double-truck and six single-truck cars 
in one-man service. All are used on outlying lines 
where the receipts average less than $1 per car-hour. 
New cars were not bought for this service, old rolling 
stock being rebuilt for the purpose. The principal 
changes made in the double-truck cars were the locking 
of the rear platform, the installation of folding steps 
and air-operated mechanism for opening and closing 
the sliding doors. The same changes were made on the 
single-truck cars except that hand-operated mechanism 
was installed for the doors. The double-truck cars are 
fitted with Johnson fare boxes, while the single-truck 
cars have the customary register mechanism with over- 
head rod connections. The fenders at each end of the 
cars are lowered at all times, and double poles and 
bases also are provided so that the car operator need 
not leave the car when changing the running direction. 

The first one-man cars were installed about two 
years ago, the service being gradually increased to the 
number previously mentioned. The company contem- 
plates the conversion of the Pacific Avenue cable line, 
using seven cars, to one-man operation after the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition has been closed. Like the 
other one-man cars they will be rebuilt at the com- 
pany's shops. 

Out-Door Light Clusters 

Because of the demand for light clusters that will 
stand all kinds of weather the G. E. Painter Company, 
Baltimore, Md., has brought out a number of improved 
designs of the five-lamp and single-lamp types which 
can be fitted with enamel signs and signal lenses for 
crossings, stations and similar locations where light is 
needed. All of them are made of cast iron of about 
3/16-in. thickness, and as they are heavily galvanized 
they should have long life. The bodies are fitted with 
porcelain Edison receptacles, held in place by brass 
screws so that they can easily be replaced in the event 
of breakage. 

The receptacles for the five-light clusters are con- 
nected in series to suit the 550-volt railway current, and 
are so arranged that they cannot become short-circuited 
or grounded by rain and snow, or damaged by lightning. 
In case it should be desirable to change the cluster to 


■ 1 


the three-light or four-light type, so as to use lamps 
from the series of five for other purposes, it is an easy 
matter to make the necessary connections without 
"bridging" the cluster receptacles. 

The lens holders or shields for the clusters are also 
made of galvanized cast iron, these being arranged to 
suit 4y2-in. semaphore lenses, and porcelain enamel 
signs as shown in the accompanying illustrations, can 
be attached as desired. The holders or shields are 
held in position by means of brass screws, and the drill- 
ing is such that either one or two lens holders can be 
used in connection with the clusters. The lens holders 
are arranged to be placed on one of the three sides 
of side-supported clusters, and on four sides of the top- 
suspended type to suit the different conditions, but when 
two holders are used they must be placed opposite to 
each other, as the shield extends more than one-fourth 
around the body of cluster. The top-suspended clusters 


July 17, 1915] 



may be hung either from a bracket or from a span wire, 
as most convenient, the side-suspension type being 
specially designed for attachment to a wall or pole. 

I^f I'i t (l| 




'OAYTOHr OHIO. 'u,s. A, ; " 


Universal Register for Electric Railway 

Ohmer's "Universal" register is the latest fare-pro- 
tecting device manufactured by the Ohmer Fare Regis- 
ter Company. It has been built in response to the grow- 
ing and insistent demand for an indicating and record- 
ing fare register which will handle all denominations 
of cash fares, whether the amounts be in odd pennies or 

not, and which will also 
register all tickets, 
mileage tickets, etc., 
according to their 
actual cash value. 

The use of the regis- 
ter will permit inter- 
urban railway com- 
panies at any time to 
change their fare rates 
quickly and without the 
necessity of any 
change in the register 
mountings or mechan- 
ism. The register can 
also be used inter- 
changeably on any di- 
vision or can be oper- 
ated even over the 
lines of another com- 
pany without any mechanical readjustment whatever. 

Notwithstanding its large capacity, the machine itself 
is compact in appearance and is simple and positive in 
operation. Any cash fare or ticket value from 1 cent to 
$9.99 inclusive can be quickly registered and simul- 
taneously indicated and the amount thus indicated can- 
not be changed until a fare of a different denomination 
is registered. 

With this register tickets are recorded in two ways — 
as a ticket in the "ticket" column, and as cash in the 
"cash" column. These two registrations are made 
simultaneously and with no more trouble than a single 
registration, in fact, the operation really is a single 
registration. The turn-in is checked also in two ways, 
the number of tickets received being checked against 
the ticket column and the cash value of the tickets re- 
ceived being checked against the cash column. In this 
case the tickets are counted in as so much currency and 
according to their actual cash value. This method of 
registration and checking is the same in the case of 
mileage tickets. The strips lifted are registered as 
tickets and the cash value of each strip is added to the 
cash column by the register. The balance in the cash 
column after deducting all ticket values is the actual 
cash collected by the conductor. 

Special attention should be given to the thoroughness 
and accuracy of the check secured by this method of 
registration and its effectiveness in preventing substi- 
tution of any kind. The register indicates exactly the 
kind of fare being registered and also its value, and the 
public indication is very plain and absolutely unmis- 

The new design contains a number of improved fea- 
tures not found in the earlier types of Ohmer registers 
and these make it absolutely foolproof. Among these 
are the following : At the completion of each conductor's 
run all printing counters are turned back to zero with 
the exception of the total passenger and total cash 

counters. This provides a check between the records of 
successive conductors, and between the closing figures 
of one day and the opening figures of the next. The 
register cannot be operated unless the detail counters 
are previously turned to zero. The conductor then takes 
an imprint with his identification key in the register. 
His identification key is locked in the machine with the 
registration of the first fare, and it cannot be removed 
until he has taken a final imprint to close his day's 
report. Neither can the conductor operate the register 
after he has turned the total passenger indicator to zero 
unless he takes an imprint of the fares registered up to 
that time. 

A record sheet from the new register is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. From this will be seen the 
large amount of useful data contained in the small space. 
The time, the direction, the train or trip number, the 
date, and the conductor's and inspector's identification 
key numbers are regular Ohmer features and are self- 

The register from which this record is taken is 
mounted to record pass, transfer, ticket and cash. 
Reading from left to right the last print made by con- 
ductor 237 at 12.30 p. m. (the fourth line from the 
bottom) it appears that he registered sixteen passes, 
twenty-two transfers and sixty-seven tickets and cash 
or cash values amounting to $64.80, the latter being 
found by deducting the first from the last print in the 
total cash column. The deduction in the total passenger 
column shows that there were carried a total of 119 
passengers. By deducting the total number of paper 
collections from the total passengers the number of cash- 















3 30P 



$ 9 6 3 5 


2 8 3 


18 m% 

3 XP 



1 1 

L 1 

Q S 

t 9 6 3 5 



2 6 3 

18 278 

t OOO 





3 9 

t 9 5 8 9 



2 15 


18 m 


B 5 

1 5 2 ■ 



15 9 



IB 276 



tl 1 6 

2 1 

S 7 

t 9 5 5 2 



15 3 

16 237 

II 0O4 


5 3 

1 2 

Q 1 

Q 3 a 

* 9 5 1 8 





16 237 

9 ao« 




* 9 4 8 6 



4 0. 

18 237 

9 30* 




« 9 4 8 8 






18 WS5 

t ¥ 




paying passengers is ascertained, which in this case is 
14. In general the register has been built for practical 
utility and to produce a condensed report, rather than 
for elaborate headings and unnecessary data which 
would necessitate more complicated and a less easily 
operated machine. 

In the operation of the register no ticket can be reg- 
istered unless a cash value is also registered and indi- 
cated, the cash indication appearing adjacent to the 
word "ticket." For example, if a ticket valued at $1.61 
is registered the indicator reads "Ticket $1.61." If the 
amount collected is actual cash the indicator reads 
"Cash $1.61" and the register is locked against opera- 
tion if the indicator is made to read "ticket" or "cash" 
with no cash amount following. Where "Pass" or 
"Transfer" are registered and no cash value is as- 
signed the indicator simply shows "Pass" or "Transfer" 
and the space for the cash indication remains blank. All 
indications appear in the face of the register and are 
duplicated in various parts of the car by the auxiliary 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

indicators so that every passenger becomes immediately 
aware of each transaction. The auxiliary indicators are 
plain and easily read and follow the full reading of the 
register. The operating rod is equipped with sets of 
grips at convenient intervals and the process of select- 
ing the fare to be registered is quickly and easily ac- 

Ground Fittings for Lightning 

The Electric Service Supplies Company has recently 
extended its line of Garton-Daniels ground fittings to 
include material for both % in. and 1 in. pipe, and to 
take the various standard sizes of wire and cable used 
for grounding lightning arresters, pole and station ap- 
paratus, overhead ground wires, etc. 

The brass cap shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion is furnished with a lug for soldering to the ground 
wire from the arrester. Certain types are furnished 
drilled to accommodate y4-in. cable for grounding over- 
head ground wires. The pipe couplings are used for 
connecting two sections of ground pipe. They are par- 
ticularly useful where the practice of the operating 
company calls for the extension of the ground pipe 8 
ft. or 10 ft. up the pole, and under these conditions it 
is readily seen how much more convenient it is to drive 
first an 8-ft. length into the earth and then couple on 


the extension, than it would be to drive a 16-ft. length. 
The brass couplings, as illustrated, are employed in 
grounding lightning arresters on electric railway sys- 
tems to accommodate either the wire or the free end of 
a stub-end terminal bond in tying in the lightning 
arrester ground to the rail. 

The ground pipe points are of malleable iron, heavily 
galvanized. The external type of ground point is gen- 
erally to be preferred. It is of slightly greater diame- 
ter than the pipe and in driving opens a hole in the 
earth of a diameter slightly greater than the diameter 
of the pipe. This decreases the friction on the surface 
of the pipe as it is being driven, and allows the pipe to 
be easily driven to the proper depth without danger of 
bending or splitting. After driving, the earth grad- 
ually closes in tightly around the pipe, and in an hour 
or so a thoroughly efficient and reliable ground is se- 

Internal ground points are designed with a head 
suitably proportioned to fit snugly inside an iron pipe. 
Their external diameter is the same as that of the pipe. 
They may be used only in soft earths because the point, 
being of the same diameter as the pipe, does not open 
up the earth for its driving. The friction that is ex- 
erted on the outside of the pipe renders driving to the 
proper depth very difficult because the pipe itself will 
in many instances bend or open up. Where the soil is 
soft internal points may be used, but where there is 
much rock or clay in the soil external points should be 

Quick- Acting Adjustable Seat for 

The Railway Specialties Corporation, New York City, 
has brought out a new quick-acting adjustable seat for 
motormen which has been designed especially with 
regard to light weight, so that it 
can be transferred from one end 
of the car to the other with a 
minimum of effort. The adjust- 
able feature of the seat is entirely 
new, and this permits raising it 
to any desired height merely by 
lifting it. The seat mast is 
notched, and a gravity dog is pro- 
vided on the sleeve in which the 
mast slides, the point of the dog 
holding the mast in position by 
engagement with the notches on 
the mast. In order to lower the 
seat the gravity dog is touched, 
thus releasing it from the notch 
in which it is caught and permit- 
ting the seat to fall to its lowest 
position. The seat can thus be 
adjusted between a height of 24 
in. and 31 in. from the floor. A 
dowel set in the side of the seat 
mast travels in a slot that is cut 
in the sleeve and prevents the seat 
from turning with relation to the 
sleeve. No other parts are in- 
volved in the construction so that 

its simplicity and ruggedness are obvious, the accom- 
panying illustration showing these features to excel- 
lent advantage. 


Combination Cable Insulator and 
Splicing Sleeve 

A new type of insulator in combination with a splic- 
ing sleeve for underground cables has just been brought 
out by the Drew Electric & Manufacturing Company 
of Indianapolis. The device is especially valuable in 
reducing electrolysis troubles as it serves to destroy 
the conductivity of the cable sheath by dividing it into 
short sections insulated from each other. It also elim- 
inates the danger of leakage at the splice and may be 


used to excellent advantage in manholes at building 
entries, preventing the cable sheaths from collecting 
stray currents from the pipes or other cables on the 
same support. It may be used also to separate cables 
that are grouped near power-house switchboards. 

The device consists of a high-grade porcelain tube, 
12 in. long, with malleable castings leaded onto the 
ends. Each of the castings has a %-in. gas-pipe plug 
hole in it, and on the center line are cast-brass tubes 
which fit the cable sheath and screw into the malleable 
castings. To install the device the brass end tubes are 
unscrewed and slipped over the ends of the cables that 
are to be spliced. The main body of the insulator is 

JULY 17, 1915] 



then slipped over one cable end and the splice is made 
in the usual manner. The insulator is then drawn 
over the splice, the brass end castings are screwed 
into place, and wipe joints are made between the ends 
of the brass castings and the cable sheath. The insu- 
lator is then filled with splicing compound through the 
gas-pipe plug holes and the plugs screwed into place, 
leaving the splice protected absolutely from mechan- 
ical or electrical damage. The weight of the complete 
device is 17 lb., and it is made to suit any size of cable. 

Hamilton Electric Incline Railway 

A complete electric hoist equipment has recently been 
installed by the Hamilton Mountain Park Company, 
Ltd., Hamilton, Ont., Canada, to operate its incline rail- 
way for transporting passengers, freight, automobiles, 
trolley cars, teams, etc., up the "Mountain," as it is 
called. This incline gives access to a large tract of 
land owned by the company at the top of the mountain 
and also to the fertile country beyond. The "Moun- 
tain" is really the Niagara escarpment, as the high 
bluffs behind Hamilton are prolongations of the heights 
at Queenstown, over which the Niagara River originally 
flowed before cutting back the gorge to the present falls, 
the difference in elevation between the general level of 
the city and the plateau back of the bluffs being 325 ft. 
The railway was formerly operated by a steam-hoist 
equipment, but this had become inadequate to handle 
safely and quickly the rapidly increasing traffic, and 
had to be replaced with electric equipment which was 
furnished throughout by the Canadian General Electric 
Company, Ltd. 

Electric Hoist 

In this arrangement a special double fixed-drum, 
double-geared electric incline hoist, built by the Lidger- 
wood Manufacturing Company, New York, operates two 
large platform cars in balance on an incline 800 ft. long 
with a grade of 40 per cent. Each car weighs 30,000 
lb. and runs on tracks having a gage of 12 ft. 11/2 in., 
the distance center to center of the tracks being 20 ft. 
3 in. The average load on the cars is about 20,000 lb., 
reaching a maximum of 30,000 lb. 


The time required for making a single trip is ninety 
seconds, and the rest period between trips is three 
minutes. Attached to each car are two ropes of I'/s-in- 
diameter, one of these being used for hauling the car, 
and the other for the purpose of safety. The average 
rope speed during the run is 585 ft. per minute. 

The hoist is located in a house part way up the slope 
and the control is placed in an operator's cabin at the 
level of the summit. The main rope from the right- 
hand car is wound over the top of the right-hand hoist 
drum. The main rope from the left-hand car is wound 
underneath the left-hand hoist drum. The safety rope 
from the right-hand car is led over suitable deflecting 
sheaves to the top of the left-hand drum, and that from 
the left-hand car is wound over suitable deflecting 
sheaves to the bottom of the right-hand drum. Each 
of these sheaves is 7 ft. in diameter. There are four 
head sheaves and four deflecting sheaves. The 
former are arranged vertically so as to carry the 
hoist ropes and safety ropes in a direct line from 
the cars ; the deflecting sheaves are placed hori- 
zontally at such an angle that the rope will be led in 
a direct line either to the top or bottom of the hoist 
drums, as the case may be. 




[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

The reason for reeving the safety ropes as outlined is 
that in case of an accident to the left-hand side of the 
hoist, the safety rope on the left-hand car would take 
care of it properly, being wound on the right-hand drum. 
The same thing would apply if the other drum of the 
hoist should become disabled; that is, the main ropes 
and the safety ropes from each car lead to opposite 
drums. Further advantage is gained by the fact that 
each drum is equipped with an independent double-act- 
ing brake, and in case either of the main ropes should 
fail, the safety rope will hold the cars. Furthermore, 
the safety rope, if called upon to take the load, will be 
controlled by all the automatic brake features in exactly 
the same manner as when the load is being handled by 
the main ropes. In actual operation the length of the 
safety ropes is slightly more than that of the main 
hoist ropes, thereby relieving the safety ropes of any 
hoist stresses other than those required to keep the 
ropes themselves in motion. 

Operation and Safety Appliances 

The operator's cabin is fitted with an electric con- 
troller and two hand-brake levers. The levers will not 
be used ordinarily, as the hoist is equipped with solenoid 
brakes operating on the motor shaft. The hand brakes, 
therefore, need be used only for locking the cars at the 
top and bottom positions or for cases of emergency. In 
starting a run the operator releases the drum-post 
brakes by the hand levers, puts his foot on a small foot 
pedal located at the bottom of the master controller, and 
then, by moving the handle of the controller either to 
the right or to the left, as the case may be, will start 
the cars, automatic acceleration to the normal rope 
speed being provided. At a predetermined point on the 
incline the controller will be automatically turned to 
such a position that the speed will be cut down to one- 
tenth of the normal and finally be turned to the off po- 
sition, thus setting the solenoid brakes and bringing the 
cars to rest. Should the operator become disabled dur- 
ing a run, he will of necessity remove his foot from the 
foot pedal, thereby cutting off the current and bringing 
the cars to rest. 

In case the cars should stop short of their landing 
positions, due to the automatic overwinding mechanism, 
there are available two or three points on the controller 
so that the operator can bring them to their proper po- 
sitions. Should the cars fail to stop, due to the fault 
of the controller, an overwinding device is attached 
which will shut off the current and set the solenoid 
brakes. Should the speed of the cars exceed the normal 
by a predetermined amount, an overspeeding device is 
so arranged that it will trip a weight of 570 lb., which 
will set the drum-post brakes. This overspeeding de- 
vice, or governor, is of the flyball type, and it will be 
caused to operate by an excessive speed, whether due 
to the motor or a breakage of the hoist parts. The 
emergency weight may also be tripped manually from 
the cabin. 

Power is supplied in the form of three-phase, twenty- 
five-cycle alternating current, and for changing this 
into direct current there has been installed a motor- 
generator set of sufficient capacity to supply the average 
demand of the hoist, plus some surplus for charging a 
large storage battery. The direct-current end of the 
machine is rated at 165 amp. continuously at 550 volts, 
the latter being the floating voltage of the battery, and 
it is designed with a special drooping characteristic by 
means of a reversed series field for the purpose of 
throwing load fluctuations on the battery. A small per- 
centage of the load fluctuations falling on the machine 
will lower its voltage to such an extent that the battery 
must discharge and furnish the balance of the momen- 

tary demand. The regulation is, therefore, inherent in 
the design of the machine, and is entirely automatic. 
The hoist is driven through two gear reductions by a 
General Electric 180-hp. motor which is specifically de- 
signed to stand such voltage variations as come from 
a storage battery when it is frequently charging and 
discharging. A reserve 180-hp. motor and solenoid 
brake are provided. 

Storage Battery 

The storage battery was built by the Electric Stor- 
age Battery Company of Philadelphia. Its capacity is 
200 amp. for one hour on a continuous discharge, and 
the makers estimate that it will operate the hoist under 
the average load conditions for nearly two hours with 
the power supply entirely cut off. Under normal con- 
ditions, with the motor-generator supplying the average 
load, the battery does not become exhausted, but re- 
ceives back sufficient charge during the period of rest 
between trips to make up for the discharge while the 
hoist is in operation. 

Extensible Trapdoor for Passenger Cars 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company has built at 
New York Terminal, Manhattan Transfer, Rahway and 
North Philadelphia high station platforms, and has 
under construction at the present time similar platforms 
at Wilkinsburg and Johnstown, on its Pittsburgh Di- 
vision, this being in line with the policy of obtaining 
the best of railroad features. The advantages of the 
high platform are, of course, obvious, but a diflSculty has 
arisen in connection with it where the station is located 
on a curve, because a gap then exists between the 


ends of cars and the platform edge. In consequence, 
the company has equipped for trial a steel vestibule car 
with an extensible trapdoor as shown in the accom- 
panying illustrations which is designed to bridge this 
gap. The design is patented by Ellwood H. Sickels of 
Narberth, Pa. 

In operation when the trap is down, the opening of 
the vestibule door causes the sliding portion to extend, 
and the closing of the vestibule door retracts it. This 
arrangement is ideal in view of the fact that the exten- 
sion of the trap is required simultaneously with the 
opening of the door, and, as the vestibule door is re- 

July 17, 1915] 



quired to be closed when the train leaves the station, the 
trap is necessarily returned at the same time. Further- 
more, the physical effort required to open the vestibule 
door is utilized to extend the trap. 

There are, however, certain times when the trap 
should not extend when vestibule door is opened, as in 
the case when trap is to be raised so that the steps can 
be used or when the brakeman opens the door while the 
train is moving. To provide for this necessary feature, 
an ingenious, but still quite simple, arrangement is pro- 
vided by which the connections can be thrown out of 
gear through the operation of a small handle set flush in 
the side of the vestibule at a convenient height. It is 


not necessary to provide extra trainmen to attend to the 
operation of the trap, because when the small hand lever 
is set in proper position (which is done by the brakeman 
before the train reaches the station) the opening of the 
vestibule door, whether accomplished by trainman or 
passenger, will cause the trap to be extended. Owing 
to the fact that the top plate does not slide, it is, of 
course, impossible for passengers to be thrown by the 
movement of the extension. Furthermore, it is impos- 
sible for passengers to stand on the trap while the door 
is being opened. 

The trap is, in outward appearance, like the ordinary 
trap, and consists of a rubber-covered top plate and the 
extensible portion which is built in the familiar paneled 
pattern, and acts as a support for the top plate. The two 
parts are hinged on a hinge rod so that they act together 
when trap is raised for the use of the steps. The hinge 
rod is hollow and accommodates the flat springs which 
are adjusted at the usual bracket, to obtain the proper 
tension to raise the trap. The extensible portion of 
trap is supported by means of a bracket (marked E on 
the line cut) which slides on hinge rod, and also by 
means of lug F', attached to top-plate bracket F. When 
the trap is extended, owing to the fact that it is sup- 
ported at one side on lug F' , and at the opposite side on 
the usual angle-iron ledge, the extended portion cannot 
deflect when passenger steps on it. The usual spring 
catches, marked G and H, are used respectively to hold 
trap down when door is closed and to hold it up against 
vestibule door when trap is raised for use of steps. 

The operating device consists of the bell crank lever .7, 
which is attached to the vestibule door, the connecting 
rod K and cam L, which slides on the square shaft M. 
When the shaft M is tilted to place the sliding cam L 
in "off" position, the opening of the vestibule door 
causes the cam merely to slide on the shaft without any 
effect on the extensible portion of the trap. The shaft 
M is tilted by means of a small knob on the end of a 
vertical rod which is attached to a lever arm on the end 
of the square shaft, the knob being located in a recess 
at a convenient height in the vestibule wall. When the 
square shaft is thus tilted the sliding cam comes up in 
back of bracket E, on the trap, so that when the door is 
opened the sliding part of the trap is extended. The 
sliding cam is designed so that whether in "on" or "off" 
position, the front finger of the cam is always in posi- 
tion to hold the extensible part of the trap, so that it 
is absolutely impossible for the trap to be out with the 
door closed. Also, the trap is arranged so that it can- 
not be raised when extended, thereby preventing the 
obstruction of the handrail at the side of the car. 

The trap is designed with a uniform extension to take 
care of the gap at platforms built on as sharp a curve as 
6 deg. On lighter curves the extension may overlap the 
platform an inch or two, the station platform, of course, 
being kept at the height of a small step below the floor 
of the car. 

Ind icator Board for Disconnecting Switches 

At the Manchester Street generating station of the 
Rhode Island Company, in Providence, R. I., a conve- 
nient indicator board is utilized to show incoming oper- 
ators the positions of disconnecting switches between 
the various generators, rotaries, 
transformer units, etc., and the 
main and auxiliary buses. The 
board consists of a panel about 3 
ft. long and 10 in. wide, carrying 
about thirty-six wooden strips indi- 
cating whether a particular knife 
switch is in or out of circuit. The 
strips can be slid in and out with 
ease, and whenever a disconnector 
is opened or closed, a notation is 
made to correspond on the board. 
In this way any operator coming 
on duty knows at a glance just what 
switches are open or closed, and 
does not have to rely upon another's 
memory or upon loose paper mem- 
oranda. The remote-controlled oil 
switches in the station are equipped 

with the usual pilot lights, but when disconnectors of 
the knife type are opened or closed no electrical indica- 
tion is feasible, and the maintenance of such a bulletin 
board is a decided convenience. In this station all the 
disconnecting knife switches are equipped with locking 
devices which prevent their being blown open by mag- 
netic reactions in case of a short-circuit or severe over- 
load on any given feeder. The switches are mounted in 
concrete cells provided with wired-glass covers, so that 
inspection is greatly facilitated. 


The Interborough Rapid Transit Company proposes 
to install at the Fourteenth Street subway station plat- 
form for southbound express trains five additional 
space-filling devices, similar to the one already in serv- 
ice. The device is a movable platform edge which au- 
tomatically fills the gap between the trains and the 
curved platform, and has been described and illustrated 
in the Electric Railway Journal. 


News of Electric Railways 


Summary of Award to the Surface Men Made by the Arbi- 
trators on July 16 

Mayor Thompson and State's Attorney Hoyne informally 
announced the arbitration award to the men on the Chicago 
Surface Lines on July 16, granting an increase in the mini- 
mum wage from 23 to 25 cents for the first year of the con- 
tract and 26 cents for the second year. The maximum wage 
is increased from 32 cents in the sixth year to 35 cents in 
the fourth year. This scale is to be increased to a 36-cent 
maximum in the second year of the contract. The award to 
men outside of the train service is not announced. The rail- 
way reiterates its intention to abide by the decision of the 
arbitrators. Mr. Sheean, representing the company on the 
board, will submit a minority report. The Chicago Elevat- 
ed Railways not being bound to accept the award intends to 
conduct another arbitration. 

Final arguments by both sides were made on July 9. To 
preserve the principle of arbitration both the railway corh- 
panies and the men agreed to shorten the period required 
to submit evidence and the arbitrators agreed to render 
their decision promptly. 

Dissatisfied with the manner in which the men presented 
their case, all the witnesses having been officials or com- 
mitteemen of the union, the Mayor requested the railways 
to furnish him with the names and addresses of all em- 
ployees. In round figures this list included 10,000 names 
and addresses, and from these the Mayor invited 360 to 
call at his office and discuss the need of increased wages and 
better working conditions. 

On July 7 Mr. Weatherwax was cross-examined regarding 
the various positions he had held with the company. Mr. 
Weatherwax stated that he began service as a boy at day 
wages, and now received $10,000 a year as superintendent 
of transportation. He was also questioned regarding the 
wages of receivers at the car stations, and an effort was 
made to show that those who were taken into the union re- 
ceived more than those who were outside. In the dispatch- 
ing system practically all switchboard operators were old 
trainmen. The question of vacations to clerical help and 
not to trainmen was also raised. 

Several division superintendents' testimony was to the 
eflrect that working conditions had greatly improved and 
that five minutes was sufficient time for the conductors to 
turn in. 

Thomas Blakely, superintendent of supply cars, explained 
the duties of the motormen working for him. He said that 
they rarely assisted in loading or unloading a car; they 
ran slowly, and were not required to stop as often as pas- 
senger cars, therefore could hold their place on a line with- 
out speeding. These motormen also had regular hours and 
were not required to wear uniforms. They were not on the 
street during rush hours, and were seldom asked to run 
their cars into the downtown district. 

Edward W. Anger, general carhouse foreman, explained 
the duties of the various grades of repairmen. He stated 
that no particular skill was required in making running re- 
pairs. All heavy repairs were made at the shops. Most 
of the carhouse repairmen were ordinary laborers without 
previous training. Temporary promotion created bad feel- 
ing when the men were returned to their former positions. 
He said that to give up the right to use judgment in the 
promotion of men would interfere with good results. Pro- 
motion based on efficiency did not open the door to favor- 
itism. Regarding the three grades of pay that carhouse 
repairmen receive, Mr. Anger stated that the men ac- 
quired skill with experience, and should be paid for it. 

President Busby again took the stand on the evening of 
July 7, to introduce and explain a number of exhibits. 
These included tabulations of passenger-car miles and 
hours, etc. Another exhibit showed the relative cost of 
living in Chicago as compared with other cities. In this 
Chicago was taken as a basis, with 100 per cer.t, St. 
Louis was given 100.13 per cent, Detroit 100.20 per cent, 
Cleveland 105.59 per cent. New York 117.32 per cent, Pitts- 
burgh 117.92 per cent, Philadelphia 119.46 per cent, Bos- 

ton 127.86 per cent. Mr. Busby stated that these figures 
were compiled from an analysis of Bulletin 156, United 
States Department of Labor. He also introduced an ex- 
hibit showing $45,713 a year as the cost of additional time 
under the new agreement for fall-backs and dinner reliefs. 
If five minutes additional turn-in time was given, the cost 
to the company would be about $65,000 a year. Concerning 
the 37,143 accidents referred to earlier in the hearings, Mr. 
Busby stated that these included only 8400 liability cases, 
600 of which went to suit. He also accounted for the fatal 
injuries to twenty-two employees mentioned in Mr. Mahon's 
testimony. He said that an examination of the records 
showed that some of these men were not on duty, others 
were injured through their own carelessness, and the re- 
mainder through negligence of fellow employees. He also 
introduced an exhibit to show that the number of accidents 
attributable to trainmen according to years of service was 
on a constant decline. 

Mr. Busby next offered testimony regarding the finances 
of the company. He said that brokerage profits of all com- 
panies in eight years past were $3,679,000, whereas the dis- 
counts were $4,839,000, an excess of $1,160,000. The 10 
per cent construction totaled $7,358,000, and after deducting 
the excess, a net of $6,198,000 was left. He explained that 
6 per cent of this amount went to the railways company 
and was applied against excessive indebtedness over pur- 
chase price and 40 per cent to the City Railway for dis- 
bursement as profits. He also stated that the average re- 
turn to the companies on the purchase price of all roads 
for the past seven years was 6.52 per cent. Mr. Busby 
ouoted from the daily reports of receipts since Feb. 1, 1915, 
and showed that the income so far this year was about 
$460,000 behind a like period in 1913. 

In recross-examination of Mr. Busby, the preparations 
made for resuming service in the recent strike were out- 
lined. Mr. Busby said that thousands of experienced men 
were ready to go to work, and that 25,000 such men had 
been offered to him within forty-eight hours after the strike 
was declared. He said that he had arranged for a suffi- 
cient number to resume operation and was ready to board 
and lodge them. He did not care to state what he expected 
to pay them. 

At a short morning session on July 8, the representatives 
of the employees announced that they would not put any re- 
buttal witnesses on the stand, but had arranged to argue 
their case at once. After a short session the hearings ad- 
journed until July 9, when final arguments by Counsel Miller 
for the companies, and Counsels LeBosky and Alschuler for 
the employees were presented. Immediately following these 
the arbiters began to review the evidence. 

The City Council of Seattle, Wash., has decided to 
abandon plans to take over the Seattle, Renton & Southern 
Railway by condemnation proceedings within city limits, 
and to repeal an ordinance passed in October, 1911, pro- 
viding for the prosecution of the condemnation suit. The 
condemnation case is now in the United States Supreme 
Court, and Assistant Corporation Counsel Ralph S. Pierce 
will move its dismissal. Both the Superior Court and State 
Supreme Court held that the city of Seattle had the right 
to condemn the railway, but an appeal was taken by Scott 
Calhoun and Joseph Parkin, receivers of the company. It 
is proposed now to turn attention to the improvement of 
Rainier Avenue in order to dispose of all other litigation 
prior to the calling to trial in the United States District 
Court of the suit of the Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway 
and its receivers against the city, seeking an order from 
the court to restrain the city from changing or in any way 
interfering with the present grades of Rainier Avenue. In 
an opinion handed down some time ago the Federal Court 
ruled that the Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway had a 
legal right to its franchise, which the Council holds has been 
revoked. Councilman Dale, who has been active in carry- 
ing on negotiations for the acquisition of the line by the 
city, said recently: "I believe that since the voters have 
authorized a bond issue to purchase, parallel or condemn 

July 17, 1915] 



a railway in Rainier Valley, the Council should keep faith 
with the voters and carry out the intent of the proposition 
authorizing the issuance of bonds." 

The Council recently defeated a bill to purchase the rail- 
way on the terms offered by the receivers. 


The City Council at Cleveland, Ohio, took favorable action 
on the evening of July 12 on the franchises asked by the 
Cleveland, Akron & Canton Terminal Railroad and the 
Cleveland & Youngstown Railroad. 

Under the franchise of the Cleveland, Akron & Canton 
Terminal Railroad the company is empowered to build an 
electrically operated, four-track subway under East Fifty- 
fifth Street from the lake to the southern city limits. The 
company is headed by Ohio C. Barber, Barberton, Ohio, well 
known throughout the country as the match king. The vote 
was twenty to five. As has been stated before, the fran- 
chise covers a period of seventy-five years. The minority 
members demanded a statement as to what interests were 
back of this proposition and demanded a bond guaranteeing 
that work would be begun on it within two years. Mr. 
Barber insisted, however, that his plans were all for the 
benefit of the city and if the people did not want the 
improvement he would abandon it before he would be tied 
down with conditions and requirements which he consid- 
ered useless. Mayor Newton D. Baker supported Mr. 

Under the franchise of the Cleveland & Youngstown Rail- 
road, passed by a vote of nineteen to six, the company is 
empowered to establish a freight terminal near Broadway, 
S. E., about forty streets being vacated for the purpose. 
An amendment requiring that the terminal be operated by 
electricity was defeated, as were twelve other amendments 
proposed by the opponents of the measure. Councilman 
Bernstein insisted that action on the franchise be delayed 
until an agreement had been secured from the other rail- 
roads that they would build a new union station on the lake 
front. He also alleged that the New York Central Rail- 
road was behind the company, although the attorneys for 
the New York Central had stated at the committee meet- 
ings that this was not so. The company was organized to 
build a rapid transit road for the entrance of both steam and 
electric railways to a point near the retail business district 
and to furnish service to a district on the hills southeast 
of Cleveland which is rapidly developing as a high-class 
residence section. 


By gradual elimination the suits against the Kansas 
City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway, operating between 
Kansas City and St. Joseph, Mo., and between Kansas City 
and Excelsior Springs, Mo., have been narrowed to one, 
that brought by the Interstate Railway for $2,000,000, in 
which a verdict for the plaintiff for $1,500,000 was awarded 
in the Jackson County Circuit Court on July 1, as noted in 
the Electric Railway Journal of July 10, page 78. Mo- 
tion for a new trial in this case will be heard on Aug. 2. 
If the motion is denied, an appeal will be taken. 

In the district north of Kansas City many different sets 
of options for the construction of interurban railways were 
secured at different times during the last twelve years. 
Most of the options were allowed to die, or were auto- 
matically extinguished by the failure of the companies to 
do the work required by law to the extent of 10 per cent 
of the capital stock in two years and completion of the road 
in ten years. It is alleged that only the Kansas City, Clay 
County & St. Joseph Railway had ever paid for rights-of- 
way, so that the present operating interurban is said by 
its owners to have the only effective rights to any options 
on its right-of-way. 

Among projected interurbans in the district was the 
Kansas City-St. Joseph Electric Railway. This company 
secured options between St. Joseph and Kansas City, Mo., 
and did a small amount of work on the right-of-way above 
Dearborn. The line was to extend southward from St. 
Joseph to Kansas City. Another projected line was north- 

bound from Kansas City to the north Missouri line, and 
some work was done on that right-of-way by the Interstate 
company. One of the earlier suits involving the right-of- 
way was brought by the Interstate company four years ago 
against the Missouri River & Camden Railway. This suit 
was dismissed without coming to trial. After the Kansas 
City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway had begun operat- 
ing, suit for $200,000 damages was brought against it by 
the Kansas City-St. Joseph Electric Railway on the charge 
that the defendant had taken possession and was using 
land on which it had active options. This suit involved the 
right-of-way southward from St. Joseph about half-way to 
Kansas City. Later the Interstate company brought suit 
for $2,000,000, making the same charge, this suit involving 
the right-of-way northward from Kansas City about half- 
way to St. Joseph. The Interstate case came to trial first. 
After the trial had begun, the suit of the Kansas City-St. 
Joseph Electric Railway was dismissed, and evidence was 
introduced in the Interstate case to show that the Kansas 
City-St. Joseph line had sold its rights to the Interstate 
company. This situation put the Interstate company in 
the position of having a presumptive series of options on 
the entire right-of-way of the Kansas City, Clay County & 
St. Joseph Railway between Kansas City and St. Joseph. 

Ernest D. Martin, one of the plaintiffs and a promoter of 
the Interstate company, testified that he had renewed many 
of the original options with the consent of the property 
owners, while many of the property owners testified that 
they had never given their consent to such renewal. 

The verdict for the flat sum of $1,500,000 was signed by 
nine jurors. Two jurors favored a smaller sum, and one 
held out for a verdict for the defendant. 

Receivers have been appointed for the Kansas City, Clay 
County & St. Joseph Railway, as referred to elsewhere in 
this issue. 


Men Say Pleas of Company Impoverishment and Law of 
Supply and Demand Make Arbitration a Farce 

At a meeting on July 7 of the joint conference board 
representing the sixteen divisions and 4200 employees of 
the Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., it was decided 
that in future no arbitration proceedings would be agreed 
to by the men unless it was stipulated in advance that the 
factors of the company's financial condition and the "law of 
supply and demand" would be eliminated from all consider- 
ation in the proceedings. The following is the text of the 
resolution adopted: 

"In the future no arbitration shall be held unless it is 
a fair arbitration. The Bay State Street Railway enjoys 
its franchise and the right to make money from the public, 
and except for the public it would not exist. The com- 
pany is constantly reminding us of what we ourselves well 
know about the interest of the public in the operation of 
its cars. We realize that a failure to arbitrate and a strike 
might result in great inconvenience to hundreds of thou- 
sands of people, and a strike is not lightly undertaken. 
There never has been a strike on this system. 

"The public should be reminded, however, that the com- 
pany takes advantage of our recognition of the public in- 
terest by using against us in arbitration the law of supply 
and demand, and its financial condition. By agreeing to 
arbitrate we lose the only weapon we have to meet both 
these arguments, and unless they are both eliminated in the 
future we think arbitration, so far as we are concerned, will 
be a farce. 

"After many years of hard work and the presentation of 
our claims concerning both these factors, many boards of 
arbitration have recognized the force of the argument that 
the law of supply and demand could only be invoked against 
us if we were given a fair chance to try it out, and as 
Chairman Storrow of the Boston Elevated Railway board 
of arbitration said, the only way in which it could be really 
tested would be to have a strike and see whether or not the 
company could at once secure the necessary number of 
competent men to prepare and operate its cars. 

"If a street railway or other public service corporation 
was in the hands of a receiver because of its inability to 
pay interest on its bonds and people still wanted to ride. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

no one would say that the wages of the men should be in- 
adequate because of the financial condition of the com- 
pany. We again call the attention of the public to the 
award of Chairman Storrow of the Elevated board of arbi- 
tration concerning finances, in which he agreed that the 
contention of the men should prevail and that the financial 
condition of the company should not be taken into account 
in fixing wages. The expense of a thorough financial in- 
vestigation and the disadvantage at which we are placed in 
making such an inquiry are altogether too great to war- 
rant us in again including it as a subject matter of con- 
sideration by a future board of arbitration." 


On July 15 the question of jurisdiction between the unions 
on the lines of the Hudson Valley Railway and the United 
Traction Company, Albany, N. Y., remained unsettled. C. 
F. Hewitt, general manager United Traction Company, still 
insists that the conferences be open and that the newspaper 
men be permitted to attend them. He says that W. D. 
Mahon, president of the Amalgamated Association, who ar- 
rived in Albany on July 14, assured him at a conference in 
Detroit in May, at which Warren S. Stone, representing the 
steam brotherhood, was present, that the dispute between 
the Amalgamated and the Brotherhood as to who would op- 
erate the lines would be held in abeyance until the Septem- 
ber convention of the Amalgamated association. 

The men issued a statement in which they said their com- 
mittees were explaining the situation to Mr. Mahon. They 
said that there aie involved the working agreements of 
four divisions on the properties of the Hudson Valley Rail- 
way and the United Traction Company and grievances and 
complaints affecting the New York State Railways. Presi- 
dent Horace E. Andrews of the New York State Railways is 
said to have expressed his willingness to take up at once the 
complaints affecting that company. 


Classification Under Boston Elevated Award Must Stand 
Until May 1, 1916 

James J. Storrow and his associates on the board of 
arbitration that settled the wage dispute between the Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway and its union employees in 1913, have 
refused, in a decision handed down on July 8, to reopen 
questions in the original award over which a misunderstand- 
ing has come between the road and its men. The board was 
appealed to last December to interpret its rulings on classi- 
fications in the "L" shops. A difference of opinion had 
arisen as to whether or not men in a lower-paid class are 
entitled to the same rate of pay of a higher-paid class if 
they are doing the same character of work as men in the 
higher-paid class. In its conclusion the board, consisting of 
James J. Storrow, James L. Richards, representing the 
company, and James H. Vahey, representing the men, said: 

"Whether the company intends to hold a deserving man 
back or not, this system, in our judgment, has this effect. 
We think that no large corporation can be gifted with the 
stock of wisdom needed to administer with justice such a 
highly complex system. There should be a reasonable num- 
ber of gradations, but we find in general that the present 
number is excessive. We have therefore sought in fixing 
the new scale of wages substantially to reduce these classi- 
fications, as appears in the schedules which have been an- 

" 'For example, we have reduced the classification of black- 
smiths from twelve to six. But this has an important 
effect upon wages. The only way these excessive classifi- 
cations can be reduced is to give some men more increase 
than others so as to level up the differences. If we gave 
every blacksmith 6 per cent increase in pay, there would 
still be the same twelve classes of blacksmiths.' 

"If the union is now free to raise this question again by a 
further examination of the character of the work being 
performed by the men under the present classification, it 
can only be for the purpose, at least in effect, of further 
reducing the number of these classes, or at least accom- 
plishing a substantial portion of this result by taking a 

substantial proportion of the men out of one class and put- 
ting them into a higher class than that determined for them 
by the board of arbitration. 

"Our conclusion is that this whole question of classifica- 
tion was raised in the arbitration proceedings and definitely 
determined in the award resulting from these proceedings, 
and that the question cannot properly or fairly be reopened 
before the expiration of the period for which the original 
award was made effective, namely, not prior to May 1, 

Mr. Vahey, who concurred with the decision of his col- 
leagues, issued a statement setting forth his exact position 
in the controversy and lauded Mr. Storrow, asserting that 
the chairman was in no way to blame for the conditions 
which exist. 


At a meeting of the franchise committee of the City 
Council of Toledo, Ohio, on July 9, Henry L. Doherty, 
chairman of the board of directors of the Toledo Railways 
& Light Company, expressed the belief that a clause should 
be inserted in the tentative draft of the franchise now in 
preparation that will allow the company to name its own 
rate of fare pending the fixing of a permanent rate at the 
end of the proposed try-out period, if the earnings should 
fall below 4 per cent. Councilman Dotson suggested that 
if a rate is not agreed upon within ninety days from the 
close of the period the matter should be submitted to a 
board of arbitrators or the courts. Mr. Doherty said that 
if the city insisted upon control of the operating rate, it 
should be responsible for any possible losses as the result 
of the establishment of a rate too low. The present draft 
provides that when the return on the investment falls to 4 
per cent there is to be a readjustment of fares under the 
terms of the agreement. 

The probable rerouting of cars and abandonment of any 
lines found to be unprofitable were also discussed at this 
conference. In regard to appraising the property, Mr. 
Doherty said that if three impartial men were selected an 
agreement could be reached with them without submitting 
the matter to a board of arbitration. The property should 
be valued as it now stands, with any betterments which are 
made added to this. 

Mr. Doherty submitted an amendment to the clause re- 
lating to the municipal bond ordinance initiated and passed 
last August. Mr. Dotson insisted that nothing be placed in 
the draft to indicate that it supersedes the municipal ordi- 
nance. He also argued that all franchise values should be 
excluded from consideration in making an appraisal of the 

Mr. Doherty objected to the transfer provisions of the 
draft, especially the portion relating to transfers on trans- 
fers. He said that he believed the people of Toledo wanted 
good service and good cars rather than low fare. The idea, 
then, would be to simplify the system so far as possible. 

Frank R. Coates, president of the Toledo Railways & 
Light Company, and Rathbun Fuller, attorney for the com- 
pany, were present at the conference, but there were few 
people in the lobby. 

At a conference on the afternoon of July 14 between 
Henry M. Doherty and Messrs. Redd and Dotson of the 
special franchise committee of the Council, Mr. Doherty an- 
nounced that if the committee insisted upon the company 
purchasing 20 per cent of the municipal railway bonds, in 
case the city should at any time conclude to purchase the 
property, there would be no need of negotiating further. 
Only a cash transaction can be considered. He also in- 
formed the members that the company was entitled to a full 
attendance of the members of the committee when the pro- 
posed franchise is discussed. 

The provision of the franchise relating to the bonds is 
that they shall be taken at par and accrued interest. It is 
said by some that a better price should be secured for the 

A tentative agreement was reached to the effect that the 
section of the draft which provided that "the city of Toledo 
by adopting this ordinance shall not waive any of its rights 
which it may have by virtue of the ordinance adopted on 
Aug. 4, 1914," be eliminated. This is the municipal owner- 
ship bond ordinance. 

July 17, 1915] 




At a meeting of the directors of the Detroit United Rail- 
way, Wednesday, July 14, the proposed purchase agreement 
covering the company's property within the one-fare zone 
was approved. This agreement provides that the city, if 
authorized by a 60 per cent vote of the electorate, shall as- 
sume operation of the city lines, the price to be fixed by the 
Circuit Court of Wayne County. The directors decided to 
submit the new proposition to the stockholders, and an ad- 
journed meeting of the latter has been called for Aug. 2. 

On July 14 J. C. Hutchins, president of the Detroit United 
Railway, sent a letter to the stockholders reviewing the 
purchase proposals. This he concluded as follows: 

"After several weeks of negotiation, the following plan 
was approved, viz.: 

"The city personally to assume the payment of outstand- 
ing mortgages up to the claimed limit of its power under 
the constitution and laws of the State of Michigan, viz.: 2 
per cent of the assessed value of the taxable property with- 
in the city, which would amount to approximately $11,000,- 
000, and the balance, up to the limit of the price that would 
be fixed by the Circuit Court, by the creation of a sinking 
fund out of the earnings of the property to be taken over by 
the city, and so arranged that with the amount personally 
assumed by the city, the mortgage indebtedness referred to, 
up to the limit of the price fixed by the court, shall be paid 
in 1932, when the company's consolidated mortgage indebt- 
edness matures, and any excess in price above the amount of 
outstanding mortgage indebtedness is to be secured in the 
same way and be payable at the same time. 

"The proposed contract, modified as to the method of fix- 
ing the price to be paid for the property and the method of 
securing the payment of this price, you will recognize is ma- 
terially different from the proposal originally made and 
upon which many of the stockholders sent their proxies, and 
while these proxies by their terms are unlimited and would 
authorize their use in voting upon the final proposition now 
to be acted upon, the holders are unwilling to use such prox- 
ies until all the stockholders, and especially those who gave 
such proxies, are advised as to the contract that is to be 
finally acted upon. 

"The proposed modified contract has been fully considered 
in all its aspects by our board of directors in connection 
with existing conditions, and it has approved of such con- 
tract and unhesitatingly recommends to the stockholders 
the approval of the same. 

"An adjourned meeting of the stockholders will be held 
at the company's office in Detroit on Aug. 2, at 3.30 p. m. 
for the purpose of considering such modified contract, and 
unless in the meantime advised to the contrary by the stock- 
holders who gave the proxies referred to, the holders will 
feel, after this notice, warranted in voting the stock covered 
by such proxies in approving such modified contract and 
authorizing the board of directors and officers of the com- 
pany to take such further steps in the direction of having 
the same carried into effect as may be necessary or proper. 

"The contract cannot become binding on the city until ap- 
proved by 60 per cent of the voters of the city voting upon 
the proposition at an election to be called for that purpose." 


A strike of the union employees at the Rhode Island Com- 
pany, Providence, R. I., was declared at midnight on July 14. 
Questions at issue between the company and its men had 
been the subject of negotiations for some time past, and all 
of the requests of the men had either been waived, settled 
or agreed upon except the question of wages. This the com- 
mittee representing the union had agreed to submit to arbi- 
tration. The break came over the arbitrary stand taken by 
the representatives of the men with respect to the method of 
choosing arbitrators to consider this question. 

Some time ago the company suggested to the men that 
the old schedule of wages be restored. The committee rep- 
resenting the union suggested that the old agreement, which 
expired on June 1, 1915, be continued for a period of two 
years with an additional clause providing that the company 
should discharge from its service or suspend employees who 
were members of the association until all sums due to the 
association had been paid. This was agreed to by both 

sides, with the understanding that the wage question should 
be decided by arbitration. 

The men in the service of the Rhode Island Company now 
receive 28% cents an hour after three years' service. They 
asked for 35 cents an hour as a maximum scale. The wage 
for the first six months is 23 cents an hour. The men asked 
30 cents for the first six months. They also desired to elim- 
inate the present system of graded rates. They main- 
tained that a man is efficient after the first year's service 
and that he should receive the maximum wage at the end of 
the first year. 

Curtailed service was established by the company on all 
the main city lines on July 15, but it was announced that the 
service would be suspended after 7 o'clock. A few minor 
disturbances were reported on the first day. More than 
2400 men are said to be affected by the strike order, which 
also extends to the employees of the power houses. 

Completion of Electrification Celebrated. — The first elec- 
tric train over the London & Port Stanley Railway, Lon- 
don, Ont., which has just been electrified, started from St. 
Thomas at 6.30 p. m. on June 30 to Port Stanley, carrying 
s\ number of guests from London and St. Thomas, invited 
by Sir Adam Beck to celebrate the opening of the road. 

Northern White Cedar Association Outing. — On June 25 
the Northern White Cedar Association began its annual 
mid-summer outing, the members departing in a special 
car via the Northern Pacific Railway from Minneapolis, 
Minn., for Beaudette, Minn. From Beaudette the party was 
conveyed by a fleet of six launches to a camp on Sabaskong 
Bay, Lake of the Woods, approximately 60 miles north. 
The party remained there for four days, making a number 
of exploration and inspection trips to points of interest. 

No Decision in Old Dominion Case. — The judgment in fa- 
vor of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
against the Washington & Old Dominion Railway obtained 
in the Circuit Court of Loudon County, Va., was not set 
aside by the Supreme Court of Virginia as stated in the issue 
of the Electric Railway Journal of June 19. The action 
taken was simply the routine procedure of issuing a writ of 
error to review the decision of the lower court. The case 
was appealed by the railway company and will be heard by 
the Supreme Court of Appeals next fall. 

New York Compensation Law Constitutional. — On July 
13 the Court of Appeals of New York upheld the constitu- 
tionality of the workmen's compensation law on three ques- 
tions raised in suits brought to make the test. Judge 
Nathan Miller wrote the opinion in the cases of Marie 
Jensen against the Southern Pacific Company, a Kentucky 
corporation, and of William Alfred Walker against the 
Clyde Steamship Company. In the Jensen case, which was 
for causing death, it was asserted by the company that the 
statute was not intended to apply to employment in inter- 
state or foreign commerce. The awards were affirmed. 

Fifty-Mile Canadian Line to Be Electrified. — Martin N. 
Todd, general manager of the Lake Erie & Northern Rail- 
way, Brantford, Ont., and president of the Gait, Preston 
& Hespeler Railway, has confirmed the report that the Lake 
Erie & Northern Railway is to be electrified for the whole 
fifty-two miles from Gait to Port Dover. Mr. Todd ex- 
pects cars to be running on the Galt-Brantford line by 
October, and to Port Dover by November. It is likely that 
Hydroelectric power will be used with substations at Gait, 
Brantford and Simcoe. It is stated that the two lines will 
shortly be amalgamated, with through electric railway serv- 
ice ultimately from Berlin to Port Dover. 

Bids for Rails, Ties, Ballast, and Track Accessories 
Wanted. — Bids for about 35,000 tons of open-hearth rails 
were opened on July 16 by the Public Service Commission 
for the First District of New York, and between that date 
and Aug. 4 bids will be received for about 3000 tons of 
rolled manganese rails, more than 1,000,000 tie plates, 
about 356,000 cu. yd. of broken stone ballast, and about 
30,000,000 ft. of ties and timber. This material will be 
sufficient to equip about 230 miles of single track. The city- 
owned lines in the dual system cover about 260 miles of sin- 
gle track, but the track materials for about 30 miles in the 
Fourth Avenue subway in Brooklyn and the Centre Street 
loop subway in Manhattan have been purchased. 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

Action on Norfolk Franchise.— The joint committee of 
ten and the representatives of the Virginia Railway & 
Power Company have agreed upon the three franchises 
which will be submitted to the City Council of Norfolk, 
Va., for approval and passage. Three ordinances will be 
framed and submitted to the Council, perhaps during 
August. The provisions of the grants include six tickets 
for a quarter, to be sold in thirty places and on the cars 
after three years; universal transfers; school tickets with 
an age limit of twenty-one years; taxes at the rate of 11/2 
per cent on the gross earnings for three years and 2 per 
cent thereafter; the substitution of six tickets for a quarter 
for labor tickets on the Bay Shore Line, and service from 6 
a. m. to midnight, with owl service when the business jus- 

New Haven Recovery Suit Dismissed. — A suit of minority 
stockholders to recover $102,000,000 from former and pres- 
ent directors of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road, who were charged with responsibility for alleged im- 
proper expenditures of funds, was dismissed by the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts on July 8. William G. Rockefeller, 
Lewis Cass Ledyard, James S. Elton and Charles S. Mellen 
were among the defendants. The decision, which was 
written by Chief Justice Pugg, said in part: "It is an im- 
plied condition of becoming a stockholder in a corporation 
that its general policy shall be determined by the holders 
of a majority of the stock and that disagreements as to its 
dominating policy and as to details of its management 
shall be settled by its stockholders, and recourse cannot 
be had to the courts to adjust differences of this sort. It 
is only from actual necessity, in order to prevent a failure 
of justice, that a suit in equity for the benefit of the cor- 
poration can be maintained by a stockholder." 

Summer School of Scientific Management. — The Penn- 
sylvania State College will conduct a summer school of 
scientific management during the two weeks beginning 
Aug. 9. This summer session is planned for the accom- 
modation of works managers, superintendents, heads of 
cost, stores, purchasing, planning, and production depart- 
ments, and members of such departments. The time is 
restricted to two weeks to meet the needs of employees 
whose vacation period is limited to that time. The morn- 
ings of the session will be devoted to lectures and discus- 
sions on industrial organization and scientific management 
under the leadership of Prof. Hugo Diemer, head of the 
department of industrial engineering at the Pennsylvania 
State College. The afternoons will be devoted to applied 
methods of scientific management under the direction of 
W. H. Tabor. The shops of the Pennsylvania State College 
have been especially provided with means for teaching and 
demonstrating applied methods of scientific management. 
The fee for the course is $15. 

Perpetual Franchise Issue Before New York Constitu- 
tional Convention.— Two votes have already been taken by 
the New York Constitutional Convention committee on leg- 
islative powers, of which William Barnes is chairman, on a 
proposal to erect a constitutional prohibition against perpet- 
ual franchises. Both times the proposal has been defeated. 
The votes were taken in connection with a proposal present- 
ed by Seth Low, New York, at the request of the Citizens' 
Union. Mr. Bai'nes has appointed a sub-committee to draft 
an amendment to meet the sentiment in his own committee. 
The proposal of Mr. Low would prohibit municipal authori- 
ties from granting franchises in perpetuity. It would pro- 
vide for indeterminate franchises, but would permit munic- 
ipal authorities to resume control of the franchise on terms 
to be defined in the original grant. On July 14 William M. 
Ivins urged that in the recapture of franchises by munici- 
palities provision should be made for paying the retiring 
corporation a fair return on the money expended in opera- 
tion and sufficient compensation to make up for the loss of 
the franchise. 


Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway Association 

The thirteenth annual meeting of the Colorado Electric 
Light, Power & Railway Association will be held at Glen- 
wood Springs, Col., on Sept. 23, 24 and 25. 

Financial and Corporate 


Tennessee Railway, Power & Light Company 

The combined statement of operations of the Tennessee 
Railway, Power & Light Company, Memphis, Tenn., for the 
calendar year 1914 (all power sales to distributing and rail- 
way companies controlled and other inter-company transac- 
tions being eliminated), is as follows: 

Gross earnings $3,762,387 

Operating e.x.penses and rentals 1,959,183 

Net earnings $1,803,204 

Taxes 311,806 

Net earnings after taxes $1,491,398 

Interest, etc 1,094,420 

Net income $396,978 

Dividends paid on stocks of constituent companies not 

owned 109,048 

Balance *$287,929 

*Of this balance $1,628 accrues to stock of constituent com- 
panies not owned. 

The constituent companies had accumulated earnings from 
May 1, 1912, to Jan. 1, 1914, of $210,610, which, added to the 
above balance for 1914, showed a total of $498,539 from 
which dividends on the preferred stock of the Tennessee 
Railway, Light & Power Company were paid on March 1 and 
June 1, 1914, amounting to $306,336, leaving a balance of 
$192,203. The two principal causes for the unsatisfactory 
showing for the year 1914 were first, the depression in busi- 
ness which particularly aff"ected industrial centers like Nash- 
ville and Chattanooga and resulted in economy in the use of 
electric light and power and street railway service. The 
European war increased this depression and its bad effect on 
financial and industrial conditions prevented the closing of 
several large power contracts. Second, the worst drought 
experienced in Tennessee since 1904 (the previous low record 
year), reduced the amount of hydro-electric power available 
for sale and forced the company to operate its steam plants 
to a much larger extent than ordinarily necessary, thereby 
greatly increasing operating expenses. This drought was 
broken in December. The prospects for 1915 indicate an 
improvement in every way. The large construction work has 
been completed, and very little will be required for capital 
expenditures during the year. 

The 1914 operating figures for the controlled Nashville 
Railway & Light Company and the Chattanooga Railway & 
Light Company are shown below: 

Nashville Chattanooga 

Operating expenses 

Railway & 
Light Co. 



Railway & 
Light Co. 




Net earnings after taxes 






Passengers carried 

Kilowatt-hours sold 





The stockholders of the Third Avenue Railway, New York, 
are not to have a dividend on their shares before Septem- 
ber at the earliest unless the directors of the company go 
over the heads of their special committee. The company's 
earnings for the year ended June 30 were made public on 
July 14, and at the same time it was announced that the 
special committee had decided to drop its inquiry into the 
question of whether a dividend was advisable, leaving it for 
a full board to take up at their meeting in the autumn, 
when the pamphlet report will be ready. 

For the fiscal year just ended the company's gross oper- 
ating revenues were $10,885,768, an increase of $27,552. 
The operating expenses decreased $27,590, and taxes in- 
creased $3,922. There was an increase of $5,912 in non- 
operating income and interest charges, and the sinking 

July 17, 1915] 



fund, etc., took $13,083 less, so that the net income amounted 
to $696,521, an increase of $70,215. 

During the year the company spent for improvements a 
total of $1,009,931 not included in the income account. This 
was met by the net income for the year of $696,521, by a 
decrease of $62,416 in the balance of current cash, by $172,- 
738 borrowed from the depreciation account, by $26,083 from 
the sale of obsolete property and by some other small ad- 

The usual 2% per cent semi-annual interest on the ad- 
justment income bonds was voted at the meeting of the 
directors on July 14. It is payable on Oct. 1. 

In a statement given out by President Whitridge, it was 
announced that the directors had decided to establish a sys- 
tem of pensions in connection with the employees' associa- 


United Railways of St. Louis Liable for Claims Against 
Predecessor Company to Extent of $10,139,681 for 
Unpaid Subscriptions on Latter's Stock 

A report filed in Judge Taylor's division of the Circuit 
Court by Referee Charles W. Bates upon the creditors' bill 
of J. Brooks Johnson against the United Railways of St. 
Louis and other stockholders in the St. Louis Transit Com- 
pany, holds that the defendants are liable for judgments 
held against the transit company by the plaintiff, also for 
interest at the rate of 6 per cent since the judgments were 
rendered and court costs. 

The defendants are declared to be liable individually to 
the extent of the difference between what they paid for 
stock of the St. Louis Transit Company and its par value, 
in satisfying the judgments, which were purchased by John- 
son from persons who had won personal injury suits against 
the St. Louis Transit Company. These judgments originally 
aggregated $27,044, in addition to which the plaintiff seeks 
interest and court costs. 

In setting forth the extent to which individual stockhold- 
ers in the St. Louis Transit Company are liable, Referee 
Bates holds that only $41 was paid to the St. Louis Transit 
Company for each share of its stock, par value $100, thus 
leaving $59 per share unpaid. There is said to remain 
unpaid on the 171,859 shares of stock of the St. Louis 
Transit Company held by the United Railways of St. Louis, 
$10,139,681. In case the referee's report is approved by 
the lower court and upheld by the higher courts, the United 
Railways of St. Louis and other defendants would be obli- 
gated to pay only such claims as were found to be owing 
by the St. Louis Transit Company prior to its absorption 
by the United Railways. Attorneys for the United Rail- 
ways have already filed a bill of exceptions. 


United Railroads of San Francisco in Application for Re- 
hearing Denies Allegations of Commission and Asserts 
Inability to Set Aside Improvement Funds 

The United Railroads of San Francisco has filed an appli- 
cation with the California Railroad Commission for a re- 
hearing of the case in which the commission ordered the 
company to set aside $550,000 a year from income for im- 
proving its system and in which it also directed the company 
to make certain changes in its system of accounting. This 
decision was abstracted in the Electric Railway Journal 
of May 22. 

The company questions the jurisdiction of the commis- 
sion, especially in the announcement that instead of a sur- 
plus the company has a deficit in its profit and loss account. 
It says: 

"We do not understand that your board has authority to 
marshal liabilities, determine legal or equitable priorities 
or appropriate assets, or to redraft or reframe the com- 
pany's books of account so as to show a deficit when we 
earnestly and honestly believe, and have been so advised by 
counsel and accountants, that this company was within the 
law when it reduced its capital stock, compromised doubtful 
claims, reduced its liabilities in the amount of money ac- 
tually paid into the sinking fund and set up in a surplus 

account this money actually paid to the trustee, thus wiping 
out the deficit which your board has said exists." 

The company goes on to say that it suffered a property 
loss in excess of $1,200,000 in the fire and earthquake, that 
it reduced its capital stock by this amount and its property 
account by $1,600,000, and charged the surplus with $1,200,- 
000. The surplus was then credited with the net amount 
in excess of $400,000, and the result was that the capital 
stock and surplus were reduced $1,600,000 and the property 
account was reduced in like amount, which transactions the 
company believes correct from a legal and accounting point 
of view. 

The company states that it will need its revenue from 
all sources for the payment of its operating expenses, taxes, 
sinking funds and interest, and that it will not be able to 
set aside $300,000 annually for three years, as ordered by 
the commission, as a special fund in bank to be used for 
extensions and additions. The company also declares that 
because of causes beyond its control which affect its 
revenues, it will not have the ability to set aside $45,833 a 
month within fifteen days after the first of each month 
following July 15. 


The sixth annual report of the Board of Railroad 
Commissioners of Maine contains returns from the four- 
teen electric railways in that State. The total mileage of 
street railways in operation on June 30, 1914, was 494.27 
miles, an increase for the year of 9.18 miles. The gross 
assets of the several companies on that date were $33,661,- 
037, while the gross liabilities and the capital stock totaled 
$32,869,742. The total amount of dividends declared dur- 
ing the year was $341,599, an increase of $113,122. The 
average dividend rate was 2.71 per cent. The combined 
reports of earnings for the year showed the following fig- 
ures: Gross income, $3,744,069; operating expenses, 
$1,956,124; taxes, interest and other charges, $1,226,426; net 
income, $561,519; reserves and special charges, $123,815; 
dividends paid, $341,599, and surplus, $96,105. During 
the year eight persons were killed and eighty-four were 


The seventh annual report of the Nebraska State Rail- 
way Commission for the year ended Nov. 30, 1914, con- 
tains the usual general review of the commission's activi- 
ties during the year and the details of complaints, orders, 
decisions and reports made to and issued by the commis- 
sion. The gross earnings from operation for all companies 
during the year amounted to $3,764,667, and the total oper- 
ating expenses to $1,882,751, while the net income from 
operation was $1,907,589. Interest paid totaled $695,123; 
taxes, $293,865; dividends, $539,366; depreciation reserves, 
$294,605, and additions and betterments, $568,464. At the 
end of the year the surplus was $91,158. The total number 
of fare passengers was 68,234,000 and the total number of 
revenue car-miles run was 13.016,501. 

Barcelona Traction, Light & Power Company, Barcelona, 
Spain. — The holders of the first mortgage fifty-year 5 per 
cent bonds of the Barcelona Traction, Light & Power Com- 
pany at a recent meeting in June approved the proposed 
readjustment plan described in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Feb. 27 and May 1. A preliminary consent by 
the London holders was noted in the issue of May 29. H. F. 
Parshall, formerly chairman Central London Underground 
Railway, will have charge of operation, and E. R. Peacock, 
formerly vice-president Dominion Securities Corporation, 
Ltd., of financial arrangements. 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer Railroad, Birmingham, 
Ala. — The Cunningham independent bondholders committee 
of Boston in a recent circular stated that under an agree- 
ment dated June 14 between it and the New York committee 
of bondholders (C. H. Zender, chairman), the bonds de- 
posited with the American Trust Company, Boston, have 
been redeposited with the Empire Trust Company' New 
York, depositary for the New York committee. This makes 
a total of about $2,500,000 of bonds deposited with the 
latter committee, which assumes the expenses incurred by 
the Cunningham committee in its investigation into the 
company's affairs. This action will not curtail the Cun- 



[Vol. XLVI, No. 3 

ningham committee's desire for an accounting in case of a 
deficiency judgment in the foreclosure proceedings. 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y.— 
On July 7 Justice Brown of the State Supreme Court ap- 
pointed George Bullock receiver of the Buffalo & Lake Erie 
Traction Company in the foreclosure suit instituted by the 
New York Trust Company, mortgage trustee. C. K. Beek- 
man, counsel for the bondholders' committee, stated that the 
appointment was necessary in order to finance certain bet- 
terments through the sale of receiver's certificates. 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
— Judge Kinkead on July 3 refused to authorize the Colum- 
bus, Delaware & Marion Railway to issue $150,000 of re- 
ceiver's certificates to meet obligations falling due on Aug. 
1. He authorized the receiver, however, to execute notes for 
one year or less to pay expenses amounting to $55,000. 
The court instructed the receiver to pay interest on all 
bonds in order to enable the consolidated bondholders to 
take such steps within a reasonable time as they may wish 
to reorganize and lift the receivership. 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway, Kansas 
City, Mo. — Judge Bird in the Jackson County Court on July 
12 sustained the plea of the Intel-state Railway for re- 
ceivers for the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Rail- 
way and appointed Edward J. Corrigan and Bayliss Steele 
to act as such. The application was made to protect the 
judgment for $1,500,000 damages recently rendered the 
Interstate Railway for the taking of right-of-way on which 
it held options. This judgment is practically arrested pend- 
ing action on motion for a new trial on Aug. 2. A more 
detailed explanation of the situation involving these com- 
panies is published on page 119 of this issue. On July 14, 
after an agreement between counsel, Judge Bird rescinded 
his appointment of Messrs. Corrigan and Steele and named 
I. D. Hook and J. G. L. Harvey as receivers. Mr. Hook is 
son of United States District Judge William C. Hook. The 
agreement reached covers the continuation of the regular 
operating force of the company. 

Michigan United Railways, Jackson, Mich. — New York in- 
terests connected with the Michigan United Railways and 
the Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Company deny 
that there is any truth in the rumor that they are preparing 
to make a bid lor the Pere Marquette Railway when it is 
sold at foreclosure next autumn, for the purpose of electri- 
fying it and adding it to their system. 

San Francisco (Cal.) Municipal Railways. — In May, 1915, 
the cash receipts of the San Francisco Municipal Railways 
from all sources were $185,707, which, less transfer deduc- 
tions of $2,392 and operating expenses of $107,177, leaves 
a balance in favor of operation of $75,138. In June receipts 
are reported to have been $199,261. If the average for the 
first five days of July is maintained, the receipts for that 
month will amount to more than $225,000. 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oakland, Cal. 
— A recent circular issued by the San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Railways, explaining the default in the payment 
of interest coupons maturing during July, states that a 
committee of security holders has been organized for the 
purpose of studying the financial problems of the company, 
formulating plans for subserving the large values recog- 
nized by the California Railroad Commission and bringing 
about whatever readjustment may be necessary in order to 
put the finances of the company on a permanently sound 
basis. The committee has secured the co-operation of San 
Francisco and Oakland bankers, who have agreed to buy 
these interest coupons for the full face amount less the 
income tax. The Mercantile Trust Company, San Francisco, 
representing ten or twelve banks, has offered to purchase 
the coupons from the first consolidated thirty-year 5 per 
cent bonds, and also from all the other issues of the system 
accruing in July, provided the selling bondholders agree 
that the coupons shall be given prior rights under the sev- 
eral mortgages as against the principal of the bonds and 
any interest not yet matured. 

Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Company, 
Olean, N. Y.— W. R. Page, president Western New York & 
Pennsylvania Traction Company, and associates have taken 
an option on the line of the old Buffalo & Susquehanna 
Railway from Wellsville to Buffalo. If the option is exer- 
cised it will be done independently of the electric railway. 

West Virginia Traction & Electric Company, Wheeling, 

W. Va. — On June 1 the West Virginia Traction & Electric 
Company issued and sold $1,500,000 of two-year 6 per cent 
gold notes, as stated in the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 9. Of these notes $1,250,000 has been used to pur- 
chase $1,250,000 of 5 per cent three-year convertible gold 
notes due on July 1. On this latter date the mortgage and 
deed of trust dated July 1, 1912, covering the first refunding 
and extension mortgage thirty-year gold bonds, dated July 
1, 1912, and due on July 1, 1942, was cancelled and in its 
place there was created a mortgage and deed of trust dated 
July 1, 1915, under which there is a total authorized issue 
of $25,000,000 par value of first refunding and improve- 
ment mortgage thirty-year gold bonds dated July 1, 1915, 
and due on July 1, 1945. There has been issued and de- 
posited as collateral for the $1,500,000 of two-year 6 per 
cent gold notes before mentioned $1,875,000 of these first 
refunding and improvement mortgage thirty-year gold 

York (Pa.) Railways. — The directors of the York Rail- 
ways have declared a dividend of 2% per cent on the $1,600,- 
000 of 5 per cent cumulative preferred stock for the half 
year ended Nov. 30, 1914, payable in cash on July 30 to hold- 
ers of record on July 20. The previous dividend was paid 
in 5 per cent scrip. 


Charlottesville & Albemarle Railway, Charlottesville, Va., 
semi-annual, SV2 per cent, preferred. 

Denver & Northwestern Railway, Denver, Col., quarterly, 
one-half of 1 per cent. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Milwau- 
kee, Wis., quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

New Hampshire Electric Railways, Haverhill, Mass., 2 
per cent, preferred. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., 
quarterly, 50 cents, common. 

York (Pa.) Railways, $1.25, preferred. 




Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Period Revenues Expenses Income Charges Income 

lm„May, '15 $36,149 *$20,356 $15,793 $10,993 $4,800 

1 14 37,864 •19,771 18,093 11,068 7 025 

5 15 149,187 •89,483 59,704 54,772 4 93'' 

5 " " "14 153,606 •86,268 67,428 54,858 12|570 


lm.,May, '15 $92,056 •$70,070 $21,986 $13,739 $8 247 

1 " " '14 107,265 •70,215 37,050 13,344 23 706 

12 15 1,243,271 *834,955 408,316 162,557 245 759 

12 14 1,299,642 •831,997 467,645 159,828 307,817 

Im., May, '15 $36,782 $21,823 $14,959 $9,415 $5,544 
1 14 33,928 22,680 11,248 8,450 2,798 

11 15 398,284 232,819 165,465 103,159 62,306 

11 " " '14 369,619 239,735 129,884 118,176 11,708 

lm.,May, '15 $462,256 *$194,341 $267,915 $211,767 $56,138 
1 14 473,462 •194,762 278,700 208,969 69,731 

5 " " '15 2,324,164 ^971, 742 1,352,422 1,056,629 295,793 
5 " " '14 2,384,930 ^982, 610 1,402,320 1,040,169 362,151 


lm.,May, '15 $114,031 •$74,255 $39,776 $36,055 $3,721 

1 14 120,750 •76,599 44,143 35,322 8,821 

5 15 505,339 *356,430 148,909 179,927 tSl.OlS 

5 " " '14 530,903 •354,944 175,959 176,251 t292 



Im., May, '15 $175,513 •$107,102 $68,411 $42,248 $26,163 

1 14 192,144 •112,818 79,326 41,338 37,988 

12 " " '15 2,199,969 *1, 289, 261 910,708 492,029 418,679 
12 14 2,236,642 *1, 405, 187 831,455 483,680 347,775 



lm.,May, '15 $323,324 *$191,317 $132,007 $51,524 $80,483 

1 14 323,036 ^191, 808 131,228 50,660 80,568 

5 15 1,424,675 *900,768 523,907 255,962 267,945 

5 14 1,403,920 ^860, 110 543,810 250,815 292,995 


Im., May, '15 $84,316 *$55,932 $28,384 $22,877 $5,507 

1 " " '14 86,427 •52,946 33,481 20,177 13,304 

12 " " '15 1,046,804 •646,372 400,432 260,713 139,719 

12" " '14 1,046,716 ^650, 100 396,616 238,632 157,984 


Im., May, '15 $446,149 *$253,738 $192,411 $188,440 $3,971 
1 14 538,473 *287,2S8 251,185 183,643 67,542 

12 ■' " '15 5,794,271 ^3,149, 446 2,644,825 2,207,287 437,538 
12 " " '14 6,739,779 •3,353,244 3,386,535 2,103,753 1,282,782 

♦Includes taxes. fDeficit. 

July 17, 1915] 

Traffic and Transportation 


California Supreme Court Upliolds San Francisco Ordinance 
Ruling — Georgia Commission's Plan for Regulation 

The San Francisco jitney bus ordinance has been declared 
valid by the Supreme Court of California. The matter was 
brought before the court by a writ of habeas corpus issued 
in behalf of Paul Cardinal, a jitney bus driver, arrested in 
May and charged with violating those provisions of the 
measure which require a bus driver to qualify in a bond or 
insurance in the sum of $10,000 and also pay a license fee. 
The court dismissed the writ and remanded Cardinal into 
custody. In his writ Cardinal, through his attorney, at- 
tacked the ordinance on the ground that it was discrim- 
inatory in that it attempted to regulate by bond and other 
requirements an automobile driver who charged no more 
than 10 cents fare. The Supreme Court holds that the 
ordinance is a reasonable exercise of the police power vested 
in cities for the protection of citizens and that laws made 
by virtue of such power are not to be set aside by courts 
unless they are found to be unreasonable and unjust. The 
court sees no unjust discrimination in the not-more-than-10- 
cents-fare classification for the reason that such low fare 
puts the jitney driver in competition with the street car 
and tempts him to run at a high rate of speed to make his 
profit. It holds that the jitney business is one which, if 
negligently conducted, would be fraught with danger to 
passengers in the jitney buses and to persons in the public 
streets, and therefore particularly subject to special regula- 

The injunction sought by associated jitney-bus operators 
in Atlanta to restrain the Georgia Railroad Commission 
from proceeding further with its announced program of 
prescribing rules and regulations for the buses as common 
carriers was denied on July 10 by Judge W. D. Ellis of the 
Fulton Superior Court. No arguments were heard, the 
court having before it the petition of the jitney-bus opera- 
tors and the answer of the Railroad Commission. The lat- 
ter's position was that it had applied no rules, those which 
had been published being merely tentative and subject to 
discussion and permanent order at the hearing set for July 
13 by the commission. The jitney-bus men indicated they 
would appeal to the Supreme Court from the decision of 
Judge Ellis, and the latter therefore granted a supersedeas 
allowing twenty days for such action to be taken. The com- 
mission's announced hearing, set originally for July 13, is 
stayed meanwhile. Some weeks ago Judge Ellis denied the 
jitney-bus men's petition to enjoin the city of Atlanta from 
enforcing its ordinance taxing them and regulating them 
under its police powers. This has been argued on appeal in 
the State Supreme Court. 

Offering to establish auto-bus lines in East Bakersfield, 
Cal., and for Beale Park, A. G. Wishon, general manager 
of the San Joaquin Light & Power Company, appeared be- 
fore the City Council of Bakersfield, Cal., urging that some 
action should be taken toward the elimination of jitney bus 
competition with the electric railway. He suggested that 
the jitney lines, as well as the auto-bus lines, to be placed 
in service by the street railroad, should be regulated, placed 
on certain routes and the public be given guarantees of 
serviced In East Bakersfield he proposed that the street 
railroad bus lines should serve Baker and Niles Streets, 
making schedules so that connections would be made with 
the street cars. Transfers would be issued from the street 
cars to the auto-buses and vice versa, making a 5-cent fare 
over the entire route, the city's autos to run as late as the 
cars operated. In the Beale Park district it was proposed 
that the auto-bus service connect with every other car. 

Andrew Linn Bostwick, librarian of the municipal refer- 
ence branch of the St. Louis library, has devoted the July 
issue of the St. Louis Public Library Monthly Bulletin to 
the subject: "The Regulation of the Jitney Bus — A Dis- 
cussion of City Ordinances." The publication is a welcome 
addition to the growing list of pamphlets which have as 
their major purpose the recording of the rise and regula- 
tion of the jitney. 


The Mayor of Charleston, W. Va., has signed the ordi 
nance passed by the Council of that city to regulate t'le 
jitney. The license fee is fixed at $24 for each machine. 
The jitney is described in the ordinance as a vehicle which 
carries passengers for hire at less than 10 cents each. The 
bond is fixed at $2,500 for each car. 

Jitney buses will be declared common carriers and placed 
under State regulation if a bill introduced by the commit- 
tee on corporations in the Wisconsin Senate becomes a law. 
The bill provides that jitney owners must file with the 
State Railroad Commission a schedule of their rates, serv- 
ice, and routes, and if they are approved by that body, and 
on the filing of a bond of $5,000 for payment of damages 
for personal injuries to passengers, the jitney men shall 
be entitled to permits to operate, subject to the supervision 
of State regulating authorities. 

In applying to court for an injunction to restrain the en- 
forcement of the jitney ordinance enacted in Pottsville, Pa., 
the owners contended that compliance was impossible. The 
ordinance requires jitney owners to get a certificate of 
public convenience, but the Public Service Commission has 
notified them that it will not issue such certificates at pres- 
ent, as the statewide regulation of jitneys is a matter 
which will be taken up with great care. The ordinance im- 
poses a tax of $100 on each vehicle between Pottsville and 
Schuylkill Haven, which is claimed to be excessive. De- 
cision was reserved. 

The Board of Aldermen of Hartford, Conn., on July 19 
will consider the jitney regulatory ordinance drawn up by 
the ordinance and police committee. The measure provides 
for the licensing of jitney operators by the chief of police 
at $10 each for one year, revocable for failure to comply 
with the provisions of the ordinance. Not more than two 
passengers in excess of the seating capacity are to be car- 
ried. The routes must be conspicuously posted on the 
machines. The tentative draft does not contain any bond 

The Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Company is planning to in- 
stall several motor-buses to traverse the principal residence 
streets not on the lines of the company, gather up passen- 
gers and transfer them to the regular cars, at the usual 

By furnishing one bond covering thirty-two jitneys, a 
local jitney association at Louisville, Ky., has complied 
with the terms of the law and is preparing to put that 
number of cars in operation, it is stated. 

Councilman T. H. Bolton of Seattle has prepared a jitney 
ordinance which would require a city license or permit 
for each jitney driver, compel jitney operators to follow 
certain routes during certain hours of the day and night, 
make it unlawful to charge a higher fare than that speci- 
fied in the ordinance and designate points at which 
passengers may be loaded and unloaded.